Device for measuring reeving repitition factor
FIELD: physics; transportation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises an information processing and signal generating device, which is connected to a capacitive, inductive or ultrasonic primary detector, put onto a holder and linked to runners. The detector comprises transmitting and receiving elements, connected to a generator and to an amplifying converter device, comprising an analogue-to-digital converter, microcontroller and a wired or wireless interface device, and is part of the information processing and signal generating device. The device can also have a detector for the inclination angle of the rope.
EFFECT: wider range of external conditions for operation of the device, tolerance to vibration action, simple servicing, increased efficiency, and wider functional capabilities of the device.
7 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to a lifting-transport equipment and can be used in security systems, lifting equipment from overloads.
It is known that lifting machines multiplicity (or degree) of hoist winch part or the boom of the polyspast must match the load on the sheave pulleys.
In security systems, lifting equipment is used, as a rule, manually set the multiplicity of Spasovka of the polyspast. After changing the boom system operator in manual mode using the controls located on the information-management unit implemented on the basis of the microcontroller that carries out input in the system of protection of the actual value ratio of Spasovka of the polyspast. The value entered is stored in the memory information control unit and then used the system protection, .
The disadvantage of this system is the ability to input by the operator incorrect values multiplicity Spasovka of the polyspast and, accordingly, reduced safe working load-lifting machines. If the operator entered value multiplicity Spasovka in excess of the actual, the security system does not prevent the accident, lifting machine, caused by excessive load on the cargo (or:) the rope.
Closest to the proposed device is the creation for measuring the ratio of Spasovka of the polyspast, implemented in the system (device) safety crane, made using processing of optical images. The known device is a vision system and contains video camera (primary optical converters), which forms a video image of the polyspast, and an electronic device that processes video images, and generation of output signals in the form of electronic unit on specialized integrated circuits or on the microcontroller. The multiplicity of Spasovka of the polyspast is determined in the analysis of stereo images by counting the number of branches rope .
The disadvantages of this device are restricted conditions or the range of his work on lifting the car due to the malfunction of the optical system in the presence of interference in its work area - tree branches, rain, snow, etc. as well as high sensitivity to the effects of machine vibrations on the camera, resulting in a loss of image clarity. Another drawback is the need for maintenance - periodic cleaning of the optical system from dirt, snow, frost, rain, etc. This device has also increased the complexity and thus lower reliability and high power consumption and the high complexity of the processing algorithms, video and correspondingly increasing demands for computing resources of the electronic device, carrying out this processing.
The technical task, which is aimed at solving the claimed invention, are:
- expansion of the range of external conditions on health hoisting machine, in particular ensuring efficiency in the presence of about polyspast branches of trees, rain, snow, etc.;
- ensuring insensitivity to vibration;
- simplification or elimination of maintenance on lifting machine;
- improved reliability by reducing the hardware complexity of the device and the exclusion of the influence of optical interference at his work;
- increase efficiency;
- expand the functionality of the device.
In the device for measuring the ratio of Spasovka of the polyspast containing electronic device processing and generating signals and the primary measuring transducer, configured to interact with the ropes and connected to the electronic processing device and signal conditioning, a technical problem solved by the fact that the primary measuring transducer is made capacitive, or inductive, or ultrasonic.
This Converter contains, in particular, the radiating and receiving elements, and the electronic processing device and a signal - generate the R, connected to the radiating element, and an amplifier-rectifier device, an input connected to the receiver element. Amplifier-Converter device can be made on the basis of the analog-to-digital Converter connected to the microcontroller or microcontroller with integrated analog-to-digital Converter. Its composition may include an interface device that is connected to the microcontroller and configured to wired or wireless transmission of the output data.
Problem solving can be achieved by performing the primary measuring Converter with the ability to interact with a movable yoke sheave pulleys, and an electronic device processing and generating signals accordingly, with the possibility of the formation of the output signal of the position of the cage, in particular its limit position, and/or by equipping the device sensor of the angle of the rope that is connected to an amplifier-Converter device.
The sensor of the angle of the rope can have two execution, and an amplifier-rectifier device with the ability to determine the angle of the rope γ by converting the output signals α and β this sensor according to the formula γ=(α2+β2)↑1/
In addition, to achieve these objectives the device can additionally be equipped with a sensor tension connected with an electronic device processing and signal conditioning. This sensor, in particular, contains the device forming the deflection of the rope and the load device is arranged to measure the recovery efforts straight provisions of this rope.
