Coupler for trailer

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: coupler contains means for installation on trailer with capability of pivot-hinged turn of at least one left wheel and at least one right wheel, independent means of pivot-hinged turn of trailer and prime mover coupling, means for performing differential turn of wheels and trailer with regard to prime mover in process of turn performed by prime mover. Limiting device is made so as to limit magnitude of wheel turn as compared with wheel turn related to trailer in absence of limiting device. Limiting device contains follower with front end connected with said devices for installation of wheels on trailer and rear end. Follower includes protruding coupling sphere on rear end or near it. Limiting device additionally includes slider guide made so as to couple with prime mover and installed in parallel with or inclined to prime mover and trailer chassis. Coupling sphere is installed with ability to move along slider guide of limiting device in process of prime mover movement.

EFFECT: securing of smooth and safe turning and exclusion of folding effect.

17 cl, 18 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to coupling devices for attaching a trailer to the way the hitch of the trailer with the tractor.

The level of technology

There are various versions of the hitch of the tractor (towing vehicle) trailer (trailer), such as a cargo van or platform where the trailer attaches itself to the truck with the possibility of hinge rotation. The hinged connection is necessary so that when the tractor turns to the left or to the right, the trailer could also be rotated accordingly to the left or right. This solution makes it possible to prevent excessive load on the wheels and/or axles of the trailer and facilitating the smooth and safe turning of the tractor and trailer.

There are different types of trailers that can be coupled with the tractor. In particular, truck chassis usually have a coupling hole into which can be inserted hitch pin (king pin) cargo trailer and around the axis which the trailer can unfold when turning truck chassis. While the trailer may have a Central axis or axis, so that the trailer (towed vehicle)being connected with a tractor, can be precisely balanced in regards to this Central axis. This configuration helps to ensure a good turning characteristics of the tractor and trailer as pridvizhenii forward and on the back of the course; however, it is relatively unstable. Therefore, the cargo in the trailer, must be well balanced in order not to overload the front or rear of the trailer, which can create instability hitch tractor-trailer and worsen the towing characteristics of the tractor.

The trailers of the second type are the front and rear axles, allowing the trailer to adequately balanced regardless of the orientation of the loaded items. The trailers of this type may have a tongue-shaped And A-shaped pole)attached to the front of the trailer. In the top of the drawbar coupling is (traction) pin or coupling hole, which (which) communicates respectively with a coupling hole or coupling pin tractor. The front axle of the trailer of this type includes a rotary plate, which established itself on the front axle. Due to this, the front axle is free to turn with the turning plate in the case of a turning truck chassis or truck. This system is satisfactory for forward movement and to control the tractor. However, if the direction of motion is reversed (for example, when vehicle is in reverse on freight yard) there are certain problems.

Since the rotary plate has a possibility of svobodnayarussia, then, when the tractor starts to move backwards and simultaneously performs a left or right turn, the trailer has a tendency to excessive pivot around the axis of the hinge connection between the trailer and tractor. In the wheel associated with the rotating plate, are shifted in the direction of the truck, creating the effect of "folding" hitch tractor-trailer. Obviously, this can lead to dangerous consequences, including damage to the tractor and/or trailer.

Disclosure of inventions

In connection with the above it may be desirable to develop a hitch for attaching a trailer, which allows the hinge to hitch a trailer with a tractor and safely move the tractor forward and backward, and to control its rotation.

It seems, moreover, desirable to create a hitch for attaching a trailer that allows you to Orient the at least one group of the left and right wheels on the towed vehicle (trailer) in the optimum direction relative to the orientation of the truck while the truck is in motion shall turn to the left or to the right.

Thus, the problem to solve which is aimed preferred variants of the present invention is to overcome or reduce at least one of the disadvantages inherent in the level of the ehniki.

In accordance with the first aspect of the invention proposes a coupling device for attaching a trailer containing means for mounting on a trailer, with the possibility of hinge pivot, at least one left wheel and at least one right wheel, independent means of ensuring swivel trailer with the tractor, means of implementing differential (i.e. unequal) reversal of these wheels and the trailer relative to the tractor in the implementation of the Prime mover rotation limiting means configured to limit the amount of turn of the wheels relative to the trailer when turned by a Prime mover, in comparison with the value of the reversal of the wheels relative to the trailer in the absence of restrictive means, and limiting means includes a tracking link from the front (middle) by the end connected with specified means for mounting the wheels on the trailer, and the rear (free) end, and the tracking element includes a protruding hitch ball on the rear end or near it, while restrictive means further includes a guide slide made with the possibility of connection to the tractor and positioned in parallel or tilted relative to the chassis of the tractor and trailer and the hitch ball is mounted for movement in% the CE movement of the tractor along the guide sliding restrictive means available.

