Method of pumped storage
FIELD: construction; power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of pumped storage includes localisation of underground pumped storage, for example identification of depth and volume of water formations or natural or commercial underground pressure-tight vessels, underground vessel pumping with water by pressure well due to either pressure created while free-flow water running in well, or when water is pumped. The hydraulic power well, which is also a water conduit, is drilled to water drain for example to culvert or water removal or absorption area. Hydraulic power well is selected so that it could cross or link with underground hydraulic storage vessel above water drain. Water level in hydraulic power well is to be above water drain, for example culvert roof or water removal or absorption area. Hydraulic power well is drilled so that it could accommodate hydraulic power set below water level or provide for hydraulic power set installing in culvert with connection to well outlet. Electrical cable or pipeline for selected energy resource transporting is installed in hydraulic power well from hydraulic power set to energy consumer. Surface water may be used for storage. Surface water is occurred during freshet periods due to, for example pressure well connection with surface ponds. This connection of hydraulic storage vessel with water drain area may be terminated in the required periods using, for example extractable packer, installed in hydraulic power well below the point of underground hydraulic storage connection.
EFFECT: potential of using water from underground hydraulic storage to generate energy resources, thermal or electrical energy.
3 cl, 6 dwg
The method of generation; pumped storage; relates to energy and can be used to enable use of the potential accumulated in the tank underground generation; pumped storage; water for subsequent production of energy (heat or electricity) in the conditions in which the surface hidroakumuliacine is technically difficult to implement, economically or environmentally inappropriate or invalid.
The known method of surface accumulation of water by creating rivers dam storage reservoir (Malinin NICHOLAS Theoretical fundamentals of hydraulic engineering. M, Energoatomizdat, 1985, ). The water level in the reservoir (upstream of the dam) is higher than the level on the downstream side, and the difference of these levels, a component of hydroelectric power, is the energy intierra base hydropower facilities, such as hydroelectric power. But this method of surface generation; pumped storage; has drawbacks.
The disadvantage of this method generation; pumped storage; is that to provide hydraulic and electrical power hydroelectric power station by increasing the pressure of the natural source of water, usually a river, for the education of the reservoir required the construction of a dam. The dam hydroelectric-activity cost. In addition, when the equipment of the dam and the consequent increase of water level with its pressure side connected to the following negative consequences: flooding areas along the banks of the river, often representing fertile agricultural land; deforestation and the removal of economic activity of hunting grounds; environmental changes associated with the formation of reservoirs of large volumes; significant costs associated with the transfer of the settlements, engineering structures from the flood zone, and site preparation of the future reservoir. The negative effects linked well as the diversion of funds for the construction of a dam and a reservoir. In more negative consequences of building dams to create reservoirs occur in lowland areas. In the construction of dams on small rivers complexity of their operation in conditions of sharply continental climate is associated with seasonal changes - freezing rivers and their flood during the flood period. In addition, there is a method of generation; pumped storage; are used as source water, surface water, usually rivers, which significantly restricts the conditions for its application.
The known method of artificial regulation of groundwater by replenish their stocks (Gordeev PV, Samilkina VA, Shulakova O.K. Hydrogeology. M., "Higher school", 1990, str-325, ). The method includes work on artificial replenishment of groundwater reserves and pre is scheduled to increase operating margins for different types of water use, to compensate for the increased local groundwater abstraction in certain periods due to water underground tanks, which play the role of regulating reservoirs, and for mutual regulation of groundwater and surface water and the other Way is closest to the proposed and adopted for the prototype. It includes determining the location of the tanks underground generation; pumped storage; such as depth and volume of water enclosing rocks or underground, pressurized tanks natural or industrial executed, the drilling of the injection well or wells to her and communicated with a source of water, filling through the injection well capacity underground accumulation of water or due to the pressure of the free (non-pressure) flow of water in the well, or when it is injected.
There is a method of generation; pumped storage; adopted for the prototype, has a drawback. It is not possible to use the potential accumulated in the tank underground generation; pumped storage; water exercise to develop energy - electric or thermal energy.
The technical result, which is aimed by the invention is to eliminate typical known method of accumulating disadvantage is the possibility of using the potential of accumulare is Anna in the capacity of an underground accumulation of water to produce thermal or electrical energy.