In any case the proposed device for the tasks in the primary measuring transducer can be placed on the shroud covering the rope, and with flexible or articulated suspension, and this Converter and electronic device processing and generating signals can be constructively combined.
Because of those distinctive characteristics in the proposed device provides non-contact measurement of multiplicity Spasovka of the polyspast without using an optical system that allows you to expand the range of external conditions on health hoisting machine, in particular in the presence of about polyspast branches of trees, rain, snow, etc. In the prototype for counting multiplicity Spasovka of the polyspast need video high time is right, what prevents vibration transmitted from the engine working machine on the camcorder. This isn't a requirement in the proposed device, which makes it insensitive to the effects of vibrations.
It is also clear that when using the proposed device, there is no need to keep it clean, which makes it easier and, in some cases, eliminates the need for maintenance on lifting machine. The transition to a more simple algorithms of signal processing can also improve the reliability of the device by reducing its hardware complexity and lower power consumption.
Therefore, the distinguishing features of the proposed invention are in direct causal connection with the decision of both the main and additional technical tasks.
Figure 1 as an example of one possible functional diagrams of a device for measuring the ratio of Spasovka of the polyspast. Figure 2 - dependence of the output signal of the capacitive transducer from the multiplicity of Spasovka rope and the distance to a mobile holder of the polyspast. Figure 3 is a similar dependencies when using inductive or ultrasonic transducer.
Device for measuring the ratio of Spasovka rope 1 polyspast contains electronic the e-processing device and a signal-2 and contactless capacitive, inductive or ultrasonic primary measuring transducer 3, containing, in particular, radiating (transmitting) 4 and receiving 5 elements (figure 1).
The electronic processing device and a signal-2 contains the generator 6, is connected by its output to the radiating element 4, and an amplifier-rectifier device, an input connected to the receiver element 5. Amplifier-Converter device can be made on the basis of the analog-to-digital Converter 7 connected to the microcontroller 8, or a microcontroller with integrated analog-to-digital Converter.
The structure of this device may include an interface unit 9, providing wired or wireless transmission of measurements or control signals to any external device. The interface device 9 provides the coordination logic level input and output signals of the microcontroller 8 with external devices and based on the front-end chips. Transmission can be carried out using separate wires on the multiplex channel of communication (CAN, LIN, RS-485 etc), and/or over the air (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, GSM, CDMA etc). In the latter case, the device is equipped with an Autonomous power supply and a transceiver with a corresponding antenna.
When using the capacitive measuring principle radiating (transmitting) 4 and receiving 5 elements made in the form of metal electrodes, in particular, ring-type, placed on the shroud covering one of the ropes 1 polyspast. When using inductive measuring principle 4 radiant and receiving 5 elements made in the form of coils, the axes of which in this example coincides with the rope 1 (coil attached to the rope). If the system uses ultrasonic measuring principle, radiating (transmitting) 4 and receiving 5 elements likewise made in the form of an annular acoustic, such as piezoceramic transducers.
Primary measuring transducer is located mainly on the shroud covering the rope, and with flexible or articulated suspension 10.
Radiating (transmitting) 4 and receiving 5 elements can also be placed on the sheave pulleys, and near to it. For example, transferred to the block 11 is placed on the tip or pull-out section of the boom of the crane (figure 1).
In any embodiment, and placing primary measuring Converter 3 (11) the transmitting element 4 must create radiation directed into the ropes 1 polyspast and receiving 5 element to receive radiation changed by these ropes amplitude, phase, time of signal arrival, etc.
The generator 6, an analog-to-digital Converter 7 and, if necessary, other functional blocks of the device can be performed on the new specialized chips, for example, type the AD7142 ADI.
The device may be further equipped with a sensor of the angle 12 of the rope 1, connected to an amplifier-Converter device. As such a sensor is typically used silicon MEMS inclinometer accelerometer, for example ADXL series from Analog Devices.
The structure of the device may also enable sensor tension connected similarly with the amplifier-Converter device. The design of such sensors is well known. He, in particular, contains the device forming the deflection of the rope, made for example in the form of two supporting rollers, mounted on a holder (on the base) along with the primary measuring Converter 3, a deflecting roller associated with the base (holder) through the load device carrying out measurement of recovery efforts straight provisions of this rope. The actual value of the tension force of the rope is determined by the microcontroller 8 taking into account the deflection of (parallelogram of forces).