Under the "trailer" in the context of the invention means any wheeled vehicle or a wheeled device that can be drawn by another vehicle. Examples of trailers are the van, platform, caravan generator. The most typical example of the vehicle is a van.

In addition, in the preferred embodiment, the trailer contains chassis, which is preferably linked to the rear wheels, made preferably without the possibility of reversal. This coupling preferably includes front split wheel mounted on the trailer.

Wheels mounted on the trailer with the possibility of a reversal (i.e. unfolding wheels), can be associated with the axis, which is installed on the hinge of the expandable component, such as a rotary plate. This axis may be located in the Central part of the rotary plate, however, it is desirable to shift it to the rear part of this plate, i.e. in the direction of the rear of the trailer on which the stove is installed. This axis and/or the rotary plate can be part of the trailer or hitch.

In an alternative embodiment, the expandable wheel may be associated with a hinged split pins, which preferably can be attached to the chassis or to p is Ramnicu trailer.

Means providing a hinged connection of the trailer with the tractor provides tools for application to the means of ensuring swivel efforts in the direction of the tractor. In addition, these tools provide swivel trailer with Prime mover preferably contain the drawbar of the trailer.

Trailer hitch in the preferred embodiment, has at its free end covering or covered item, made interoperable with the corresponding covered or covering part on the tractor.

Trailer hitch may include a means for preventing a fall front (i.e. free) end of the drawbar when it is not attached to the tractor. This tool can be a clamped tool made with the possibility to act on the front end of the trailer drawbar, moving it from the ground. Clamped tool, which prevents the front end of the drawbar of the trailer from falling to the ground, can simultaneously perform the function of a means that is intended to provide a power circuit between the tool connection and the tractor, for example, when the trailer hitch is attached to the lower surface of the Prime mover. Clamped the tool may contain any suitable elastic elements, for example a spring.

Split wheel prepact the tion made with the possibility of a reversal in the direction of rotation, performed by the tractor. Due to this unfolding wheels preferably follow the arc of rotation performed by the tractor during its movement.

It is also desirable to restrictive means contains means for providing essentially optimal orientation unfolding the wheels of the trailer with respect to the orientation of the tractor in the exercise of his turn.

Usage tracking component, which is in the cavity (channel) of the guide slide, allows you to convert at least part of the mutual angular displacement of the tractor and trailer in a linear motion tracking component within the cavity. As a result, the angle between the tractor and trailer will exceed by a specified angular value of the angle of turn of the unfolding of the wheels relative to the front of the trailer.

Restrictive means may include a telescopic element. In this embodiment, the limitation of the spread unfolding of the wheels will determine the minimum or maximum length of the telescopic element.

Further, the device according to the invention may additionally contain auxiliary restraining means is arranged to connect with a trailer and limiting the unfolding movement of the wheels up and down when the trailer is turning.

This auxiliary restraining means may contain one or more buffer components, interacting with each unfolding wheels and executed protruding from the trailer to the ground adjacent to the front axle or front axles of the trailer. When this buffer component can be located before the single or each of the front axle or behind a single or each of the front axle. Single or each buffer component may be made of any proper material, for example of rubber.

Thanks to this solution at high speeds, when a single or each front axle is perpendicular to the direction of movement, this axis can freely move up and down in accordance with the characteristics of the suspension. At lower speeds when the front axle or front axle exploded when turned trailer, part of a single or each axis will be located under the appropriate buffer element. Thereby will be prevented her shift up to the underside of the trailer to the full range of such movement.

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention proposes a trailer containing at least one expandable front left and one unfolding right front wheel and hitch for attaching a trailer in accordance with the first aspect of this image is to be placed.

In accordance with a third aspect of the invention proposes a method of implementation of the hitch of the trailer with the tractor, including the following:

(a) ensure the trailer, the tractor and hitch for attaching a trailer in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention;

(b) connect hitch to the trailer; and

(c) concatenate the trailer with the tractor by means of the coupling device.

When this operation (a), (b) and (C) can be performed in any convenient order.

Means for mounting on the trailer wheels with swivel pivot, independent means of ensuring swivel trailer with Prime mover and means for implementation of differential rotation wheels and the trailer is preferably performed as described with reference to the first and second aspects of the invention.

Brief description of drawings

In order to make the invention more understandable, and to explain the possibility of its practical use, then, only as examples, with reference to the accompanying drawings will be described various embodiments of the invention.

Figure 1 illustrates, in plan, the first draft hitch for attaching a trailer according to the present invention, as associated with the trailer and the tractor.

Figa illustrates, in side view, the coupling the first device of figure 1.

On FIGU presents a rear view, in cross section, parts restrictive means of the coupling device of figure 1 and 1A.