This is achieved by the fact that in the known method generation; pumped storage; including positioning capacity generation; pumped storage; underground, such as depth and volume of water enclosing rocks or underground, pressurized tanks natural or industrial executed, the drilling of the injection well or wells to her and communicated with a source of water, filling through the injection well capacity underground accumulation of water or due to the pressure of the free (non-pressure) flow of water in the well, or when it is pumping, Buryats (or provide drilling) which conduit hydropower the well to water flow, such as tunnels or areas of her care (including acquisitions), and the track hydropower well chosen such that it is above the water flow was crossed capacity underground generation; pumped storage; or communicated with her, and when water levels in hydropower well provide higher water flow, for example the roof of the tunnel or its care (absorption), and the hydropower well perform with the possibility of installing it below the water level of gidroenergoproekta or install it, for example, in the tunnel with connecting it to the exit bore, and hydropower well either in the adit install the cable or t is unaproved for transportation of produced energy from gidroenergoproekta to energopotrebitel.
For generation; pumped storage; can be used for surface water generated during flood periods, for example, by indicating the capacity of generation; pumped storage; underground injection wells with surface waters during these periods.
In the required periods, the message capacity of the underground generation; pumped storage; zone water flow can be interrupted, for example, using retrievable packer installed in hydropower well below its message capacity underground generation; pumped storage;.
Drilling of additional hydropower well, which in its upper part communicates with the capacity of the underground generation; pumped storage; and in the bottom area of the water flow, allows you to generate the flow of water through the channel wells "top-down". However depending on the design of bore sizes, parameters describing the message capacity of the underground generation; pumped storage; with well, as well as the parameters of the zone of flow in the well is installed, the flow of water with a certain flow rate Q and the dynamic level Nd. Below Nd the flow of water is continuous. The pressure of the "pillar" of water flow NN is characterized by the distance from the dynamic level to the place (zone) water flow (or where possible install downhole gidroenergoproekta). The hydraulic capacity of the stream water is in the setup of gidroenergoproekta well N g(W) can be determined from the following expression (Karelin VA and other Hydroelectric station./Under the editorship of Prof. Karelin VA and Krivchenko GN. M, Energoatomizdat, 1987, ):
where P is the pressure of water flow in the installation place gidroenergoproekta, PA;
ρ - the density of water, kg/m3;
q is the acceleration of gravity, m/s2;
Q is the water flow rate, m3/s
Hydraulic power flow in the setup of gidroenergoproekta can be converted using downhole hydroelectric power plants, for example, U.S. patent (Generation of electricity during the injection of a denste fluid into a subterranean formation. Patent US 4132269 And CL. E 21 In 43/20, F 03 G 7/04, publ. 02.01.1979,, ) into electrical energy or using downhole hydrotalcite, for example, by analogy with teplovodenergiya well (the application for the invention of the Russian Federation "Teplovodenergiya well" 2005100306/03(000326), IPC E 03 In 3/00, F 24 H 4/02, author Elisha A.D. the Decision to grant a patent dated 23.05.2006,, ) into thermal energy.
In cases where the area of flow is perebranny roof below the gallery, can be simplified technical implementation of the process of ensuring the production of energy. This can be used for General industrial hydropower equipment not limited by the hole size (sravnenie with its installation in the borehole). In addition, the "spent" in hydroelectricity water then sent for water consumption are laid in the adit pipeline and is not withdrawn from circulation, as it often happens in the case of borehole installation.
Use for generation; pumped storage; surface water during flood periods, for example, by indicating the capacity of generation; pumped storage; underground injection wells with surface waters during these periods to reduce the amount of flood waters and the associated negative consequences from their influence.
Termination message capacity underground generation; pumped storage; zone water flow within the required periods, for example, when stopping the downhole gidroenergoproekta can reduce unsustainable water use.
Figure 1 shows the scheme of the proposed method generation; pumped storage;; figure 2 - schematic view of embodiment of a regulating device in the injection well; figure 3 - installation retrievable packer in hydropower well; figure 4 - installation diagram of the downhole hydroelectricity in hydropower well; figure 5 - diagram of the installation of a vortex generator in the adit; figure 6 - diagram of the installation of hydroelectricity in the tunnel.