In any case the implementation of the device functional blocks can be either disconnected or constructively combined. In the latter case, the primary measuring transducer 3, the generator 6, the ADC 7, the microcontroller 8, the interface device 9 and,if necessary, the sensor angle 12 and the tension sensor is designed as one unit, adapted for mounting on the variable geometry mechanism, in particular on the rope, or to any structural member of the load-lifting machines are near this polyspast.
The device operates as follows.
In the case of the use of the capacitive measuring principle, the transmitting element 4, made in the form of an electrode, for example a ring, connected to the output of the generator 6, creates in the space surrounding the variable geometry mechanism, an alternating electric field.
Thanks to the availability of capacity0the radiation transmitting element (electrode) 4 is picked by the receiving element (electrode) 5 (see figure 1). The received signal is optionally amplified and converted into digital form by means of ADC 7. Its level is recorded and stored by the microcontroller 8 or another electronic circuit.
If near the receiving element 5 there are no other items, i.e. if a single part of the polyspast (multiplicity=1) and movable yoke sheave pulleys 13 is removed from the receiving element (electrode) 5 at a sufficiently large distance L, then fixed by the microcontroller 8 output voltage of the receiving element 5 has a maximum value (figure 2).
In the presence of near-receiving element 5 to the other branch of the rope sheave pulleys, i.e. the multiplicity of the polyspast>, occurs container1(figure 1), which together with capacity0forms a voltage divider. As a result, the voltage at the output of the receiving element 5 is reduced. With the increase in the number of branches of the rope, i.e. the multiplicity of the polyspast increases capacity With1. This leads to a decrease of the output voltage of the receiving element 5 (figure 2). Accordingly, the microcontroller 8, comparing the digital value with a pre-recorded in its memory the values predefined calculation or experimentally for different values of the ratio of the polyspast, determines the frequency and passes the resulting value to an external device via the interface device 9.
When approaching the receiving element 5 mobile holder 13 of the variable geometry mechanism is an increase in capacity With2(figure 1, figure 2). This leads to the decrease in voltage at the receiving element 5, which is fixed by the microcontroller 8 with the corresponding formation of a proportional or discrete output signals of the position of the movable holder 13. In particular, if the distance L to a mobile holder 13 is reduced to a value of Lminthen the voltage at the receiving element 5 is reduced to values U0. In this case, the device generates a signal for the limit position of the movable bracket sheave pulleys. Sistemakh safety of the lifting equipment this signal is used mainly, for the realization of the limits of lifting lifting body.
If the device uses an inductive transducer, the transmitting element 4 made in the form of a coil and is connected to the output of the generator 6, creates in the space surrounding the variable geometry mechanism, an alternating magnetic field. The branches of the rope sheave pulleys and movable yoke sheave pulleys interact with this field and also lead to a change of the output voltage at the receiving element 5 made in the form of the receive coil. The branches of the rope sheave pulleys and movable yoke sheave pulleys, made of ferromagnetic materials, lead to a decrease in the magnetic resistance of the environment and thus to increase the output voltage of the receiving element 5. Next, similarly formed output signals of the multiplicity of Spasovka of the polyspast and the location of the mobile holder.
In the case of application of the ultrasonic sensing device receiving element 5 detects ultrasonic signals generated ultrasonic transmitting element 4 and reflected by separate branches of the rope in the sheave pulleys and movable clip. Thus the microcontroller can detect the amplitude of the received signals, the time of their arrival (when running generator 5 modulated output signal), etc. that has no p is initialnode values. Further signal processing is carried out similarly to the signal processing device with capacitive or inductive primary Converter.
The device may contain single-axis (uniaxial or biaxial (two-axis) sensor angle rope 12 (figure 1). In the latter case, the microcontroller 8 determines the angle of the rope γ with respect to the gravitational vertical by converting the output signals α and β this sensor 12 for approximate formula γ=(α2+β2)↑1/2(for small values α and β) or using the refined formula γ=arctan[(tg2α+tg2β)↑1/2].
From geometrical considerations it is obvious that when measuring angles α and β with respect to the gravitational vertical in mutually perpendicular planes and when calculating the value of the angle of the rope γ in the above formula is independent of the measurement result of the angle of the rope γ from the rotation angle sensor of the angle of the rope 12 relative to the axis of the rope 1. Accordingly, it eliminates the need for protection of the sensor and suspension 10 from twisting, which simplifies the design of the device and makes it possible to determine the angle of a single rope.