Figa-2C schematically illustrate, in plan, the movement of the trailer and its unfolding of the wheels when the trailer is coupled to the tractor using a coupling device according to the invention.

3 illustrates, in plan, a third variant of the coupling device of the present invention, associated with the truck.

Figa illustrates, in side view, in section, of the auxiliary restrictive means of the coupling device according to the invention.

On FIGU presents a partial view in plan, in section, of the auxiliary restrictive means figa associated with the trailer in the form of platforms.

Figs illustrates, in side view, the auxiliary restrictive means figa and 4B.

Fig.4D illustrates, in top view, a part of the auxiliary restrictive means figa and 4B.

On file, in the top view, showing the trailer in the form of a platform, depicted in figa and 4, in which the expandable wheel deployed relative to the trailer.

On fig.4F, partial side view, shows the trailer shown in figa, 4B and 4E, in which the rotation axis of the expandable wheel is restricted subsidiary restrictive means of the device according to the invention.

5 illustrates, in top view, che the fourth variant of the coupling device according to the invention, associated with the trailer and the tractor.

6 illustrates a variant of the shafts associated with the tractor and intended for use in a coupling device according to the invention.

7 illustrates, in plan, the fifth coupling device according to the invention, associated with the trailer and the tractor.

On Figo variant of the coupling device 7 shown in the side view.

Fig schematically illustrates, in plan, the coupling device 7 and 7A associated with the trailer and the tractor, and the trailer and tractor are deployed relative to each other around the axis of the coupling device.

The implementation of the invention

In figures 1, 1A and 1B presents the first variant of the coupling device 2 according to the invention. The coupling device has means for mounting the front right and left wheels with the possibility of reversal on the chassis 38 of the trailer 3. These funds represent a turning plate 8 and fixed on her axis 6, each end of which is installed on the wheel 4. The rotary plate 8 is installed on a single swivel bearing 10, which may be attached to the chassis 38 of the trailer. Coupling device 2 further comprises means providing a hinged connection (coupling) of the trailer with the tractor 5. This tool is a tongue 12 of the trailer, which gives the profile of the letter a ("A-shaped tongue") and which at its free for what it is (i.e. facing the trailer) end connected to the chassis 38 of the trailer by means of hinges 18. The top of the A-shaped drawbar 12 may be attached to the tractor (towing vehicle) 5 through the coupling hole 14, which may be towing (pulling) the pin located at the rear end of the chassis 30 of the tractor 5 or near this end.

Hitch 2 trailer further comprises a means of effecting differential (unequal) swivel wheels turn 4 trailer and trailer 3 in effecting rotation of the Prime mover in the process of its movement. This tool is made in the form of a-shaped tracking link 20 connected to the guide frame 21. The guide frame, in turn, is connected with the rotary plate 8 of the coupling device 2. A-witness shaped link 20 is connected with the guide frame 21 by means of hinges 22, located at the rear end of the tracking link. In the top 25 And-beam tracking element 20 is installed hitch ball 24 is essentially spherical shape. Part of the means of implementation of differential hinge rotation also includes guide 26 slip, made in the form of a rod with a hollow, essentially cylindrical shape forming an open longitudinal channel. Guide 26 slide has a closed end 28. The dimensions of the cavity inside the guide 26 of the slide selected in this way is m, to be inserted in her hitch ball 24 mounted on A-shaped servo element 20, can slide along the guide 26 of the slide until its closed end 28.

When installing the coupling device 2 swivel plate 8 attached to the chassis 38 of the trailer 3 at its front end. Trailer 3 at its rear end has a rear axle 36, which is installed in the rear left and right wheel 34. Guide 26 slide is at the rear of the chassis 30 of the tractor 5, so that its open end facing to the rear edge of the truck 5. Guide 26 slip attached directly behind the rear axle 32 of the truck.

The use of the coupling device 2 of figure 1 will be described hereinafter with reference to figures 1, 1A, 1B and figa-saprissa 26 slip by appropriate fastening means attached to the underside of the rear part of the chassis 30 of the tractor. Alternatively, for new constructions tractors guide 26 sliding can be performed as an integral part of the chassis 30. The guide frame 21 is attached to the lower side of the front of the trailer 3 so that the rotary plate 8 is located under the chassis 38 and has the ability to swivel pivot. In the front left and right wheels 4 are connected to the chassis 38 can rotate relative to it. The tongue 12 of the trailer hitch 2 attach the chassis 30 of the tractor 5, that coupling hole 14 of the tongue 12 of the trailer sostakovic with the coupling pin 15 attached to the chassis 30 of the tractor. Since the shaft 12 of the trailer is pivotally connected to the trailer by means of hinges 18, when the Prime mover 5 trailer 3 moves over an uneven surface, the difference in the provisions of the Prime mover 5 and 3 trailer height offset hinge rotation shafts 12 of the trailer hinges 18.