Figure 1-6 introduced the following additional the of: 1 - the capacity of generation; pumped storage; underground; 2 - ground; 3 - surface water source; 4 - injection well, "cased" pipe, perforated at the top and bottom; 4.1 - perforated ring installed in the upper part of the casing injection wells; 4.2 - the perforations in the casing pipe and the ring; 5 - rotating perforated cylinder; 5.1 - punched holes in the rotary cylinder; 6 - hydropower well; 7 - the perforations in the lower part of the injection wells; 8 - the perforations in the lower part of the hydropower wells; 9 - downhole generator, anchor which is connected to the rotor of the turbine 10; 9.1 - cable, whereby the downhole power generator 9 is connected to formirovanie-switchgear 9.3; 9.2 - stops of the centralizer of the downhole power generator; 10 - downhole turbine; 10.1 - bearings; 10.2 - well hydropower flow after the downhole unit; 11 - speed extended section hydropower well in the place of installation of the downhole unit; 12 - gripping device (tip) for tripping, lifting the downhole unit; 13 - area runoff area (absorption); 14 - wall of the tunnel; 15 - vortex generator; 15.1 and 15.2 - shut-off and control bodies "before"and "after" vortex heat generator, respectively; 15.3 - pipe hot water from the vortex heat generator according to the adit to teplopotreblajus; 15.4, 15.5 and 15.6 - flow meter, manometer, thermometer in the pipeline at the outlet after vortex heat generator; a 16 - turbine; 16.1 and 16.2 - gate "before" and "after" of the turbine, respectively; 16.3 - pipe "exhaust" of water allocated by the adit to the surface or water; 17 - generator, the armature of which is connected with the rotor of the turbine; 17.1 - cable for transmission generated by the generator 17 of the electricity in the tunnel to formirovanie-switchgear; 18 - extracted from wells packer adapter; 18.1 - cylinder; 18.2 - piston; 18.3 - emphasis; 18.4 - hole; 18.5 - nut; 18.6 - core; 18.7 - collet retainer; 18.8 and 18.10 - push and thrust flanges; 18.9 - rubber seal.
In the practical implementation of the proposed method generation; pumped storage; select the appropriate geological environment in the earth. Increasingly acceptable for this are sandstones, outsole which presents water-resistant rocks, such as clays. In this example, the capacity of the underground generation; pumped storage; (next EPG) - 1 - represented by Sandstone, below which is clay. To the EPG drilled injection wells 4. The bottom of the casing injection wells 4 preparerow the n holes 7. The upper part of the casing injection wells also perforated holes. At the upper end of the casing injection wells 4 installed and fixed by welding perforated ring 4.1, holes 4.2 which align with the holes in the casing pipe injection wells 4. With a perforated ring 4.2 paired rotary perforated cylinder 5 with perforations 5.1 figure 2 - (a node I, figure 1). Moreover, in one position of the rotary perforated cylinder 5 5.1 holes in it and the holes in the casing pipe injection wells 4 are the same - the "open"position and in another position do not coincide - the "closed"position. The position of the rotary cylinder 5 is achieved by the regulation, including the implementation of the water supply, or the termination of a water source 3 to the injection well 4 and later in the EPG. The water in the well is moving from a source of water down it and through the perforations in the lower part of the tube enters the permeable interval EPG. Driving force for implementation the movement of water and fill the permeable interval EPG is either the pressure of the water stream formed by the free movement of water (from a water source, down to the EPG), or, if conditions warrant it, the pump unit (conventionally not shown). Similar designs and other injection wells at wells are channels of water flowing from the source 3 in the EPG. The EPG via injection wells are filled with water.
For the production of energy - electricity or thermal energy by using the proposed method generation; pumped storage; it also provides for the drilling (or designing drilling) hydropower wells 6. The trajectory of her route is that it peleburan EPG and then she drilled to a zone of discharge. Area runoff is either the absorption zone 13, or the galleries (site III in figure 1, POS figure 5 and 6). In the output range EPG hydropower well 6 lined pipe, in which the perforated interval.
