Method of prevention of flooding of potassium mines and hazardous deformations of earth surface at underground water inrush into mines
SUBSTANCE: method comprises leaving of massifs of minerals 14 between chambers 7-13, driven at extraction of potassium salt bed 1, and filling chambers with backfill material. Bores 6 are drilled from ground surface 5 to chambers; the bores are cased with tubes. Not soluble in water backfill material is supplied into chambers via bores 6 till chambers are filled for their complete height at a point of backfill material supply. The first to be filled are chambers 7 located at proximity to the underground water inrush zone 4 from the side of the bed rise 1 of potassium salt; thereafter filling of chambers 8-10 located below underground water inrush 4 is carried out. Not solved in water, hardening, backfill materials are supplied into chambers 7-13 via bores 6. If filed chambers driven along the course of bed chambers have considerable length, the distance between bores is determined from a calculated expression.
EFFECT: invention facilitates prevention of flooding of potassium mine and hazardous deformation of the earth surface at breaks of water protective strata and underground water inrushes into mine through water permeable cracks generated in water protective strata in areas of geological disturbances.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to mining and can be used in underground mining of potassium salts.
Known way to prevent flooding, potash mines and dangerous deformations of the earth surface by the outburst of groundwater in potash mines (Way to prevent flooding of potash mines. RF patent №2133342 on application No. 97113888/03 from 13.08.1997. Authors: Paulov L., Nikolaev A.S., Belkin CENTURIES), including drilling from the surface of the wells to the upper contact of the water conveyance channel between the aquifer and mine workings. In drilled wells determine the level of the brine. In one of the wells located upstream of the brine, pumped cement slurry. From the other wells pumping the brine. The injection of cement slurry and pumping of brine are continuously with constant flow rates, the flow rate of pumping exceeds the rate of pumping 3-4 times. The disadvantage of this method is the low reliability prevent flooding, potash mines and dangerous deformations of the earth surface, which is associated: with the difficulty of positioning the upper contact of the water conveyance channel between the aquifer and mine workings; the inability to completely prevent the entry of water into the underground mine workings and the destruction of the security pillar in the races is of its salts present in them.
There are ways to help prevent flooding in the potash mines and dangerous deformations of the earth surface by the outburst of groundwater in potash mines (Way to develop gentle potash seams excavation blocks. Patent No. 2060389 on the application 5033860/03 from 10.02.1992. Authors: Paulov L.M., Parfenov V.B. have been, Gorkovenko V.N., Artemov VG, Palianina GD, Volkov Dmitriy E.V.; W. Entwicklungstendenzen im Untertagebereich West des-Deuschen Kalibergbaus. Kali und Steinsalze., 1975, Vol.6, No. 3. S. 375-382). These methods include the seam potassium salt chambers for separation between cameras, columnar, and on the borders of mined blocks - barrier pillars fossil. The disadvantage of these methods is their low reliability when developing potash seams in areas of mine fields in complicated geological disturbances.
The known method, adopted as a prototype, prevent flooding, potash mines and dangerous deformations of the earth surface by the outburst of groundwater in potash mines (RF Patent No. 95118809 on application No. 95118809/03 from 31.10.1995. Authors: Shaman G.P., Markov V.E., Nesterov BTW, Vorontsov VI, Anikin NF, Sivkov B.C.), including the seam potassium salt chambers for separation between cameras pillars of minerals and the subsequent laying of the cameras solid salt waste rock and rock salt)obtained in the excavation and remanaging workings.
The disadvantage of this method is the low reliability prevent flooding of the mine and dangerous deformations of the earth surface by the outburst of underground waters (brines) from aquifers in mines, passed through the formation of the potassium salt, water conveyance through the cracks formed in the water strata in places of geological faults.
This is because water (brines), coming from aquifers in the camera, leads to the destruction mezhdurebernyh pillars and backfill array consisting of a water soluble salt rocks. The consequence is the collapse of the rocks overlying strata and dangerous deformation of the earth surface (down in the troughs displacement, cracking, cratering and failures, destruction of terrestrial plants). So, the flooding of the mine Fineburg (Germany) on the earth's surface caused the crater to a depth of 30 m and a diameter of about 100 m In the Verkhnekamskoe potash over flooded in 1986, the mine-3 formed a vast and deep failure depth of tens of meters.