The device may also include a sensor tension with the United with an amplifier-Converter unit (ADC 7) electronic processing device and a signal-2. In this case, a device for the formation of deflection of the rope and, mainly, strain gage force sensor, performing the measurement of the recovery efforts straight provisions of this rope. In the interface device 9 may include a power key, generates the control signals, in particular breaker, actuators lifting machine to prevent overload. The signals control the power key generates the microcontroller 8 after comparing the output signal of the tension sensor with a maximum load value pre-recorded in the memory of the microcontroller 8.
The structure of the device can also include additional functional units not shown in the functional diagram. These include, in particular, are the elements of temperature compensation, additional transmitting and receiving elements, allowing to carry out measurement with high accuracy differential circuit, etc. To document the operation of the device and accordingly the machine on which this device is installed in its composition can be enabled logger parameters implemented in the form of a block of non-volatile memory connected to the microcontroller 8. It is also possible equipment device by the display elements, otkluchenie to the additional outputs of the interface device 9, elements of diagnosis operating state, etc. that does not matter.
In this specification, schematically shown only partial implementations of the proposed device. The invention encompasses other possible variations of its performance and cash equivalents without departure from the invention set forth in the formula.
1. Device for measuring the ratio of Spasovka of the polyspast containing electronic device processing and generating signals and the primary measuring transducer, configured to interact with the ropes and connected to the electronic processing device and generating signals, characterized in that the primary measuring transducer is made capacitive, or inductive, or ultrasonic placed on the shroud covering the rope, and contains radiating and receiving elements, and the electronic processing device and generating signals comprises a generator connected to the radiating element, and an amplifier-rectifier device, an input connected to the receiver element, and an amplifier-rectifier device contains analog-digital Converter connected to the microcontroller or microcontroller with integrated analog-to-digital Converter, and an interface device is ustwo, connected to the microcontroller and configured to wired or wireless transmission of the output data.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the primary measuring transducer is arranged to interact with a movable yoke sheave pulleys, and the electronic processing device and a signal configured to generate an output signal on the position of the cage, in particular about its limiting position.
3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a sensor of the angle of the rope, at least one output of which is connected, at least one auxiliary input electronic device processing and signal conditioning.
4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the sensor angle rope made of two, and the electronic processing device and a signal is arranged to determine the angle of the rope γ by converting the output signals α and β this sensor according to the formula γ=(α2+β2)↑1/2or by the formula γ=arctan[(tg2α+tg2β)↑1/2].
5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a sensor tension connected with an electronic device processing and formirovaniya.
6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the sensor rope tension device forming the deflection of the rope and the load device is arranged to measure the recovery efforts straight provisions of this rope.
7. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the primary measuring transducer and electronic device processing and generating signals constructively combined.
SUBSTANCE: crane protection system contains working conditions transmitters, actuator and data-control unit made on the base of microcontroller with possibility of wire or wireless connecting to it above mentioned transmitters and actuator and with possibility for actuator to generate control signals aimed to prevent working conditions to exceed their permitted values. In the system parameter is revealed for which permitted value exceeding is the most probable at current time, whereupon priority limiting of this parameter value. To do so, the main load carrying member of crane is determined or inhibition of it's stability under working conditions margin is revealed. In the second version of protection system, warning, detection and/or correction of operator wrong actions during setting parameters for jib equipment and/or support contour is performed. In the third system version, changing of permitted values for crane operation parameters is provisioned depending on error of used transmitters.
EFFECT: improvement of operation safety for lifting crane; reducing the value of its travels after achieving the rating value for any parameter and blocking the crane movements by protection system; increase of this system reliability and reduction of requirement to transmitters accuracy.
25 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to handling machinery and can be used in the systems of control and protection of climbing cranes. The safety system incorporates digital computing unit (1) with its data inputs receiving, via a data exchange multiplexer channel, the outputs of the crane parameter recording peripherals (71...7m) comprising, at least, one crane equipment travel pickup, and with outputs wired to crane parameter recorder (3) with real-time counter, display unit (4), preventive signaling unit (5), actuator (6) and external memory (2) communicating, via a two-way data exchange channel, with the digital computing unit. The system comprises, at least, one indicator (8) of the crane equipment crossing of, at least, one check point within the crane operating range, the said indicator being connected to the digital computing unit additional data input adapted to correct the crane equipment travel pickup readings in compliance with the signals generated by the aforesaid indicator.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the crane coordinate protection system operation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be used in control protection systems of electrically-driven load lifting machinery. The system incorporates a digital computing unit (1) with its data inputs connected, a multiplexer data exchange channel, with the crane parameter recording peripherals, while its outputs are connected with crane parameter recorder (3) with a real-time counter, display unit (4), nonurgent alarm unit (5), actuator unit (6) and external memory unit (2) connected to the digital computing unit by a duplex data exchange channel. The system comprises the crane supply voltage parameter meters (81...8n) with their outputs connected, via the multiplex data exchange channel, to additional crane parameter recorder data inputs, those of the computing unit and the display. The digital computing unit is designed to compare the measured voltage with tolerable supply voltage parameters, to generate crane motions inhibiting signals in the case of the supply voltage parameters falling beyond tolerances for crane control system, to generate signals inhibiting certain types of the cranes motions in the case of the crane drives supply voltage falling beyond tolerances and to generate sound and light nonurgent alarm signals under the aforesaid conditions.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the crane operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the proposed method, with electric key set up, loads are uplifted in turn, their weights making m0, ..., mi-1, mi where i=2, 3, ..., and the motor shaft respective rpm making n0, ..., ni-1, ni being recorded by means of the accelerometer arranged on the base plate or the crane motor bed are memorised. The accelerometer output signal is subjected to spectral analysis with the frequency whereat the motor bed vibration fundamental amplitude is determined corresponding to the motor shaft rpm. Now, proceeding from the data obtained, the dependence of the motor rpm upon the uplifted load n=f(m) is derived to be memorised along with the known tolerable uplifted load weight value. Now, uplifted the load, the motor shaft rpm value is continuously measured by accelerometer to define, proceeding from n=f(m), the load weight. If this weight exceeds the tolerable value, audio and visual warning signals are output and the crane if cut off.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the crane capacity limiter.
FIELD: hoisting-and-transporting mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can used in the crane control and safety systems. Method consists in transfer of control signals from remote control board (RCB) located outside the crane using a two-way line of wireless communication, measuring the working parameters, converting measured sizes into digital signals, defining safe loads and limiting positions of the crane structural components and switching off its mechanisms on reaching limiting values, recording the crane operating and data signals and time of their arrival into long-term nonvolatile memory to be read out in case of need, and also their remote transfer to the dispatcher control located outside the crane. In addition, RCB outputs the instructions to transfer the crane data and control signals to be written down into RCB nonvolatile memory to be read out in case of need by transmitting the signals to the dispatcher control station, registration and storage of data on the crane operation. Here, note that two-way wireless communication lines are used to this end.
EFFECT: higher reliability of control and registration of crane working parameters.
SUBSTANCE: adjustment consists in regulation of signals in channels of measurement of boom load, overhang or inclination angles by adding and/or multiplying these signals with the signals corresponding to the adjusting parameters the values of which are preliminary defined and stored in power-independent memory of the safety device. Regulation is made without of reference cargoes proceeding from the conditions of independence of the results of measurement of the lifted and moved cargoes upon the boom length and inclination angle. Values of adjusting parameters are defined, allowing for the boom deflection, as the constants or functions of the boom overhand, length and inclination angle by commands of the operator/crane operator or automatically. The principle of definition of adjusting parameters is based, in particular, on their calculation as unknown factors in a set of the equations derived using the crane mathematical model. The said device contains transducers of the load-lifting crane operating parameters with digital or analog outputs and the digital computing device with power-independent memory.
EFFECT: opportunity of checking the accuracy of the safety device operation without check cargoes is ensured and efficiency of protection of the load-lifting crane is increased.
16 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: series of inventions refers to the sphere of tower crane operation security engineering. The method in question presupposes exchange of information on the cranes locations, movements and equipment loads between the control and protection devices of all the "n" jointly operating tower cranes. Additional features: identification of the position of each crane and/or its equipment against the construction site plan, conventional graphical visualisation of the position within the construction site territory of a specified crane and/or its equipment (as well as that of the "neighbouring" cranes and equipment related to them) on the crane display. When the crane operator initiates relocation of equipment related to crane Ki the following is carried out: the intended equipment motion path tracing, display graphical visualisation of the intended motion path(s) of the equipment related both to crane Ki and the "neighbouring" crane(s) whose equipment is currently in motion (by means of exchange of information between the control and protection devices), estimation of the minimum distance between the above paths, graphical visualisation of the point of intersection on the crane Ki display and generation of a signal disabling operation of this crane equipment and light and sound alarm signals in case the paths as having been traced happen to intersect. In order to enable further motion of the crane Ki equipment there is an additional line to be plotted by the crane operator which is intended to restrict motion of the crane equipment (the line becomes graphically visualised on the crane Ki, screen); in case the limiting line has been plotted erroneously operation of the crane Ki equipment and mechanisms is automatically disabled when at the paths intersection point.
EFFECT: improving the hoisting cranes operation standard of safety.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting and transportation equipment and it can be used in protection systems of load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, tolerable loads are determined and memorized in form of function of spatial position of boom, measuring current value of load in process of operation of crane, comparing it with tolerable load and generating warning signal or signal to crane mechanisms aimed at limiting or preventing overload. In process of lifting and/or shifting of load, change of linear or angular position of crane part is revealed additionally whose change is not allowed in current stage of load lifting and/or shifting process. Depending on value of said change of position, additionally warning information signals or crane mechanism control signals are formed aimed either to prevent further increase in said change or to return said part of crane, for instance, boom, into initial position. Protection of crane from overload is implemented with due account both of absolute value and change of value of angle of tilting of crane component part from horizontal or vertical position in process of lifting and/or shifting of load.
EFFECT: improved safety of crane in operation.
21 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; lifting and transportation machinery.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in automated protection and control systems of load-lifting cranes. Load-lifting machines drive is controlled by operator acting onto control member, transmission of shifting of said member to control member of drive made to shift any mechanism of load-lifting machine depending on movement of control member, and preliminary determination of tolerable value of at least one parameter characterizing load and/or spatial position of boom or load-gripping member of load-lifting machine, keeping the parameter value in memory, measuring said parameter by direct or indirect method in process of operating of load-lifting machine, comparing measured value with tolerable value and subsequently shaping drive control signal. Control signal is used to interlock shifting of drive control member and if, necessary, to reset member in neutral position. Interlocking of drive control member is done by mechanical blocking of transmission of control member shifting to drive control member or mechanical interlocking of displacement of said member.
EFFECT: increased reliability.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; tower cranes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes periodical continuous polling during which signals are obtained, recorded and memorized which correspond to values of load characteristic of crane, crane geometry and operation conditions, obtained signals are compared with values of characteristics introduced into crane control system before its operation, and after comparing of signals received at polling with tolerable values of characteristics, if they exceed tolerable characteristics, commands of crane operator are cancelled. Introduced additionally into crane control system are parameters of crane operation conditions, speed of wind, ambient temperature and crane condition parameters, load, vibration, temperature of crane drive mechanism lubricants, and voltage in electrical devices. Maximum tolerable values of said parameters are introduced into control system to limit operation of crane drives at which operation of crane should be stopped or can be executed at introduction of definite limitations into operation of crane drive as to speed, accelerations, combined or successive travel motions of drives, obtained signals concerning operation and state of crane are compared with tolerable values, and possibility and conditions of execution of operator's commands are determined, command is left without changes or definite limitations are applied to operation of crane by introducing corresponding corrections to operator's command or execution of command is prohibited according to preset program.
EFFECT: improved safety of operation of tower crane.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; material handling machinery.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measuring or crane loads, traveling of crane with load and time of operation of crane mechanisms, recording of data and comparing them with normal characteristics of crane. In process o measurement, crane operating cycle is found. Beginning of cycle is determined by switching on any other mechanism after switching on load lifting mechanism at G>Gnl and L>Lnl where G is actual load from load on crane hook, Gnl is load at no load on crane hook, ZL is displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load, Lnl is maximum tolerable displacement of center of gravity of hook casing relative to center of gravity of load. End of cycle is found by beginning of following cycle after execution of load lifting in case of no load on crane hook at G>Gnl and operation of any mechanism of horizontal displacement of load at L>Lnl. Simultaneously with determination of beginning and end of cycle, load G is measured at beginning of load lifting in period from moment of exceeding of load Gnl to moment of switching on any other load horizontal displacement mechanism. Current mean value of load is calculated within time interval Δt. Maximum value of current mean load is determined also within said period. Basing on maximum value of current mean load, mass of load is determined, and crane cycle with obtained mass of load is recorded. Then cycles with corresponding load masses are summed up. According to obtained data crane is classified to group of class, data obtained in each group of class are compared with normal characteristics of crane according to specifications and , basing of results on comparing, crane is placed in operation, or crane operator is warned or operation of crane is prohibited. Proposed device contains sensors of load and horizontal displacements, processing unit and comparing unit. Device includes also crane operation cycle revealing unit, cycle recording unit, load mass metering unit, AND and OR units and crane state evaluation unit.