Water filled her EPG 7 through the perforations in hydropower wells 5 comes into it and then it moves down the channel of the well to the zone of flow 13. In the absence of the well or in the underlying tunnel gidroenergoproekta (or for other reasons stop energy use downhole hydropower flow) flow in the borehole below the EPG block retrievable packer (Volkov, A.S., Tevzadze, R.N. Plugging exploration wells. M., Nedra, 1986, str, RES., ) figure 3 - site II in figure 1. When installing a packer him down in the hole without rotation to a predetermined depth. The weight indicator drilling rig to determine the weight of the tool and the string of drill pipe pump pump water up to D. the effect of 2.5-3.0 MPa, so the piston 18.2 moves to the lowest position and transmits the pressure to the flange 18.8. Rubber element 18.9 shrinks and closes the wellbore. In this lock securely holds the sealing element in a compressed state and is a device that overlap with the wellbore. It stops the movement of water from an EPG in the area of flow and provides water conservation, eliminating unproductive it (water) loss.
To raise the extracted node of the packer from the well to reduce the hydraulic pressure within the drill pipe string, attaching the axial load 8-12 kN with simultaneous right rotation. After separation of the two nodes of the packer is retrieved node is lifted from the well.
To generate electricity using downhole hydro (site III in figure 1) in hydropower well below the EPG over the area of the flow set downhole unit, shown in figure 4. For this step the expanded bore hole 11 using the main winch with special managed capture down the unit representing the United downhole generator 9 and the turbine 10. After run and set in place the unit capture winch disconnect from the tip 12. Simultaneously with the lowering into the well of the unit using the second l is bedke, parallel with the main winch, well down the electric cable electric generator, the other end of which is connected to formirovanie-switchgear 9.3 installed on the surface. After installation of the downhole unit in the well it is working, the principle of which consists in the following. Under the influence of water flow in the well of the turbine rotor 10 rotates, the rotation from it is transmitted is connected to the anchor downhole generator 9. Last produced electricity, which cable 9.1 transmitted to formirovanie-switchgear 9.3 installed on the surface. The downhole power generator is made of oil-filled.
Thus, in the present invention water from a surface source 3 through injection wells 4 (in this example, the bore diameter of 89 mm 12 pieces) through the perforations 7 is fed in the EPG, fills it, forming underground water reserves.
In this example, the EPG is located at a depth of 320 m, its length is 530 m, and the capacity of 80-90 meters the Amount of water that can be allocated EPG, is 0.68 m3.
Hydropower hole 6 drilled with a diameter of 240 mm, its depth amounted to 772 m
After estanblishing unit under hydropower well in its operation of the EPG it enters the water, which establishes the flow of water with a flow rate of Q=0.02 m3/c. In the well established dynamic level Hd=322 m Level pressure Hn=450 m
Taking into account the established parameters of water flow in a borehole, according to the formula (1) can be determined by its hydraulic capacity, which is
For this example: ρ=103kg/m3; q=9.8 m/s2; Nn=450 m; Q=0.02 m3/s After substituting in the formula will get
Ng=103kg/m3· 9.8 m/s2· 450 m · 0.02 m3= 88200 W = 88,2 kW.
Thus, the hydraulic power flow in hydropower well in zone water flow is 88.2 kW.
With this amount of water equal to Q=0.02 m3/s, the volume of accumulated water in the EPG enough to work for 393 days. While at rated load unit using accumulated in the EPG water (0,68 m3) will be developed 513860 kW·h of electricity.
When using downhole hydroelectric power plants, for example, U.S. patent (Generation of electricity during the injection of a denste fluid into a subterranean formation. Patent US 4132269 And class. E 21 In 43/20, F 03 G 7/04, publ. 02.01.1979,, ) achievable with its efficiency, equal η=(0,75-0,85) at its output, the above hydraulic flow, can the t to be generated electric energy capacity of N e=65 kW. The electricity produced by an electrical cable 9.1 (1), hydropower installed in the well, is transmitted to the surface to formirovanie-switchgear 9.3.
In the well can be installed and borehole vortex generator of the disc type, for example (application for invention of the Russian Federation "Teplovodenergiya well" 2005100306/03(000326), IPC E 03 In 3/00, F 24 H 4/02, author Elisha A.D. the Decision to grant a patent dated 23.05.2006,, ), the hot water which flows in the downstream zone of the flow represented by galleries, which further established the pipeline to teplopotreblajus. The power generated from this thermal energy can be determined on the basis of the above hydraulic power flow in the borehole and the efficiency of the vortex heat generator.
Installing gidroenergoproekta possible and in the downstream zone of the flow represented by galleries (site IV in figure 1), in particular vortex heat-generator - 5 - or hydroelectricity - 6, this can be achieved by a technical advantage. It lies in the fact that for the production of energy can be used equipment, including General, the dimensions of which are not limited by the hole size (in comparison with a variant of its installation in the borehole). Another Avenue is the property of this scheme is that water after gidroenergoproektom not lost in the absorption zone, and the pipe installed in the tunnel, she goes to water or teplopotreblajus and not withdrawn from circulation.
In addition to the technical result, which is provided by the invention, its use allows you to:
to create hydropower potential without flooding and removal from land surface lands and territories, which is typical for dam storage create carrying;
to create hydropower potential and unproblematic to use it year-round in conditions of sharply continental climate, this allows you to be free from the known difficulties arising from the operation of dam storage of small and micro hydropower plants on small rivers in winter periods, including those associated with the freezing of watercourses;
- flood periods to accumulate water in the tanks underground generation; pumped storage; and to reduce the amount of flood flooding and to reduce the negative effects of flood flows (floods, destruction and other), and in mountain conditions - mud.
It is known (Pekhtin V.A., Fedorov LM, tolchenov AV, Murin L.A., Zwick A.M. to convert the energy of water for hydropower in the energy of hydrogen. The journal "Hydraulic engineering", №1, 2006, p.33., , that more than 50 % of the annual water flow is formed in the flood period. The accumulation of water during flood periods (usually spring and summer periods of the year) allows you to create an inventory for later use during peak demand generated using the accumulated water resources (usually autumn and winter periods of the year, in particular, for heat generation). Underground hidroakumuliacine allows, to a certain extent, to eliminate the contradiction arising from the fact that the greatest influx of water occurs in the summer season, and the greatest demand for energy that can be produced using water and gidroenergoproekta in autumn-winter. This preemptive circumstance it is important to use the inventions in the areas of so-called Northern territories, and its use will reduce the volumes of supplies of fuel and, consequently, reduce the cost of implementation of the Northern territories.
The use of the invention allows to expand possibilities of use of non-conventional renewable energy sources (RES).
The method can be used for non-energy purposes.
Sources of information
1. Malinin NICHOLAS Theoretical foundations of hydrate is Nicky. M, Energoatomizdat, 1985
2. Gordeev PV, Samilkina VA, Shulakova O.K. Hydrogeology. M., "Higher school", 1990, str-325.
3. Karelin VA and other Hydroelectric station./Under the editorship of Prof. Karelin VA and Krivchenko GN. M, Energoatomizdat, 1987
4. Generation of electricity during the injection of a denste fluid into a subterranean formation. Patent US 4132269 And class. E 21 In 43/20, F 03 G 7/04, publ. 02.01.1979,
5. The application for the invention of the Russian Federation "Teplovodenergiya well" 2005100306/03(000326), IPC E 03 In 3/00, F 24 H 4/02, author Elisha A.D. the Decision to grant a patent dated 23.05.2006,
6. Volkov, A.S., Tevzadze, R.N. Plugging exploration wells. M., Nedra, 1986, str, RES.
7. The Pekhtin V.A., Fedorov LM, tolchenov AV, Murin L.A., Zwick A.M. to convert the energy of water for hydropower in the energy of hydrogen. The journal "Hydraulic engineering", №1, 2006, p.33.
1. The method of generation; pumped storage; including positioning capacity underground generation; pumped storage; for example, the depth and volume of water enclosing rocks or underground pressurized tanks, natural or industrial executed, the drilling of the injection well or wells and the message source water filling through injection well capacity generation; pumped storage; underground water, either due to the pressure of the free, i.e. free-flow movement of water in the well, is because when it is pumping, characterized in that the Buryats are the conduit hydropower the well to water flow, such as tunnels or areas of her care or absorption, and track hydropower well chosen such that it is above the water flow was crossed capacity underground generation; pumped storage; or communicated with her, and when water levels in hydropower well provide higher water flow, for example the roof of the tunnel or its care or absorption, and the hydropower well perform with the possibility of installing it below the water level of gidroenergoproekta or install it, for example, in the tunnel with connecting it to the exit bore, and hydropower the well or in the adit install the cable or pipeline for the transportation of produced energy from gidroenergoproekta to energopotrebitel.
2. The method of generation; pumped storage; according to claim 1, characterized in that to accumulate use surface water formed during flood periods, for example, by the message injection wells with surface waters during these periods.
3. The method of generation; pumped storage; according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the required periods interrupt message capacity underground generation; pumped storage; zone water flow, for example, using retrievable packer, the mouth of aliveyoga in hydropower well below its message capacity underground generation; pumped storage;.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydropower engineering and can be used to support work of borehole hydropower plants, in particular, thermo water-supply wells and borehole hydroelectric stations. The method includes drilling a well until the zone of loss is reached; connecting a well with a surface reservoir providing the possibility of water control or/and with water-bearing intervals drilled by well, in its upper part, and with the zone of loss, in its lower part; installing either a hydropower plant or an imitator of its resistance, which corresponds to the typical operation of a hydropower plant, in the lower part of a well. For dynamic behavior of a well, the height of dynamic level in a well Hdl (m) is defined; the height of pressure level Hdp is calculated according to the following formula: Hdp (m) =Lhpp-Hdl, where Lhpp is the distance between the mouth of a well and the location of a hydropower plant inside a well, m. Thereafter, spinner survey of the area spread from the dynamic level to the location of a hydropower plant is carried out. The hydraulic horsepower of a flux in the place of a hydropower plant installation Nh is calculated according to the following formula: Nh=p·q·Hdp·Qhpp, where Nh is hydraulic horsepower of water flux inside a well in the place of a hydropower plant installation, W; Qhpp is water loss in the place of a hydropower plant installation, m3/s (from a diagram of spinner survey); p is water density, kg/m3; q is acceleration of gravity, m/s2.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of defining hydraulic horsepower of a flux inside a well under different mining hydro geological technical conditions; possibility to forecast and prove methods for improving formation of hydropower fluxes inside energy producing wells.
3 cl, 5 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: construction, water engineering.
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to hydrotechnical and hydraulic power construction. The facility contains a hydraulic unit attached to a flexible blanket, a flexible apron, and the bed using channel anchors, and a water-retaining shell attached to the hydraulic unit using a rigid mounting assembly, and to the onshore anchoring supports with a cable system. In the first version, the cable system is equipped with additional longitudinal and transversal cables for the shaping of the water-retaining shell providing the calculated vertical compression of the flow and minimum head loss. In the second version, flexible plates are installed at the approach to the hydraulic unit for the provision of gradual lateral compression of the flow; the plates are secured to the rigid mounting assembly, bed slopes, and the flexible apron using anchors with tighteners providing pretensioning of the longitudinal cables. For the water-retaining shell stability and elimination of its vibrations, the facility is equipped with transversal stiffeners following the contour of the calculated cross section of the water-retaining shell and attached, along the perimeter, to the bed anchors with stay cables, the water-retaining shell from the headwater side, and the hydraulic unit using the rigid mounting assembly; and longitudinal stiffeners attached to the flexible plates, longitudinal cables, transversal stiffeners, and the water-retaining shell using flexible connections. In the third version, with small spans and stable bank slopes, the cable system is equipped with additional longitudinal cables for the shaping of the water-retaining shell providing the calculated vertical compression of the flow and minimum head loss. In the fourth version, for better stability of the structure, better tension of the longitudinal cables, and quick construction, extendable arms are installed along the upper and lower edges of the water-retaining shell; the arm ends are connected to the flexible plates. In the fifth version, the water-retaining shell consists of flexible strips or shapes attached to an elastic web from two sides, through which longitudinal cables pass for giving the shell a fantail shape; the flexible strips are installed at an angle to the flow to ensure the calculated shape of the water-retaining shell. In the sixth version, the water-retaining shell is designed as a closed fillable shell taking the calculated shape when filled with water or other filler through filling devices, and is secured with one longitudinal cable passing along its top. For fish protection, some versions have fish passes in the water-retaining shell, while the other versions have fishways at the hydraulic unit edges. For the protection of the hydraulic unit and the additional attachment of the cable system, a protection screen is installed.
EFFECT: construction of temporary water utilisation system for local power supply, irrigation, water supply, fish farming, and fire protection.
6 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly intake structures to take water for economic needs.
SUBSTANCE: front-entrance river water intake comprises spillway dam and water intake with two or more parallel setting chambers and transversal water-accumulation gutter having bottom located over water surface during setting chamber flushing. Width of side setting chamber in plane view in stream direction gradually increases in accordance with the equation y=(2h/S2 ch)(x2/2), where h is assumed expansion in the end of side setting chamber, Sch -s length of side setting chamber. Side walls of transversal water-accumulation gutter may rotate about fixed axis by means of driving mechanism.
EFFECT: possibility to increase water cleaning efficiency due to transversal water-accumulation gutter wall rotation and possibility of water taking from upper, clean, layers inside setting chambers.
FIELD: water-power plants, layout, construction or equipment, methods of, or apparatus for, making same.
SUBSTANCE: water-power plant comprises hydraulic turbine installed at turbine pipeline outlet and provided with generator, receiving chamber, shutoff fittings and compression station communicated with receiving chamber through air channel comprising check valve. Turbine pipeline is connected with storage facility. Air channel is located over hydraulic turbine. One level sensor is arranged in receiving chamber, another one is installed in storage facility. Plant body is made as vertical cylindrical shell and cylinder installed in the shell and spaced apart therefrom. Cylindrical shell and cylinder define composite channel, which connects receiving chamber with storage facility. Upper cylinder part is bent through 90° for liquid discharge into storage facility. Upper cylinder end has two orifices, namely air bleeding one and filling orifice for storage facility filling. Magnets are arranged along end perimeter and along perimeter of upper part of inner cylindrical chamber side. Upper storage facility part is located inside upper cylinder part. Lower storage facility part is funnel-shaped and is connected with turbine pipeline in center thereof. Upper part of turbine pipeline passes in vertical cylindrical body for shutoff fitting receiving. Receiving chamber body is made as funnel expanding downwards and having edges connected with lower cylinder part. Upper funnel part is oval and receives turbine pipeline outlet, hydraulic turbine and generator. Turbine blades have magnets. The shutoff fitting is cap installed inside vertical cylindrical shell having liquid circulation orifices in lower part thereof. The cap is connected to electric drive rod. The liquid is ferrofluid.
EFFECT: decreased liquid volume used to generate electric power.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures for electric power generation and shore protection against storm.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises load-bearing reinforced concrete structure shaped as support cellular boom and floating means made as landing-stage provided with generator and turbines installed on the landing-stage. Support cellular boom and floating means are connected with each other by means of guiding structure of composite material placed in metal case formed as ramp. Landing-stage is shaped as three-dimensional structure of composite material, namely as triangular or polyhedral prism, which defines closed space with opened cavities communicated with each other and used as pneumatic generators. The landing-stage is connected to guiding ramp by means of hinges spaced apart in vertical direction and creating rigidity triangle. The ramp is fastened to load-bearing structure by means of rigid tie. Generator turbines are communicated with opened landing-stage cavity through inlet and outlet air ducts. Boom cells are hollow and adapted to be filled with water ballast. The cells are supported and unsupported and connected with each other by means of reinforced concrete panel.
EFFECT: possibility of wave usage for electric power generation along with shore protection, possibility to use the system as artificial island, for instance for seaside recreation and entertainment.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroelectric power station is designed for power generation using energy of flow spring or river. Proposed hydroelectric power station includes diversion dam, diversion cone, head, conduit, action turbine, current generator with drive. Diversion cone is made only in horizontal plane, input of bottom spillway and input of diversion cone are arranged in one plane and heat room is installed over them on top of dam, whose wall pointed to side of water storage is arranged before dam, and its lower edge is deepened to value of freezing of water storage. Action turbine is made in form of disk with volute buckets. Each nozzle of head conduit is made in for, of cone connected with gate of head conduit trough intermediate link of conduit. Additional dc generator is used as braking system to stabilize speed of action turbine. Shaft of said generator is coupled with shaft of main generator, and current from three-phase circuit of main generator is supplied to field winding of additional generator through diode bridge. Moreover, rheostat is used in field winding control circuit of main generator controlled by centrifugal pusher, for instance, of Watt system whose shaft is also coupled with shaft of main generator.
EFFECT: increased power output and provision of constant frequency of current.
FIELD: hydroenergetics, particularly water-power plants, namely pumped-storage plants, which generate power in on-peak period.
SUBSTANCE: pumped-storage station comprises upper and lower accumulation pools connected with each other by means of pressure waterway, hydroelectric generators and supplementary equipment. Upper accumulation pool is arranged in completed breakage heading of upper horizon adjoining shaft or in waste dump formed on ground surface during deposit development. Lower accumulation pool is located in completed breakage heading of lower horizon adjoining the shaft. Each accumulation pool located in completed breakage heading is made as breakage headings communicated with each other through cross headings passing through barrier pillars in upper and lower parts thereof. The breakage headings are separated from active mines with water-tight partitions and connected with atmosphere through inclined cross-headings extending from the shaft. Hydroelectric generators are installed in headings made at shaft bottom in lower horizon. Pressure waterway is arranged in shaft.
EFFECT: decreased costs for pumped-storage plant erection.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for automatic cleaning of water exploited from opened water pools of rubbish and filamentous alga.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises cylindrical drum with perforated shell. The cylindrical drum is linked to inlet pipe of pump and is arranged in water intake chamber so that the drum may be rotated by drive. The device also has rubbish removal means made as spring-loaded cutter. The cutter has blade cooperating with the shell. The device also has rubbish removal means and perforated flushing pipeline. The cylindrical drum with perforated shell is partly submersed in water intake chamber and arranged on inlet pipe across water flow so that the drum may rotate around the inlet pipe by means of drive operated by control unit of the device. Perforated drum shell is provided with concave non-perforated surface, which defines rubbish removal tray installed along longitudinal axis of filter. Perforated flushing pipeline arranged in the drum has jet-forming flutes, which create flushing water cone from inner side of perforated shell in front of cutter, which is located on perforated shell part not submersed in water intake chamber. Perforated flushing pipeline is hydraulically communicated with pressure pipeline by means of hydraulic line arranged in inlet pipe. The hydraulic line passes into the inlet pipe on ground surface and projects from the inlet pipeline inside cylindrical drum chamber. Washing-out perforated pipeline with jet-forming flutes is arranged on outer side of cylindrical drum. The jet-forming flutes of the washing-out pipeline create flushing stream to wash away rubbish from rubbish removal tray. Flushing and washing-out pipelines are provided with pipeline operation control sensors. Flushing pipeline sensor is linked to water level sensor, which determines water level in water intake chamber and in cylindrical drum and operates cylindrical drum drive through control unit. Washing-out pipeline sensor is connected to position sensor of cylindrical drum through the control unit. The position sensor is made as magnetically operated sealed switch installed in inlet pipe and cooperating with magnet secured to rubbish removal tray end facing inlet pipe. The inlet pipe is provided with water intake bell. Time relay is included in magnetically operated sealed switch and control unit circuit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced costs of water cleaning.
FIELD: hydraulic and hydraulic power building, particularly to erect water-retaining structure, for instance to erect small-scale emergency mobile hydraulic power plants, which use flow kinematic energy.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron in water stream channel, wherein the flexible apron comprises flexible upstream apron and flexible downstream apron; fastening apron to water stream channel bed by anchors; connecting water-discharge means provided with hydroelectric generating set installed in water-discharge means to flexible downstream apron; securing water-retaining shell along with rope system fastened to anchor supports to water-discharge means, wherein water-retaining shell is attached to anchors by flexible stay system.
EFFECT: increased reliability of protection against emergency situations, reduced costs and labor inputs for structure erection.
FIELD: methods or layout of installations for water supply, particularly for plants, which generate thermal energy and electric power with the use of solid fuel, prevention of natural water resource contamination with suspended solids and hazardous chemical compositions.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises sewage tank, runoff ditch, filtering dam, reagent preparation and supply station, floccule forming device, floccule distribution device, which distributes floccules over runoff ditch width, water deposit structure, sorption filter and water cleaning complex, which cleans water in winter period. Complex includes ground and sorption chambers and underground pipeline. Above components are arranged in series downstream the filtering dam and arranged below seasonal ground freezing level. Water deposit structure comprises primary and fine cleaning ground chambers. Bases of filtering dam, ground and sorption chambers and underground pipeline are on one level. Floccule forming device is made as multistage zigzag gutter.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and ecological safety, possibility to use ecologically clear natural materials for system construction.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.
EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.
EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.
24 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.
EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.
EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.
27 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.
EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.
7 cl, 8 dwg