The technical result achieved when using the proposed method, is to eliminate the disadvantage of the prototype method, namely the prevention of flooding potash mine and dangerous deformation the Nations of the earth surface at the fracture water column and breakthroughs in the mine groundwater water conveyance through the cracks, formed in the water strata in places of geological faults.
The technical result is achieved by the inventive method to prevent flooding of the mine and dangerous deformations of the earth surface by the outburst of groundwater in potash mines includes giving between cameras, passed during the mining of seam potassium salt, pillars of minerals and filled chambers backfill material.
According to the invention from the surface through cameras drilled wells, the wells grow tubes through the holes in the camera serves nerastvorim in the water filling materials to fill the chambers in the place of submission of backfill materials the entire height of the camera, and the first lay cameras located in the immediate vicinity of the zone breakthrough groundwater from the uprising of the formation of the potassium salt, then make a bookmark chambers located beneath the area of the breakthrough of groundwater.
To improve the efficiency of the proposed method by wells in the camera serves nerastvorim in water hardening filling material.
When the tab is passed along the strike of the formation of chambers of great length, the distance between the wells is determined from the expression
where: S is the distance between the wells,
εCR- maximum the transmission of rocks water column, above the backfill array, above which there is destruction of the water column with education in her water conducting fractures,
ϕ- the spreading angle of backfill material in the mine workings.
The essence of the proposed method is illustrated by drawings presented on figure 1 and figure 2.
Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram (vertical section) of cameras, mezhdurebernyh pillars and wells for the supply of filling material in the chamber.
Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram (vertical section) of the mutual location of wells in the supply of filling material in the chamber length, traversed along the strike of the formation.
Figure 1 and figure 2:
1 - Plast potassium salt; 2 - lower limit of the goaf; 3 - upper limit goaf; 4 - zone breakthrough groundwater (water conducting fractures in the water thicker); 5 - the earth's surface; 6 - hole to feed backfill materials; 7-13 camera (camera 7 is filled insoluble in water backfill material); 14 - Mezhdunarodnye pillars; and the width of the camera; b - a part of a mine field, located by the fall of the formation of the potassium salt from the zone breakthrough groundwater; - a part of a mine field, located with hand uprising of the formation of the potassium salt from the zone breakthrough underground is od; α - the angle of incidence of the formation of the potassium salt; h1- power rock water column; h2- the power of rock aquifer.
The method is as follows.
Between cameras 7-13, passed during the mining of seam potassium salt, leave pillars of minerals 14. From the surface 5 to cameras drilled wells 6, which grow tubes (e.g., metal). Wells in the camera serves nerastvorim in the water filling materials (e.g. sand, slag and other) to fill the chambers in the supply of filling material (pairing the camera and wells a and b) on their entire height. When it first put the camera 7 (figure 1), located in close proximity to areas of breakout 4 groundwater from the uprising of the formation of the potassium salt. After filling the filling material cameras produce 7 tab 8 cameras located directly beneath the area of the breakthrough 4 groundwater.
To improve the efficiency of the proposed method by wells in the camera serves nerastvorim in water hardening filling material (e.g. sand-cement mixture or hardening of the mixture on the basis of tailings).
When the tab is passed along the strike of the reservoir chambers of the great length of the distance S (figure 2) between the wells is determined from the expression
where: S is the distance between the wells,
εCR- maximum allowable lower rocks of the water column above the backfill array, above which there is destruction of the water column with education in her water conducting fractures,
ϕ - the spreading angle of backfill material in the mine workings (the angle between the horizontal plane and the surface of the backfill array 15 (2)).
When laying cameras great length traversed along the strike of the seam, lower the rocks the water column at the point D (figure 2) should not exceed εCR.
Drilling and filing with the camera nerastvorim in the water filling materials to fill the chambers in the supply of filling material on the whole of their height allows to exclude hazardous quantities of lowering of the roof rocks develop potash layers, and hence the earth's surface, above the goaf in cases of penetration into the mine groundwater. The cased hole pipes eliminates the admission chamber water wells.
First lay the chamber (7)located in the immediate vicinity of the zone breakthrough 4 groundwater from the uprising of the formation of the potassium salt. This eliminates the possibility of water ingress in the old part of the mine field (figure 1), the location is nnow from the uprising of the formation of the potassium salt from zone 4 breakthrough groundwater and the destruction of the pillar 14 by dissolving water-salt rocks. After laying the camera (cameras) 7 produce a bookmark of the camera (cameras) 8, located directly beneath the area of the breakthrough 4 groundwater, which reduces the tributaries water (brine) in the underground workings of the mine, and therefore the intensity of dissolution of salt rocks.
Improving the efficiency of the proposed method when used for bookmarks cameras nerastvorim in water hardening filling material (e.g. sand-cement mixtures) because this increases the reliability of the exceptions dangerous lowering of rocks in the water column and prevent the ingress of groundwater through filling the array in the camera, not filled with backfill material.
The condition S≤2εCR·ctgϕ when laying passed along strike cameras large length excludes the possibility of dangerous lowerings (εCRrocks water column at points equidistant from adjacent wells (point D, figure 2), above which there is destruction of the water column with education in her water conducting fractures.
Compared with the known methods, this method allows to reduce the probability of flooding potash mines and eliminate dangerous deformation of the earth surface when the PoWPA the I-V characteristics of groundwater in underground mining water conveyance through the cracks, formed in the water strata in places of geological faults.
Positive economic benefit gained through the implementation of this method, due to: conservation of potash reserves and providing opportunities for further work profitable mines, to reduce the negative impact of water breakthrough in the potash mines in the state of the earth's surface and the environment.
The inventive method is intended primarily for use in underground mining of deposits of potassium salts.
The parameters required to implement the proposed method, namely, the angle of spreading ϕ backfill material in the mine workings and the maximum lowering εCRrocks water column above the backfill array, above which there is destruction of the water column with education in her water conducting fractures, determined in each case by known methods using mine, laboratory or analytical studies.
1. The way to prevent flooding potash mines and dangerous deformations of the earth surface when breakthroughs in the mines groundwater, including abandonment between cameras, passed during the mining of seam potassium salt, pillars of minerals and filled the chambers of filling material, characterized in that the surface of the earth to cameras drilled wells, the wells grow tubes through the holes in the camera serves not dissolved in the water filling materials to fill the chambers in the place of submission of backfill materials the entire height of the camera, and the first lay cameras located in the immediate vicinity of the zone breakthrough groundwater from the uprising of the formation of the potassium salt, then make a bookmark chambers located beneath the area of the breakthrough of groundwater.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the wells in the camera serves not dissolved in water hardening filling material.
3. The method according to any one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that when the tab is passed along the strike of the reservoir chambers large length, the distance between the wells is determined from the expression
where S is the distance between the wells,
εnp- maximum allowable lower rocks of the water column above the backfill array, above which there is destruction of the water column with education in her water conducting fractures,
ϕ - the spreading angle of backfill material in the mine workings.
FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: backfill fibrosolution consists of concrete, argil, fibers and water, as fibers solution contains synthetic filaments with diameter 0,1-0,15 mm and length 10-20 mm in amount of 10-20 kg for 1m3 of argil-cement mixture, subjected to electrification with induction of static electric charge.
EFFECT: possible backfill of extensive fractured systems with active influx of water, increased hardness of backfill material, decreased material costs of reinforcement of fractured rocks, removal of water influxes in mines.
SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.
EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, particularly potassium plants, namely for waste salt and mud storage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing front slope with inclination angle less than that of waste salt solution in area adapted for salt dump construction, wherein the front slope extends from boundary, which separates salt dump and mud pit; forming upper salt dump part as front slope reaches height exceeding height of brine leakage from salt dump at the highest mud pit filling degree so that upper salt dump part extends at angle equal to natural solid waste salt slope.
EFFECT: increased salt dump capacity and provision of safe inwashing conditions, decreased volume of works necessary for mud pit dam construction.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly methods for rock salt or potash salt mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves outlining excavation block with development entries; forming incline before mineral mining in chamber; performing block mineral cutting in several layers along with goad filling with halite and delivering sylvinite to day surface; cutting chambers by means of selective winning machine from the incline for the full chamber length beginning from upper sylvinite layer along with roof supporting with bolts; using cut halite as filling material for chamber section filling in dependence of halite capacity and degree of fragmentation so that filled and empty chambers alternate with each other.