EFFECT: provision of reliable data on conditions of crane, improved safety.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; materials handling machinery.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety engineering of load-lifting machines. Proposed method includes supply of current to drives of mechanisms and safety equipment, switching on drive of at least one mechanism of crane, switching off and braking, all operations being performed from cabin. Power supply to mechanism drives in emergency in cut off from ground or base on which crane is installed. Then supply of crane mechanism providing change of crane from dangerous position into safe position is carried out from said base. Then mechanism is released, its drive is actuated and crane is brought into safe position by means of additional control panel. Proposed device contains control panel arranged in crane cabin and safety device, such as external load setter with electric input and output, emergency sensor and crane mechanism drive supply pushbutton. Moreover, device is furnished with additional control panel on running gear in place easy to get at from base. Additional control panel is connected with main panel through output of external load setter and by means of additional feedback, and it has key-mark and additional switch. Drive of crane mechanism is connected with additional panel, key-mark is made removable, being installed in additional panel to interact with additional switch.
EFFECT: improved safety of tower crane in operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: materials handling facilities; tower cranes.
SUBSTANCE: according to production plan, zones with different types of crane movement limits related to concrete objects are defined. Said zones are introduced into personal computer, not included into instrument complex of coordinate protection, under laboratory conditions. Using special software, array of data is formed in computer, each element of which corresponds to building site member and contains information of prohibited movement of crane in corresponding point. Said array is recorded in reprogrammable read-only memory of coordinate protection system which, basing on signals from transmitters, defining position of crane and its members and by signals from reprogrammable read-only memory forms drive locking signals if crane or its working members get into restricted zone.
EFFECT: provision of crane coordinate protection of high efficiency using simple devices.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control systems of load-lifting cranes. Proposed method and safety system provides realization of noncontact (wireless) communication between separate module (electronic units and pickups of boom tilting angle and length, force and pressure, azimuth, etc) of load-lifting crane safety system. For this purpose electric signals with serial code are converted into radiation (ultrasound, radio signal or optical radiation and said radiation is transmitted to receiving station. Transmission and reception of radiation is effected periodically by setting reception and transmission periods corresponding to required response of load-lifting crane safety system. Speed of change of operating parameters of crane and position of its load-lifting equipment are checked additionally, and at increase of speed, automatic decrease of crane operating parameters and position of its load-lifting equipment is done and automatic decrease of radiation transmission periods is provided. Safety system modules are furnished additionally with radiation transmitters and receivers (ultrasound, radio frequency or optical radiation ones) whose input and outputs are connected with outputs of forming units and inputs of reception units of serial digital signals. Serial digital signal forming units are made for periodical forming of said signals.
EFFECT: improved reliability of safety system and facilitated servicing.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: materials handling equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of protection of boom load-lifting cranes and pipelayer cranes from overloads and damage. Adjustment is carried out by lifting calibrated load of preset mass in points of load characteristic with known parameters of boom equipment and regulating signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels to provide correspondence of safeguard characteristic to preset load characteristic of crane. In process of regulation of signals in load, reach and/or boom tilt angle measuring channels, values of output signals of corresponding sensors are kept constant and regulation is done by adding and/or multiplying output signals from sensors and signals corresponding to adjusting parameters. Values of the latter are preliminarily determined and kept in nonvolatile memory of safeguard.
EFFECT: reduced labor input in adjustment of safeguard on load-lifting crane, provision of interchangeability of all components, possibility of adjustment of device on any type of load-lifting crane with unspecified mounting of load sensor.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; boom cranes.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to control and protection of load-lifting facilities from overloads and damage. According to proposed methods, at least one of working parameters is measured and, if necessary, said parameter is processed in real time according to preset procedure. Indication of working parameter and its comparing with tolerable value, forming of signal to interlock operation of load-lifting mechanism and sending of signal to actuating device if working parameter exceeds tolerable value are provided. Value of working parameter and interlock signal and time of their appearance are recorded in nonvolatile memory for reading in case of necessity. Prior to beginning of operation of load-lifting mechanism, additional interlock signal is formed and said signal is transmitted to actuating device. Moreover, biometric data of operator of load-lifting mechanism are read off which are recorded, together with time of reading, in nonvolatile memory for keeping and reading off in case of necessity. After reading off of biometric data of operator, additional interlock signal of load-lifting mechanism is cut off. Device for implementing the method contains microprocessor calculator, control module, data input/output module, memory module, indication module, actuation module and working parameters sensors. Real time module and biometric data read off module are introduced additionally into device. Microprocessor calculation is made to form additional interlock signal of load-lifting mechanism at switching on overload safeguard of load-lifting mechanism and switching off of its in case of presence of output signal from biometric data read module.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of protection of load-lifting mechanism.
20 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; loading-lifting cranes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed group of inventions relates to controls and safeguards of load-lifting cranes. Method provides measuring and/or checking operating parameters of load-lifting crane characterizing load, geometry, conditions or modes of operation and conversion of measured and/or checked parameters into serial code and their transmission by multiplexed communication line with addition of identification or address of module. At least in one module at least two operating parameters of load-lifting cranes are measured and/or checked and converted into serial code, combined reception and combined transmission of serial digital signals by multiplexed communication line with use of one identification or address of module are provided. System implementing the method contains at least two separate modules being electronic units and/or transducers, for instance, control and indication units, boom tilting angle and length transducers, force or pressure transducers. At least two of them are connected through multiplexed communication line. Each of combined modules contains microcontroller, driver or transceivers and information measurement or information control circuit, made for measuring and/or checking operating parameter of load-lifting crane. Outputs of said circuit are connected with inputs of microcontroller, and one of primary converters of operating parameters of load-lifting crane is connected to its input. Microcontroller is made for reception, processing and transmission of serial digital signals, its inputs/outputs being connected through driver of transceiver with multiplexed communication line. In at least one of modules at least one of primary converters of operating parameters of load-lifting crane is connected to input of information measurement or information control circuit in addition. Said circuit of module is made for measuring and/or checking of at least two measured and/or checked operating parameters of load-lifting crane, and microcontroller is made for combined reception, combined processing and combined transmission of serial digital signals by multiplexed communication line with use of one identificator or address of module.
EFFECT: improved reliability of protection of load-lifting crane owing to high-speed response and accuracy of operation of safety system.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: material handling facilities.
SUBSTANCE: according to first design version, two sensors are placed additionally on fixed part of crane. They are shifted relative to each other through quarter of revolution to provide forming of two additional electric stresses. All sensors are magnetically sensitive ones and are acted upon by Earth's magnetic field. Angle between fixed part of crane and Earth's magnetic field is determined by processing additional electric stresses. Actual value of azimuth angle is determined as difference in angular positions of fixed and slewing parts of crane relative to Earth's magnetic field. Device uses tow additional sensors shifted through quarter of revolution whose inputs are connected to supply source, and outputs, to additional inputs of measuring circuit. All sensors in device are made magnetically sensitive with possibility of measuring Earth's magnetic field. According to second design version, actual value of azimuth angle is determined as difference between angular position of crane slewing part and direction of crane track.
EFFECT: facilitated measurement of crane azimuth angle, simplified device for implementing the method.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting cranes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control and protection of load-lifting cranes. Method provides forming of image of working process, checking of position of load-gripping member or load in process of crane operation, and forming of control signal by at least one of crane actuating devices basing on results of checking. Said checking is provided by microprocessor calculator by processing and analyzing the image, as a result of which distance from load-gripping member or load to object or obstacle or to human in working zone of load-lifting crane is determined. Revealed distance is compared with set minimum threshold level. Then warning signal is shaped automatically, or control signal to operate actuating device and prevent movement of load-gripping member or load towards object, obstacle or human.
EFFECT: improved safety of crane in operation with due account of overall dimensions of lifted load and operation of slingmen.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; load-lifting facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of control and overload protection of boom load-lifting cranes. According to proposed method, tolerable load acting onto boom in longitudinal-vertical plane is determined at designing of crane and is recorded. In process of operation of crane, in case of necessity parameter characterizing current load on boom in longitudinal-vertical plane is measured, and if necessary, changed. Then current load on boom is compared with recorded tolerable one, and signal is shaped to control mechanisms of crane depending on results of comparison. Tolerable value of cross load on boom or twisting load of boom or parameter depending on such load is determined additionally by calculation at designing the crane, and said value is recorded. In process of operation of crane parameter characterizing current cross load on crane boom or boom twisting load is additionally measured and, if necessary, converted. Then tolerable value is compared with current value additionally, and signals to control crane mechanisms are formed. Used as parameter characterizing current cross load on boom or boom twisting load is cross deformation of crane boom or deviation of value of force or torque in crane turning mechanism from nominal value, or difference in forces in horizontally spaced boom wire ropes, or twisting deformation of crane boom, or angle of tilting of boom head in cross plane relative to gravitational vertical or crane slewing platform.
EFFECT: provision of complex overload protection of crane by load torque, cross bend or boom twist.
9 cl, 2 dwg