Then witness the link 20 is attached to the guide 26 of the slide, located on the chassis 30 of the tractor 5 through input coupling ball 24 into the cavity of the guide 26 of the slide and move the tractor back in the direction of the hitch ball 24 and the manipulation of the hitch ball 24 by any suitable means. As part of the guide 26 of the slide there is also a safety tool (not illustrated) to prevent disengagement of the coupling ball. This tool can be positioned near the open end of the guide 26 of the slip. Due to this coupling ball, which is in the cavity of the guide 26 slip, cannot be inferred through its open end until until it is activated by means of uncoupling. As it should be clear to professionals, as a means to prevent disengagement may be used any suitable means for this purpose.

Thus, the coupling device 2 provided the Xia soedinenii with trailer 3, and with the Prime mover 5, in order to ensure their mutual coupling.

Since the guide 26 of the slide has a finite length, the coupling ball 24 during movement of the trailer 3 and the Prime mover 5 may slide to move it within a finite distance.

When the towing vehicle 5 travels in a straight line, the coupling ball 24 will be drawn back to open the rear end of the guide 26 of the slip. However, his separation from this guide through its open end will prevent the means of preventing the coupler (not illustrated). This will prevent the limited displacement coupling ball back, provided the special design of the connection of the drawbar 12 of the trailer coupling pin 15. When the towing vehicle 5 during towing of the trailer turns to the right (next to simplify the description, we will consider only the rotation of the Prime mover to the right, while all of the above then applies to the left turn, the turn relative to the trailer about the axis coupling hole 14 and the coupling pin 15, pin-3 trailer with the tractor 5, with the formation of the angle b, as shown in figa-2C. In the process of turning of the tractor 5 angle b increases and, accordingly, increases the angle formed by the centerline of the trailer drawbar and chassis of the trailer with a centerline of the chassis and wheels of the tractor. Upon further rotation of the Prime mover 5 to the right of the chassis 30 tractor is 5 offset tracking link converting the angular displacement in a linear and thereby encouraging hitch ball 24 is linearly move forward within the guide 26 of the slide to its closed end 28. Because the hitch ball 24 is able to move from slide inside the guide 26, its movement (and, hence, the linear displacement of the servo link 20) reduces the magnitude of the rotation wheel 4. Thus, rotation of wheel 4 relative to the tractor will always be limited. At some point hitch ball 24 will rest against the closed end 28 of the guide 26 of the slide, so that further movement would be impossible.

Figa-2C illustrate the difference between the angle of turn of the unfolding of the wheels 4 and the tracking element 20 of the coupling device 2 relative to the direction of the axis of the chassis 30 of the tractor when the tractor 5 right turn and the angle between the tongue 12 of the trailer and the axle of the chassis 30 of the towing vehicle 5 during said turn. You can see that when performing a right turn the front wheels 4 are always expanded relative to the tractor 5 at a lesser angle than the angle between the chassis 38 of the trailer 3 and the tractor 5.

Thus, in the case of switching of the Prime mover 5 to back up the existence of restrictions on the rotation wheel 4 prevents excessive risk reversal, which could lead to the "collapse" of the hitch of the trailer 3 and the tractor 5. Sledovatel is, coupling device according to the invention facilitates the safe and effective implementation of the rotation, especially of rotation of the trailer coupled to the tractor, on the back of the fly.

Tracking link 20 with the corresponding elastic clamped tools (e.g., springs) come pre-loaded up to when recepce of the Prime mover 5 and the trailer 3 to keep tracking link 20 from falling to the ground.

Elastic clamped tool facilitates connection tracking link 20 to the guide 26 slide the hitch and recepce. The cavity in the guide 26 may be made with the mouth in the direction of its open end to facilitate connection of the hitch ball 24 with the guide 26 of the slip.

Distance (denoted as D in figure 1) between the connection point of the tongue 12 of the trailer chassis 30 of the Prime mover 5 and the connection zone of the coupling ball 24 with the guide 26 of the slide when the hitch ball 24 at its rear open end can be increased or decreased in order to obtain different characteristics tracking, i.e. values of mutual angle of turn of the tractor and trailer when the tractor turns. In addition, with the aim of changing the characteristics of the tracking guide 26 slide can be installed with an inclination relative to the chassis 30 of the tractor 5.

The axle 6 is mounted on the rotary plate 8 of the coupling device 2 shifted to the back of this plate, h is about facilitates centering of the trailer during linear movement of the Prime mover 5 and 3 trailer forward. In addition, the advantage of this arrangement is that, when the vehicle turns left or right axis, respectively, is shifted to the left or to the right, which gives the trailer 3 more stability.

However, the axis 6 can be installed on the Central part of the rotary plate 8.

Figure 3 presents a partial view of a second preferred variant of the coupling device 2 according to the invention. This option is similar to the variant of figure 1 and 1A, and similar parts have the same numerical designation. A tool for the implementation of differential hinged rotation of the trailer in the embodiment of figure 3 also contains a tracking link 20. However, in this embodiment, this link is not attached to the rotary plate, and the pins 48, which provides the possibility of a reversal of the front left and right wheels 4. Tracking link 20 has at its front end hitch ball 24, is arranged to interact with the guide slide, as described with reference to figures 1 and 1A. On the other end of the servo link 20 has a hinge 51, associated with the auxiliary servo link 52, the ends of which are optional swivel socket 54, in which the entered pin connecting links 56. Option, shown in figure 3, operates similarly variants of figure 1, 1A. The only difference is that,when the towing vehicle turns left or right, is the corresponding hinge rotation tracking element 20 around the axis 50 of the hinge 51, and that the hinge rotation is converted into transverse movement of the auxiliary servo link 52. This, in turn, causes the hinged rotation of the connecting links 56, which leads to the reversal of the pins 48 and the corresponding reversal of the front left and right wheels 4.

Next will be considered figa-4F. Hitch 2 in the options presented in figures 1, 1A, and 3, or in any other variants using the rotary plate may optionally contain auxiliary restrictive means in the form of buffer components 40, shown in figa-4F. When the device according to the invention, these components are located adjacent to the rotary plate 8. Buffer components 40 in the shape of the parts of the toroids and contain curvilinear elements 42 located at opposite ends of the axis 6 of the coupling device 2, shown in figures 1, 1A and 3. Buffer components 40 also contain compressible material 41 located between the curved elements 42. This material 41 is located directly above the axis 6, when it is oriented perpendicular to the chassis 38 of the trailer during movement of the trailer 3 forward. When using this design, when the trailer 3 moves forward, the axle 6 through the application of appropriate suspension mo is no move up and down relative to the chassis 38 of the trailer and, if, for example, the trailer 3 moves through some unevenness axis 6 may rest against a compressible material 41, which is part of the buffer components 40 and compress it, thereby preventing the axle 6 or chassis 38 from damage.

When the trailer is 3 turns, i.e. when the wheels 4 are expanded relative to the rotary plate 8, the ends of the axis 6 move near curvilinear elements 42 of the buffer components 40, under data elements. As can be seen from five and 5F, due to the fact that the curvilinear elements 42 protrude downward from the Central zone of the buffer components 40, which is compressible material 41, the range of offset axis 6 up limited. This restriction on the offset axis 6 acts up when turning the trailer and the wheels 4 at low speeds. When driving at low speeds full offset axis 6 relative to the trailer 3 is not required. This limitation begins to operate when the reversal of the front axle of the trailer becomes large enough so that it was located under the curved elements 42 and limit shifting upwards. Buffer components 40 are attached to the chassis 38, and not to the guide frame 21 of the coupling device 2. Alternatively, the buffer components 40 instead of the chassis 38 of the trailer 3 can be mounted on the axle 6.

This design allows you to place the PE the front wheels 4 of the trailer between the two transverse beams 39 of the trailer 3 and thereby to achieve the lowest possible height of the trailer.

Figure 5 shows another preferred variant of the coupling device 2 according to the invention. This option is similar to the coupling device 2 of figure 1 and 1A. Similar parts are given the same numerical designation. In this embodiment uses the shafts 65, pivotally attached to the chassis 30 of the tractor 5 and not to the chassis 38 of the trailer 3 by means of hinges 66, located at the ends of branches And retaining shafts 65. The top of the A-shaped drawbar includes a coupling pin 68, which may be injected into the coupling hole 69 on the chassis of the trailer 3. A variant of the coupling device shown in figure 5, operates essentially the same as the variant described with reference to figures 1 and 1A. Hitch 2 in figure 5 is most appropriate to use with tractors having a short rear overhang.

Figure 6 illustrates the coupling component 100, which may form part of the coupling device 2 according to the invention. Coupling component 100 is rigidly attached to the chassis 30 of the tractor and includes a telescopic element 102, is configured to move the sliding coupling hinge 104 to which is attached the tongue 12 of the trailer, as described, for example, with respect to the considered variants of the invention. Coupling component 100 can be used in cases where it is desirable to increase or decrease the distance between the trailer 3 and the tractor 5, after what may have been concatenated. Thus, if you want to reduce the distance between the front edge of the trailer 3 and the rear edge of the truck 5, the telescopic element 102 can be adjusted by moving the coupling hinge 104 in the direction of the rear side of the tractor 5. As a result, the tongue 12 of the trailer will move in the direction of the rear edge of the truck 5 with the corresponding change in the distance between the tractor and trailer. Telescopic element 102 coupling component 100 can be provided with an actuator such as a pneumatic, electric or hydraulic. In addition, the telescopic element 102 may include a rotating part, which rotates to move the coupling component 100 in the desired direction, i.e. forward or back. Activation of the actuator can be carried out using sensors (not illustrated), which determine the rotation angle of the servo link or the trailer drawbar or the distance between the trailer and tractor.

According to an additional variant (not shown) to increase the distance between the tractor and trailer during turning can be used an alternative method, which is to raise the front edge of the trailer and/or lower its rear edge, acting on the suspension in accordance with the signals of the sensors that detect that the trailer is moving at an angle to the tractor, and allocating described, the trailer from the pull of the A.

7 and 7A illustrate a fifth variant of the coupling device according to the invention, connected to the trailer 3 and the carrier 5, which in this case is a truck. Hitch 2 similarly, the coupling device shown in figures 1 and 1A. Similar parts are given the same numerical designation. The coupling device 2 is provided with means for securing swivel 3 trailer with the tractor 5. This tool is made in the form of a-shaped tongue 12 of the trailer, which is near the rear ends of branches And clamp pivotally connected to the chassis 38 of the trailer through the hinges 220. The top of the A-shaped drawbar attached to the carrier 5 by means of coupling holes 14, which can interact with the coupling pin on the carrier 5. Coupling device 2 further comprises a tool for the implementation of differential swivel wheels turn 4 trailer and trailer 3 in relation to the cargo vehicle 5 during rotation. This tool is made in the form of v-shaped tracking element 20, between the branches of which is a transverse horizontal beam 200, the hinge associated with the tracking element 20 by means of hinges 22.

Beam 200 is connected to rotate with the gear 38 of the trailer 3 by means of the hinge 202. Tracking link 20 is designed so that it can be rotated around the axis of the hinge 202, and the top of witness C is s 20 moves in the plane of the chassis 38. In addition, the hinge 22 allows the v-shaped servo unit 20 to rotate in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the chassis 38. In other words, the top of the tracking element 20 can move up and down relative to the original level. The top of the tracking element 20 is connected with the guide rail 26 of the slide, mounted on a truck (Prime mover) 5 using the hitch ball 24, as described with reference to figures 1 and 1A.

In this embodiment, the tracking element 20 is also connected to the auxiliary servo links 206 attached to the beam 200 near its ends by hinges 208. The other ends of the auxiliary servo links 206 attached at points 210 to the rotary plate 8 or the frame of the trailer. As described with reference to figures 1 and 1A, the rotary plate 8 is rigidly connected with the specified sub-frame and the front wheels of the trailer 3.

The tongue 12 of the trailer operates in the same manner as in the embodiment of figures 1 and 1A. Hitch ball 24 tracking element 20 communicates with the guide 26 slides, available on the truck chassis, as described with reference to the variant of figure 1 and 1A. To ensure high efficiency means of implementing differential hinged rotation of the chassis 38 and 4 wheels trailer coupling device 2 is composed of the auxiliary servo links 206, which is at the turn of the tracking element 20 around the pivot pin 202 in the process of turning a truck allow additional witness movement due to their hinged rotation around the axes of the hinges 208. Thereby the rotation of the wheels of the trailer 3 on the shorter arc (if this is desirable). The device according to the invention, presents 7 and 7A, is most effective in the education hitch tractor/trailer in which the trailer and/or tractor are quite long, which can cause difficulties when passing obstacles or making sharp turn.

Fig schematically illustrates, in plan, the coupling device 2 described with reference to 7 and 7A, when the trailer is at an angle to the tractor. You can see that the tracking element 20 is turned in a horizontal plane around the axis of the hinge 202. Using auxiliary servo links 206 this movement is transferred to the rotary plate or frame of the trailer.

Although the present invention is particularly useful for use in commercial vehicles and industrial applications, including trucks and various trailers, including platforms, vans, etc., it could be successfully used as a coupling means for vehicle models, toys and other miniature versions of vehicles coupled via a coupler. For example, a miniature version of the coupling device according to the invention can be used to attach the toy trailer for toy tractor, and razlichnykh, manufactured by casting or other methods.

1. Hitch for attaching a trailer containing means for mounting on a trailer, with the possibility of hinge pivot, at least one left wheel and at least one right wheel, independent means of ensuring swivel trailer with the tractor, means of implementation of differential rotation wheels and trailer relative to the tractor in the implementation of the Prime mover rotation limiting means configured to limit the spread of the wheels relative to the trailer when turned by a Prime mover, in comparison with the value of the reversal of the wheels relative to the trailer in the absence of restrictive means, and limiting means includes a tracking link with the front end of which is connected with the above mentioned equipment to install wheels on the trailer, and the rear end, and a tracking element includes a protruding hitch ball on the rear end or near it, while restrictive means further includes a guide slide made with the possibility of connection to the tractor and positioned in parallel or tilted relative to the chassis of the tractor and trailer and the hitch ball is mounted for movement, during movement of the tractor along the guide slide limiter is wow tools.

2. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that provided by the group of wheels connected to the chassis of the trailer without the possibility of reversal, and the coupling device has an expandable wheel mounted on the trailer.

3. Coupling device according to claim 2, characterized in that the expandable wheel hitch connected with the axle installed on the hinge of the expandable component.

4. Coupling device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the unfolding of the wheel associated with the hinged pull-down pins.

5. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the means of securing the swivel trailer with Prime mover provides tools for application to the means of ensuring swivel efforts in the direction of the truck.

6. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the means of securing the swivel trailer with tractor contain the drawbar of the trailer.

7. Coupling device according to claim 6, characterized in that the drawbar of the trailer has at its free end covering or covered item, made interoperable with the corresponding covered or covering part on the tractor.

8. Coupling device according to claim 6, characterized in that the drawbar of the trailer contains a means of preventing the fall of the free end of the drawbar when it does not join the wounded to the truck.

9. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the unfolding wheels are made with the possibility of a reversal in the direction of rotations of the Prime mover in the process of its movement.

10. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the limiting means configured to limit the hinge pivot unfolding the wheels of the trailer to the value of the relevant part of the angle formed between the trailer and tractor chassis when turning the tractor, which linked the trailer.

11. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the limiting means is arranged to provide a spread unfolding the wheels of the trailer in the direction of rotation of the Prime mover to limit the arc of rotation for the unfolding of the wheels relative to the arc of rotation of the Prime mover.

12. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the limiting means includes means for providing, in essence, the optimal orientation unfolding the wheels of the trailer with respect to the orientation of the tractor in the exercise of his turn.

13. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that the limiting means includes a telescopic element.

14. Coupling device according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains auxiliary restraining means is arranged to connect with a trailer and curbing what s unfolding movement of the wheels up and down during rotation of the trailer.

15. Coupling device according to 14, characterized in that the auxiliary restrictive means contains one or more buffer components that interact with each unfolding wheels and executed protruding from the trailer to the ground adjacent to the front axle or front axles of the trailer.

16. The trailer containing at least one expandable front left wheel and one unfolding right front wheel and hitch for attaching a trailer, as described in any one of claims 1 to 15.

17. The way the hitch of the trailer with the tractor, including the following:

(a) ensure the trailer, the tractor and hitch for attaching a trailer, as described in any one of claims 1 to 15;

(b) connect the specified hitch to the trailer; and

(C) concatenate the trailer with the tractor, by means of this coupling device.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to trailer-trains with prime mover and one or several trailers. Trailer for use in trailer-train has main chassis made for articulated connection with wheeled part of truck directly before trailer with possibility of turning of wheeled part relative to main chassis around vertical first axle on main chassis. Additional chassis provided with great number road gripping wheels installed on chassis at a distance from each other in longitudinal direction and connected with main chassis for free turning around mainly vertical second axle of main chassis, stop gear adapter for setting maximum angle of free turning of additional chassis from position of alignment in longitudinal direction relative to main chassis depending on positioning of stop gear relative to main chassis. Trailer is furnished also with device for automatically positioning stop gear relative to main chassis at turning of wheeled part around first axle so that maximum angle changes according to positioning of stop gear, and control device responding to relative turning of additional chassis and main chassis around second axle to control at least two said pairs of wheels relative to additional chassis to align additional chassis relative to main chassis in longitudinal direction. Each pair of steerable wheels is installed on fixed axle unit hinge-connected with additional chassis and is made to control, by turning, axle unit around vertical third axle. Axles of rotation of each pair of steerable wheels meet at side of additional chassis at turning of trailer.

EFFECT: improved steerability owing to direction of trailer wheels along track pf primer mover.

20 cl, 16 dwg

The invention relates to transport machinery and can be used in devices for the steering axle car trailers

Trolley vehicles // 2230680
The invention relates to consistently associated rigid swivel axis with the Central axes of rotation

The invention relates to vehicles and trains and structures tow their trailers containing trailer hitch, resting his knuckles on the front of the chassis with the possibility of rotation about vertical and horizontal axes, and means for turning the shaft

The invention relates to transport machinery and relates to methods of driving

The invention relates to agricultural and forestry machinery, namely, the technical means for transportation of goods in tight maneuvering in difficult road conditions

Stepping vehicle // 2149118
The invention relates to vehicles and can be used as a trailer attachment

Towing device // 2114008

Towing device // 2077431
The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular, to the towing device for vehicles

The invention relates to vehicles, and more specifically to the mechanical coupling devices for connecting tractors and towed objects without departing crew of the tractor in the conditions of warfare

The invention relates to vehicles, particularly to a towing devices trucks

Coupler for trailer // 2342258

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: coupler contains means for installation on trailer with capability of pivot-hinged turn of at least one left wheel and at least one right wheel, independent means of pivot-hinged turn of trailer and prime mover coupling, means for performing differential turn of wheels and trailer with regard to prime mover in process of turn performed by prime mover. Limiting device is made so as to limit magnitude of wheel turn as compared with wheel turn related to trailer in absence of limiting device. Limiting device contains follower with front end connected with said devices for installation of wheels on trailer and rear end. Follower includes protruding coupling sphere on rear end or near it. Limiting device additionally includes slider guide made so as to couple with prime mover and installed in parallel with or inclined to prime mover and trailer chassis. Coupling sphere is installed with ability to move along slider guide of limiting device in process of prime mover movement.

EFFECT: securing of smooth and safe turning and exclusion of folding effect.

17 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to trailer-trains with prime mover and one or several trailers. Trailer for use in trailer-train has main chassis made for articulated connection with wheeled part of truck directly before trailer with possibility of turning of wheeled part relative to main chassis around vertical first axle on main chassis. Additional chassis provided with great number road gripping wheels installed on chassis at a distance from each other in longitudinal direction and connected with main chassis for free turning around mainly vertical second axle of main chassis, stop gear adapter for setting maximum angle of free turning of additional chassis from position of alignment in longitudinal direction relative to main chassis depending on positioning of stop gear relative to main chassis. Trailer is furnished also with device for automatically positioning stop gear relative to main chassis at turning of wheeled part around first axle so that maximum angle changes according to positioning of stop gear, and control device responding to relative turning of additional chassis and main chassis around second axle to control at least two said pairs of wheels relative to additional chassis to align additional chassis relative to main chassis in longitudinal direction. Each pair of steerable wheels is installed on fixed axle unit hinge-connected with additional chassis and is made to control, by turning, axle unit around vertical third axle. Axles of rotation of each pair of steerable wheels meet at side of additional chassis at turning of trailer.

EFFECT: improved steerability owing to direction of trailer wheels along track pf primer mover.

20 cl, 16 dwg

Coupler for trailer // 2342258

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: coupler contains means for installation on trailer with capability of pivot-hinged turn of at least one left wheel and at least one right wheel, independent means of pivot-hinged turn of trailer and prime mover coupling, means for performing differential turn of wheels and trailer with regard to prime mover in process of turn performed by prime mover. Limiting device is made so as to limit magnitude of wheel turn as compared with wheel turn related to trailer in absence of limiting device. Limiting device contains follower with front end connected with said devices for installation of wheels on trailer and rear end. Follower includes protruding coupling sphere on rear end or near it. Limiting device additionally includes slider guide made so as to couple with prime mover and installed in parallel with or inclined to prime mover and trailer chassis. Coupling sphere is installed with ability to move along slider guide of limiting device in process of prime mover movement.

EFFECT: securing of smooth and safe turning and exclusion of folding effect.

17 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: mechanics; transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controllable devices intended for goods transporting, particularly to trailers designed to be coupled with driving vehicle. The invention may be used under limited spatial conditions. The device is intended for transporting goods and contains frame where controlling and controllable swinging circles are installed in the lower part of the frame. Controllable wheels are placed on an axis and connected with controllable swinging circle. The pulling element is coupled with swinging circles and forms figure-of-eight shaped loop. In addition, axle with wheels is connected with controlling swinging circle. In order to place pulling elements, sprocket wheels are installed under controlling and controllable swinging wheels. The pulling element is represented with a chain in the points of sprocket coverage. The above mentioned chain is fastened to the rigid thrusts by means of turn-buckles.

EFFECT: increased reliability of device and accurate turning.

7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to a forced control system to be used with a trailer and several different trucks. The forced control system contains a coupling part to be placed on a truck (5) and a coupling loop part (3) to be placed on the trailer (4). The coupling part and the coupling loop part (3) are designed to be coupled together in a coupling point and in the point of an articulated joint located at a distance from the coupling point. On each of multiple different trucks (5), using the coupling part preliminary matched with this truck (5), the coupling point and the point of the articulated joint are located respectively at a required distance from the rear axle (51) of the truck (5) so that adjustment of an optimal angular ratio of the angle between the truck (5) and the loop part (3) relative to the angle of deflection of steer wheels (42) of the trailer (4) can be guaranteed for various combinations of vehicles.

EFFECT: forced control system is achieved without additional equipment which system being used with multiple various trucks provides possibility of rolling for situated one after another wheels of several trailer rear axles during cornering with lateral stability.

14 cl, 6 dwg

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