EFFECT: increased quality of sylvinite ore production due to selective cutting thereof in layers and increased roof control ability.
FIELD: mining, particularly underground thick deposit, namely potassium salt and rock salt, mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling conveyer and vent drifts, as well as cut cross-drift and rise in surrounding massif; cutting chamber in layers in downward direction; cutting inclined conveyer rise, which connects conveyer drift with cut cross-drift near long side of design chamber contour; cutting recess in upper chamber layer adjoining inclined conveyer rise so that recess width is equal to face equipment movement; excavating chamber with several cuts formed in planes transversal to inclined conveyer rise plane; delivering the cut mineral directly to conveyer of conveyer rise. After the first slice cutting the second slice cutting is begun from recess excavation from inclined conveyer rise with conveyer shortage. Then the second slice is cut. Cycles of next chamber layer cutting are repeated.
EFFECT: increased speed of chamber reserve mining, decreased preparatory work amount and reduced losses.
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop water-soluble mineral deposit deposited in enclosing impermeable rock bordering on flooded rock.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mining mineral salt reserves with cutting and/or drilling-and-blasting methods in chambers to impart naturally stable vault shape to chamber cross-section; cutting chamber by driving technological heading in upper chamber part so that the technological heading has convex curvilinear roof inscribed in the naturally stable vault, wherein the technological heading may comprise lining and has parameters providing long-tern stability thereof. Current chamber width and safety pillar base width are determined from mathematical expressions.
EFFECT: increased mining safety along with retention of mineral salt production level.
FIELD: mining, particularly underground mining of flat-lying mineral seams in areas characterized by disjunctive geological displacement.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing mineral seam into columns; preparing the columns by paired developing entries along with mineral pillars establishing between the developing entries; excavating supplementary entries between developing ones; cutting the columns with long-wall faces with the use of powered mining complexes; gobbing developing entry adjoining long-wall face behind long-wall face during column cutting and repeatedly using the second development entry. The columns are arranged along geological displacement areas. Developing entry to be gobbed during column cutting and reusable one are formed from opposite geological displacement sides out of zone having increased fissure density developed near geological displacement. As mineral seam zone characterized by fold geological displacement is cut reusable development entry is excavated in hanging wall. As mineral seam zone characterized by overfold geological displacement is excavated reusable developing entry is cut in underside wall of overfold displacement.
EFFECT: increased mining safety and decreased coal losses.
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground mining for brown or hard coal.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing working area into panels by excavating panel mining, belt and ventilation entries and inclines; performing of advance upper bed mining and retreat lower bed mining; connecting mining entries at different deposit beds with inclines. Belt entries are formed only in lower bed. Mining and ventilation entries made in upper bed are shifted with respect to corresponding lower bed entries for distance equal to half of panel width. As second working fronts of lower and upper beds cross each other excavation of upper beam semi-panel superposed with working panel of lower bed in plan view is stopped up to time of second working front of lower bed moving-off along with lower bed cutting continuing. Upper bed excavation is continued as the second working front of lower bed reaches distance of not less than 0.2 of lower bed depth. Ore is conveyed from upper bed and filling material is supplied to goaf via belt and mining entries formed in excavated adjacent panel correspondingly. Ore from mining entry of upper bed is conveyed to that of lower bed along periodically passable inclines and from mining entry of lower bed to belt entry via ore passes, wherein ore conveyance is began from ore excavated from upper bed. After chamber mining and new incline cutting filling material for mined-out upper bed chamber filling is conveyed. Ore produced from upper bed may be transported by means of conveyer installed in mined-out lower bed chamber. Ore is transferred from mining entry of upper bed to conveyer and in belt entry of mined-out panel via ore passes. Inclines may be arranged transversely to panel entries.
EFFECT: decreased volume of preparatory work and increased cutting rate.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use during underground extraction of inclined mineral resource formations.
SUBSTANCE: method includes division of portion with limited dimensions onto panels, and of panels - onto columns of mineral resource, successive extraction of two columns of mineral resource by one face, extraction of first column by face, moving in direction towards the boundary of extraction section, driving of bypass drift along external boundary of extraction section, driving of section and panel preparatory mines, driving of furnaces between panel and section preparatory mines, turning of face at the limit of extraction section, leaving angle bodies and following extraction of second column by face in direction, opposite to extraction direction of first column. Simultaneously with extraction of first column, before beginning of face turn, angle bodies of panel are extracted by parallel chambers leaving inter-chamber bodies of same width, while extraction of angle sections is performed before face approaches turn beginning location for distance, exceeding width of zone of supporting pressure, being created in front of face. Yielding h of inter-chamber bodies of mineral resource during even partial extraction thereof is determined from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: decreased mineral resource losses in face turn locations, decreased intensiveness of falls on end portions of face and increased efficiency of control over roof in face during its turn.
FIELD: mining, particularly underground mining of diamond-containing potassium salt deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling exploratory potassium holes from surface; contouring potassium deposit, zones of sylvinite replacement with rock salt; cutting breakage and development headings with cutter-loaders; performing ground seismic prospecting by common depth point procedure in replacement zone propagation; cutting exploratory workings in rock salt laying under sylvinite seams; drilling sylvinite wells in exploratory working roofs to determine replacement zone boundaries; performing seismic investigations; exploring contoured deposits to search for diamonds; taking samples; solving taken samples in salt component; enriching the samples by thermochemical pressure decomposition, which is carried out by hydraulic jigging; determining mineable diamond zones; stoping diamond-containing salts and transporting thereof to concentrating mill.
EFFECT: increased raw material development complexity.
FIELD: mining, particularly multi-slice gas-bearing potassium seams development.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming developing entries of lower layer in unloaded zone under upper layer goaf along with movement of layer developing entries with respect to transversal cross-section under the protection of interlayer rock benches; creating protective horizontal sheets on ground in lower layer face behind face-end support of lower face developing entry; moving the protective sheets along with face-end support sections, wherein area of formation ground coverage with protective sheets is not less than product of summary protective sheet width equal to developing entry width by protective sheet length equal to distance calculated from face-end support in goaf direction. The distance is characterized by sudden rock and gas outburst from formation ground in lower face goaf at developing entry interface.
EFFECT: increased safety of formation development.
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop underground mineral deposit, for instance potassium salt deposit.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating water-tight and fracture-closing screen in water-impervious rock layer, wherein the screen is formed as a number of cavities filled with viscous material; excavating mineral under the protection of water-impervious rock layer. The material used for cavity filling is flowable at working temperature, non-aggressive to water-impervious rock and adapted to isolate fractures. The material has density of not less than that of solutions, which tend to penetrate the screen cavities from overlayer flooded rock. The screen is coaxial to expendable or key well, which previously has been removed from operation. The well is drilled from land surface. The screen is created as horizontal cavity and vertical cavity communicated with horizontal cavity and filled with fracture-isolation material. The horizontal cavity is below lower boundary of water-impervious rock and spaced a distance H equal to or more than permissible water-impervious rock thickness from the boundary so that water-impervious rock is prevented from fracture formation during underworking thereof. The horizontal cavity radius is determined from mathematical expression. The vertical cavity extends along the well from horizontal cavity to at least upper boundary of water-impervious rock and has transversal dimensions equal to well diameter or exceeding thereof. Water-tight screen is formed after above well backfilling within the boundaries of water-impervious rock layer downwards from lower level of horizontal screen cavity. During screen usage cavity filling is controlled and fracture-isolation material is added into the cavities if necessary.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention comprises following scheme. Oil is produced from producing wells. Potassium salts are extracted from mines and processed. Solutions are pumped into deep lying porous rock formations preliminarily revealed between oil-bearing and potassium formations. Those porous rock formations are chosen which are located below underlying stone salt. Pumping of solutions is effected through injecting wells until pressure drop in oil-bearing formation is compensated to a value sufficient to prevent deformation in potassium formations, this value being calculated using special math formula. Oil formation is then run while maintaining compensating pressure in chosen porous formation.
EFFECT: significantly reduced environmental loading and increased safety of mining operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg