Method of boring hard rock by means of tunnel boring machine
SUBSTANCE: method of boring hard rock by means of tunnel boring machine equipped with disks of hardened steel projecting from cutting head consists in supply of foamed water liquid to cutting head; this composition corresponds to surface active substance -SAS and lubricating material - polyethylene oxide with molecular wt from 4.500.000 to 8.000.000. The said ingredients are measured separately in a water form, are added into water and are transformed into a foam using anionic or nonionic SAS; the said composition is obtained by dilution of concentrate with water on site.
EFFECT: reduced wear of cutting components; increased boring efficiency.
The invention relates to a method of drilling a tunnel in the solid rock.
Drilling tunnels in solid rock, such as limestone and metamorphic or igneous rocks, has always created more problems than drilling in softer rocks. The most widely used method of tunneling in this breed was blasthole drilling, followed by disruption using explosives. It was desirable to use drilling channelerotica machine (BTM), a machine with a large diameter cutting heads (sometimes more than 10 m), for tunneling in hard rock. The main problem with BTM in this breed is the rapid wear of the cutting elements (disks of hardened steel, which protrude from the cutting head and the necessity of their frequent replacement; lack from the technological and economic point of view.
From WO 99/18330 and WO 01/12952 known application of drilling foamed aqueous solutions.
It has been unexpectedly discovered that the use of a particular composition can significantly reduce this wear, allowing for more efficient and cost-effective drilling of hard rocks using BTM. Therefore, this invention provides a method for drilling hard rocks using drilling tonalpohualli machine comprising protruding from the cutting head drives the temper is Noah steel when the wear of the cutting head reduces by adding at the cutting head foamed aqueous liquid composition that includes a foaming agent and a lubricant selected from the oxides with high molecular weight.
The blowing agent can be any foaming agent, that is, any material which under stirring in water will cause a stable foam. In this invention it is possible to use the composition of more than one of such foaming agent. In the field of engineering is known for a wide selection of such materials. The preferred materials for use as foaming agents in this invention are surface-active substances, which have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. Although you can use any suitable surface-active substances, it was found that for the purposes of this invention work best surfactants anionic or non-ionic type, and they are the preferred surface-active substances.
If surfactants are substances anionic type, it is preferably sulfur-containing surfactant, the preferred alcohol sulfate and the most preferred valium. In the technique and the known number of suitable materials, moreover, an example of a particularly preferred material is monoisopropanolamine-dodecyl sulfate (commercially available, e.g. under the trademark "Sulfetal'Cjot 60).
While anionic surfactants have excellent characteristics, their use is sometimes undesirable, if the issues of environmental protection are important. For reasons of environmental protection, it is preferable that the foam was unstable, so that it remained foam only for the period between its formation and the removal of the foamed fluid to the cutting surface. The foam of the anionic surfactants can be so stable and resistant that it can sometimes be found in rivers, remote from the place of work. In such cases, I prefer non-ionic surfactants; their characteristics in the work site no less than excellent, but they are faster to biologically decompose any formed foam has a relatively short time. In addition, the breakdown products of non-ionic surfactants are significantly less harmful than such products in the case of anionic surfactants, and, therefore, they are less Toxicological risk to plant and animal life.
Examples of effective non-ionic surfactant is of exist, suitable for use in this invention include alkanolamide, aminoxide, ethoxylated alcohols, ethoxylated ALKYLPHENOLS, ethoxylated esters, esters of glucose and sucrose and derivatives thereof. Particularly effective are the esters of glucose and sucrose and its derivatives, in particular alkylpolyglucoside. Typical examples of commercial products include "Lutensol" (trade mark) GD 70 (ex BASF) and Glucopon" (trade mark) (ex Cognis).
The lubricating material is selected from oxides with high molecular weight. The polyethylene oxide (PEO) with a "high molecular weight" means a PEO with mass-average molecular weight of at least 1000000. Preferably, the molecular weight ranged from 2000000 to 8000000. Such materials previously used in drilling tunnels using BTM, but never used in connection with the drilling of hard rocks. Typical commercial products will include POLYYOX (registered trademark) WSR-301. You can use a mixture of different PEO; although, being a polymer, PEO has a molecular weight distribution, and, therefore, he already is essentially a mixture of various materials.
The composition is prepared for use by adding a suitable amount of water. Although the supply of dry compositions theoretically possible and are not excluded from this image is the shadow, this is impractical. One reason for this is that it introduces the problem of obtaining a liquid composition on the work site - this can be difficult, especially in the case of PEO with high molecular weight, which is vodorastvorimym, can be difficult to dissolve. In addition, other commercially available additives (described further below) are often supplied only in the form of a solution or suspension.
There are two ways of overcoming these difficulties. The first is delivery of the compositions in the form of a series of individual water ingredients that can be added to the right of the individual proportions to a relatively large amount of water for flushing. Thus, PEO, foaming agent and any possible ingredients (additionally described below) are supplied separately in water form. The necessary equipment for storing and measuring well known in the art and, therefore, no need to describe it further. This method has the advantage of its versatility - the number of ingredients can be changed to the respective local conditions as they arise, and any possible components you can include or not include, depending on the circumstances.
More desirable way for most applications is to supply concentrate, koncentrira the spent aqueous solution or suspension with a suitable proportion of the necessary ingredients, which can be quickly and simply to use. It is not a problem to dilute this concentrate and foam dissolved concentrate on the workplace. Where you do not need the versatility of the approach with the measurement described above, this case is very preferred due to its ease of use and relatively low cost.
The number of ingredients that are referenced in the following paragraphs, refer to aqueous compositions that include the dry ingredients plus enough water, or for bringing the hospitality of the ingredients in the aqueous form for individual measuring, as described above, or to prepare aqueous concentrate as described above. The compositions have, adding water to 100%. This does not include the final dilution and foaming water (these quantities, see below)
The applied amount of PEO is from 0.1 to 3.0%, preferably from 0.4 to 2.0% and more preferably from 0.5 to 1.0% calculated on the weight of the concentrate. An equivalent amount of blowing agent is from 2 to 40%, preferably from 5 to 30% and more preferably from 5 to 20%.
Can be added to compositions for use in this invention other ingredients. In particular, two of these ingredients are linking compounds and substances that enhance foaming. In addition, before occhialini cases, they are often used with anionic surfactant; they are less effective with non-ionic. This is especially true for linking connections.
Linking connections are present to resolve any problems that arise when hard water is used in the preparation of the final foamed solution; hard water may cause precipitation of the foaming agent and make the composition useless. If the water is not hard linking connection, of course, is not required, but adding such a connection provides a composition that can be used in any part of the water and which, therefore, always ready to use under any circumstances. Can be any suitable linking compound in an amount up to 5%, preferably from 0.1 to 5%, more preferably from 0.5 to 2% and most preferably from 1 to 1.5%. An example of a binding compound that is suitable for use in this invention is "Cublen" (trade mark) 2523.
Substance, reinforcing the foam may be any suitable substance. The amount used is up to 10%, preferably from 0.1 to 10% and most preferably from 0.1 to 1%. Examples of substances that enhance foam formation, which is suitable for use in this invention is "Aromox" (trade mark) MCD-W.
In connection with the proposed invention, it should be noted also is the following. Capable of foaming step-down wear liquid concentrate comprises at least one lubricating material, which is a polyethylene oxide of high molecular weight, and at least one foaming agent that causes the formation of short-lived foam, you can concentrate also contains at least one linking compound, and at least one compound enhancing the foaming, in the following respective amounts:
0.1 to 3% of polyethylene oxide;
2-40% foaming agent;
up to 5% linking connections
up to 1% of substances that increase the foaming,
based on the weight of the concentrate, and the balance is water.
When used in the case of a concentrate, the concentrate is added to the appropriate amount of water and churn before it is served by the pump to the rotating cutting head and spray on the surface between the cutting head and breed. In the case of individual measuring of the ingredients required amount of water ingredients measure with respect to the appropriate amount of water and froth. Usually concentrate/some of the ingredients described earlier, dilute with water to obtain aqueous composition having from 1 to 20%, preferably from 1 to 10%, more preferably from 1 to 8% and most preferably about is 1 to 6% concentrate/individual ingredients.
This diluted composition is foamed in any convenient way to increase the amount of from 5 to 40, preferably from 5 to 20, more preferably from 8 to 20 times the volume newspring material.
The actual dilution of the concentrate/individual ingredients and the value of its expansion will significantly vary depending on the specific circumstances. The main value will be factors such as the diameter of the cutting head, the number and location of nozzles, and breed type. An important requirement is the maintenance of the foam layer in contact with the rock surface over the entire area of the cutting head. The achievement of this requirement is subject to the usual experiment and experienced easy this will adapt. Normal values for concentrate belonging to the above-described type, range from 0.5 to 10.0, preferably from 0.5 to 6.0, more preferably from 1 to 4 kg of concentrate per 1 m3remove rocks. If you add a separate water ingredients, you can easily calculate an equivalent amount. It should be noted that these values are given only as a main standards and that some conditions may require lower or higher amounts of individual ingredients or concentrate.
A surprising feature of this invention is that the using aqueous liquid composition, described above, leads to a significant reduction of wear of the cutting elements in the solid rock, leading to greater durability of the cutting head and less frequent replacement and, therefore, better and more economical drilling of tunnels. It is assumed, without limiting this invention in any manner that fine material formed on the drill surface BTM, binds water in the liquid composition and acts as a lubricant.
Further, the invention is illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.
The composition And the use of anionic surfactants)
Use the following ingredients:
|"Polyox" WSR 301 polyethyleneoxide,|
|the mass-average molecular mass 4000000 ("PEO")||0,83%|
|"Sulfetal" Cjot 60 surfactant||9,0%|
|"Cublen" 2523 connecting the connection ("SS")||0,3%|
|"Aromox" MCD-W substance|
|reinforcing foaming ("UE")||0,15%|
Composition B (using non-ionic surfactants)
It is the following composition:
|"Lutensol" GD 70||10,0%|
|"Polyox" WSR 301||0,9%|
|Water||up to 100%|
The way of establishing the effectiveness of the composition for use in this invention prior to use in BTM, thus saving time and money, requires the following vehicles:
PVC container with a wide neck with a capacity of 1 litre.
The sample for testing
The powder of silicon carbide (0,841-1,19 mm).
The test sample consists of three disks of steel ST 50 diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 14 mm with a Central hole with a diameter of 10 mm, and all three of the drive is secured by bolt M10 by any appropriate means (such as by nuts and washers), so that between adjacent disks there is a space of about 14 mm
The method consists in the following:
400 g of silicon carbide is mixed with parts of water and the composition and add to the vessel. The test sample which accurately known mass of three separate drives (to 0.001 g) were then added to the vessel, the vessel sealed, placed in the mill and rotated for 3 hours with a speed of 125 revolutions per minute. Then the drives weigh and determine the mass loss (wear).
In this way were tested compositions a and B. In each case, the composition was diluted in the DOI (5% of the composition in water) and sample mass of 30 and 60 g was wspanialy, to obtain a tenfold increase. To control 60 g of water was added to 400 g of the sample of silicon carbide and have tested. The wear rate of the test samples to the following:
|SiC+30 g||190 mg|
|SiC+60 g||157 mg|
|SiC+30 g B||129 mg|
|SiC+60 g B||115 mg|
As can be seen, in some cases, the wear rate of decline significantly.
1. The method of drilling hard rock drilling tonalpohualli machine capable of protruding from the cutting head drives from hardened steel, comprising applying to the cutting head foamed aqueous liquid composition containing a foaming agent, representing a surfactant, and a lubricant, which represents a polyethylene oxide with a molecular weight of from 4.500.000 8.000.000.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ingredients of the foamable composition measure separately in aqueous form, add in the water and turn into foam.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the use of anionic or nonionic surfactant.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the foamed aqueous liquid composition polyculture dilution of the concentrate with water in place.
FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating conditions favorable for chemical reaction between chemical element oxides basically constituting rock and graphite for rock fusion. For this rock is heated up to high temperature at face by thermal electric arc energy transmission through metal front tunneling machine wall. Electric arc is generated between electrodes inside discharge chambers arranged on inner surface of front tunneling machine wall. Electric current is supplied to electrodes via graphite mass moving through electrically-insulated pipes. Graphite is forced via electrodes and introduced into face through nozzles connected to front tunneling machine wall.
EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.
FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.
EFFECT: prevention of ground and object deformation in tunnel boring machine movement area, increased backfill layer elasticity and tunnel lining impermeability.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and to the compositions of the drilling solutions for initial exposing of the productive formations with the abnormal low bed pressure and to the compositions of liquids for evoking influx in development of the oil and gas wells. The composition contains the foaming agent, foam stabiliser, gas-forming components and water; biopolymer and carboxymethyl cellulose are used as stabiliser, sodium carbonate or hydrocarbonate and sulfamic acid are used as the gas-forming components at the following ratio, in mass percent: 0.2-0.5 of foaming agent; 0.3-0.5 of biopolymer; 0.7-0.9 of carboxymethyl cellulose; 0.38-1.60 of sodium carbonate or hydrocarbonate; 0.68-3.00 of sulfamic acid; remaining - water.
EFFECT: increased stability of foam for initial exposing of the productive formations at low density, filtration, high rheologic characteristics of the structure and lack of solid.
FIELD: oil and gas production industry, particularly oil and gas well construction, namely methods or apparatus for flushing boreholes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves removing mud filter cake; creating mudding screen by water-jet well bore wall treatment; chemically treating well bore walls by serially forcing buffer process water taken in amount of not less than 2 m3, aqueous CaCl2 solution or reservoir Devonian fluid taken in amount of not less than 2 m3 in casing annulus to obtain equilibrium state; injecting aqueous liquid glass solution including 4-8 kg of polymeric reagent per 30-50 l of aqueous liquid glass in amount of not less than 3 m3; bringing thereof to ground surface.
EFFECT: increased reliability of small pore and fissure plugging in reservoirs in well bore zone without local hydraulic fracturing creation; provision of adhesive drilling mud film modification on well wall.
FIELD: oil industry, possible use when drilling well on pressure drawdown.
SUBSTANCE: method includes assembling drilling column, organizing circulation along drilling column and behind-pipe space with use of gas, drilling project interval with buildup of drilling column. In accordance to invention drilling column includes serially positioned check valves. Drilling of project interval is performed in one slotting without extraction of drilling column. Before each growth of drilling column, well is washed by forcing nitrogen gas into it and periodical reciprocation of drilling column for maximally possible height from condition of removal of mudding elements from well. Gas is fed into pipe space. Oil is added to pipe space. Behind-pipe space is pressurized for period of growth of drilling column or interruptions in work. Drilling column is grown. Behind-pipe space is depressurized and well drilling is continued until new growth of drilling column. During whole drilling cycle pressure in bed is kept below bed pressure.
EFFECT: increased quality of opening of productive bed when drilling on pressure drawdown.
FIELD: mining, particularly well completion means and productive reservoir penetration.
SUBSTANCE: method for exposing productive reservoir with the use of optimal complex well drilling technique in oil field at later operation stage involves limiting drilling rig lowering speed up to 0.7 m/sec; limiting axial load and mechanical drilling speed; minimizing runs due to usage of highly-productive bits without water-jet heads along with minimum acceptable shush pump capacities; performing well flushing during drilling equipment lowering at every 500 m depth. Drilling mud comprises carboxymethyl cellulose in amount of 0.5-1.0% by weight, surfactant in amount of 0.01-0.03% by weight, mineral salt in amount of 0.2-0.7% by weight, chalk in amount of 15.0-30.0% by weight, alkali in amount of 0.05-0.1% by weight, condensed spent sulfite-alcohol liquor in amount of 0.5-0.9% by weight and flotation reagent in amount of 0.1-1.0% by weight, remainder is water. The drilling mud may also have powder clay taken in amount of 5.0-7.0% by weight.
EFFECT: reduced bottom zone mudding and increased efficiency of following productive bed treatment with hydrochloric acid due to increased fullness of chalk solution in productive reservoirs, reduced hydrochloric acid consumption.
2 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: mining, construction and geological survey, particularly to drill hard rock or concrete with diamond drilling tools.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying diamond drilling crown action to well bottom and disintegrating rock with diamond drilling crown along with well purging with air flow, wherein granular or powder Wood's alloy is added to purging air flow on day surface in amount of 50-100 g per 1 m3 of air.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of drilling crown cooling, reduced purging agent losses during well drilling in lost-circulation zones, increased drilling speed and improved borings removal from well bottom.
FIELD: well drilling equipment, particularly for flushing boreholes using liquids and gases, for instance foams.
SUBSTANCE: well drilling plant is drilling rig comprising two compressors used for foam preparation. The plant has hoisting unit, rotary device to rotate drill column having swivel, low pressure air pump and circulation system having foam generation device, foam breakdown unit and sludge separator. Foam generation device has booster with hydraulic seal and with reciprocating pumping unit, as well as force pump for hydraulic seal forming. Booster communicates with mixing vessel from one booster side and with sludge separator from another side thereof. The mixing vessel has swivel and inlet means for emulsifier. The mixing vessel is connected with the booster through fluid flow rate and density metering unit. The sludge separator communicates with the booster through control throttle and is connected with well head through foam breakdown booster including low pressure degassing separation means and demulsifying agent supply means and with the booster through supply pump. Low pressure air pump communicates with the booster through gas-separation membrane assembly. Foam breakdown unit communicates with hydrocarbon gas combustion means, which combusts hydrocarbon gas as it comes from the well. Well head equipment includes well head sealer, for instance rotary preventer.
EFFECT: possibility to drill long wells during opening of low-pressure hydrocarbon deposit due to high-pressure foam supplying to well face, prevention of explosive mixture formation as a result of hydrocarbon gas emission.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: closed circulation of drill mud is performed by volumetric type pump, included in assembly of drilling tool immediately before chisel. As a pump of volumetric type reversed screw face drive is used. Portion of rotations of drilling column is spent on rotation of screw pump rotor. Operation of rotor starts when load is applied to stator in form of hydraulic resistances to flow in drilling column, chisel and ring-shaped space and reaction of face during application of axial load to chisel. All power spent on drilling is transferred through drilling column to screw pump and chisel. Pressure of drill mud, fed by common slurry pump, on mouth in manifold, is minimal. Feeding of drill mud into manifold is performed in low-pressure mode. Aeration of drill mud is performed by feeding gas into manifold together with mud. Mouth bracing of drill plant made with possible control of well in case of fluid influxes is utilized. Operation of volumetric type pump is used to provide al hydraulic power, spent on circulation of drill mud, including compensation of hydraulic losses in drilling column, in ring-shaped space, in nozzles of chisel and with transfer of required hydraulic energy to provide hydro-monitoring effect of hydro-monitoring jets coming from chisel nozzles, and also hydraulic losses in mouth bracing of drilling plant.
EFFECT: lower energy costs, cheaper operation.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil production industry, particularly for constructing well in multihorizon field.
SUBSTANCE: method involves opening beds located above oil productive bed with the use of unaerated drilling mud having density more than necessary one to prevent blowout; opening productive bed with the use of aerated drilling mud having minimal density enough for drilling with blowout prevention, wherein polymer-carbonate mix is used as the drilling mud; performing deaeration of drilling mud by adding sodium tripolyphosphate to the drilling mud; opening beds located under oil productive one; forming drill sump and performing well flushing. One may change unaerated drilling mud into aerated one by adding soda ash and surfactant to non-aerated drilling mud upon productive bed reaching.
EFFECT: provision of selective affecting on beds.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling with washing of well face by polymer-argillaceous drilling mud with following admixture of filler with mudding properties into it, as said filler 1-10% of mud volume of dolomite or quartz powder is injected, containing evenly distributed small particles of size from 0.001 to 1 mm, and concurrently with washing of face, well walls are effected with high-pressure jet of drilling mud, containing said filler with mudding properties, for that assembly of lower portion of drilling tool includes a sub with side hydro-monitoring headpiece.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher effectiveness.
1 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid foaming agent for carrying over formation fluid from gas well and water/condensate mixture from gas condensate well. Solid foaming agent containing, wt %: carboxymethylcellulose 40.0-50.0, sodium sec-alkyl sulfate 35.0-45.0, and sodium sulfonate as anionic surfactant 25-35 additionally contains: disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as complexone 3.0-7,0, sodium carbonate as pH stabilizer 3.0-7.0, and foaming-enhancing detergent - the rest.
EFFECT: improved fluid-carrying ability.
SUBSTANCE: grouting compound contains, wt %: mineral binding agent - expanding alumina, gypsum alumina cement, portland cement, lime, salts of silicic or phosphoric acids or their mixture - 50-95, and expanding additive, which is a product of acid and/or base interaction with cement - 5-50. To produce compound expanding additive is prepared by acid and/or base interacting with cement in water-disperse medium, suspension curing, drying, milling and mechanical mixing all compound components.
EFFECT: prevention of all leaks and reinforcement of element fixing in construction structures.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex