Method for creation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock and device for its realisation

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: creation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock by means of its strain treatment with upthrust includes staged compression of stock with vertically compressing puncheon in die mold that contains matrix limited down with flat bottom, with cavity for stock installation in it and intended for treatment of stock in three orthogonal directions with provision of plastic flow of stock material along directions that do not coincide with direction of compression force. At every stage of strain treatment the stock is placed in matrix cavity, compressed, and deformed stock is taken out from matrix cavity. Prior to installation of stock in matrix cavity the bottom part of matrix cavity is filled with charge of refractory powder for 0.1-0.5 of compressed height of stock, then stock is placed for filling, charge is filled into free space created between two pairs of sliders and stock to the level that exceeds top point of stock by 0.1-0.5 of its compressed height, matrix is inserted into puncheon, displaced to provide stock compression of 10-60% from its height. Stages of deformation treatment of stock are repeated, changing directions of its strain, until ultrafine-grained structure is formed in the whole volume of stock. Device for formation of ultrafine-grained structure in metal stock during its strain treatment with upthrust arranged in the form of die mold that contains matrix with rectangular base plate, puncheon and two pairs of sliders installed in two mutually orthogonal directions. Upthrust is arranged in the form of charge from refractory material that fills the free space between sliders, matrix bottom, puncheon and stock.

EFFECT: production of bulky metal stocks with different ratios of size and increase of finished product output.

5 cl, 4 ex, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method of metal forming and devices for their implementation. Specifically to methods of deformation-heat treatment of workpieces of metal in the molds to a change in their physico-mechanical properties and devices for their implementation and can be used in the manufacture of semi-finished metal products.

The known method of forming ultrafine-grained structure of metal bar stock, comprising the successive punching of the workpiece in intersecting vertical and horizontal channels [Wmel, Vigaplus, Viesnica. A plastic structure formation metals, Minsk: Nauka i machinery, 1994. - 250 S.], with the purpose of hardening of the metal due to the high intensity of the accumulated shear strain. The disadvantage of this method is the uneven formation of ultrafine-grained structure along the length of the workpiece, reducing the yield of the product and the inability to get pieces of a large diameter.

A method of obtaining ultrafine-grained billet of titanium technical purity, including its intensive plastic deformation in an intersecting channels and subsequent machining of the workpiece, which is carried out by repeatedly rolling or extrusion at room tempera is ur when the degree of compression in a single pass, not causing the formation of trunk cracks and destruction of the material, and the number of passes by rolling or extrusion, providing a final deformation 80-90% [U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2251588, CL 22F 1/18, publ. 10.05.2005. Bulletin no.13]. The disadvantage of this method is obtaining blanks only bar form and the lack of access to workpieces of various shapes with ultrafine-grained structure.

A method of processing titanium billet, including its intensive plastic deformation in an intersecting channels with decreasing temperature in the range 500-250°With accumulated logarithmic degree of deformation of more than four, and subsequent thermomechanical processing alternating deformation degree from 30-90%, with intermediate and final annealing in the temperature range 250-500°C for 0.5 to 2.0 h [U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2175685, CL L/00, publ. 10.11.2001. BI No. 31]. This method allows you to get through severe plastic deformation and subsequent thermomechanical processing of ultrafine-grained structure of the processed material with a grain size of about 0.1 μm, which increases its strength and fatigue characteristics. However, the level of fatigue strength of the resulting workpiece is below the fatigue strength of high-alloyed titanium alloys and insufficient for use in assumed is the R designs, manufactured from these blanks. In addition, the disadvantage of this method is the uneven formation of the structure along the length of the workpiece, the low yield of the product, particularly from the ends of the workpiece, and the inability to get pieces of large size.

A method of obtaining the metal pieces from the original ingot, including simultaneous compression of the ingot in the case of two pairs of porzucek with four sides (over the entire height of the body) [U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2031754, CL 21J 1/04, epubl. Bull. No. 9]. Depending on the state of the quality of the original ingot use poloski with different shape of the working surface. The body is equipped with guides for replacement porzucek. Surface porzucek performed with a smooth or embossed surface. Poloski can also be concave and convex. The contact surface of the guide porzucek and porzucek performed with a tilt angle relative to the Central axis of the housing, is equal to 5...10°. The disadvantage of this method is the inability to get pieces of large size, having different shapes with uniform ultrafine-grained structure throughout the procurement quantity (due to the impossibility of intensive plastic deformation in three orthogonal directions).

A method of processing titanium billet, include what s her intense plastic deformation in intersecting vertical and horizontal channels, with its prop in a horizontal channel [U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2139164, CL 21J 5/00, publ. 10.10.1999. BI No. 28]. The disadvantage of this method is the uneven formation of ultrafine-grained structure along the length of the workpiece, the low yield of the product, especially at the ends of the workpiece, the inability to receive workpieces of various shapes.

Closest to the proposed method is a method of forming ultrafine-grained structure of the metal billet by means of its deformation processing pressurized, including phased vertical compression of the workpiece in the mold containing the matrix bounded by a flat bottom with a cavity to accommodate a workpiece and the punch, and intended for processing of the workpiece in three orthogonal directions, with plastic flow of the workpiece material in directions not coincident with the direction of the compressive effort at each stage of deformation of the workpieces to produce its placement in the cavity of the matrix, the compression of the workpiece and removing the deformed workpiece from the cavity of the matrix [U.S. Pat.No. 2202434, CL 21J 5/00, 21J 3/02, 21D 7/00, publ. 20.04.2003. Bull. No. 1].

The disadvantage of the prototype method is the formation of cracks in the early stages of deformation of workpieces, especially workpieces, prone to brittle fracture, or workpieces with low strength is and stretching (made from powders, from age-hardened metals and so on), and, as a consequence, the low yield of the product, as well as the inability to implement uniform deformation of the metal workpiece in directions not coincident with the direction of deformation.

A device for deformation processing of metal blanks with prop [U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2202434, CL 21J 5/00, VL 3/02, 21D 7/00, publ. 20.04.2003. Bulletin no.1], containing two working parts, one of which is connected to the crosshead of the press, the second part of the device in the first embodiment is made with a cavity bounded by at least four sides, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of the deforming force. The working part with a cavity made of composite. In the second variant of the device working part is a plate with protrusions forming a cavity bounded by at least five faces, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of the deforming force. The disadvantage of this device is the hard binding of the preform mold to the shape of the workspace of the device, the impossibility of adequate deformation of the elongated workpiece because of the need to perform the terms of its longitudinal stability (the ratio of length to width of the workpiece must not exceed 2.0÷2,5). In addition, the presence of tensile strained the th on non-contact side of the workpiece leads to the formation therein of surface defects, that requires additional manufacturing operations to eliminate these defects in the implementation of subsequent cycles of treatment.

Closest to the claimed object is a device for the processing of metals by pressure [U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2031754, CL 21J 1/04, publ. 27.03.1995. Bull. No. 9], comprising upper and lower plates, and a container connected to the upper plate. The container is equipped with guides of porzucek and poloskami (replaceable). Poloski can be concave and convex, with smooth and textured surfaces. The contact surface of the guide porzucek and porzucek performed with a tilt angle relative to the Central axis of the housing, is equal to 5...100. The drawback of the prototype is that it can generate only blanks, the length of which is much greater than their diameter, since it is not possible to deform the workpiece in three mutually orthogonal directions. In other words, it is not possible to produce blanks with different ratios of dimensions. Such treatment also leads to the emergence of anisotropy of the structure and deterioration of its properties.

The task, which is aimed at solving the proposed method and device are:

- obtaining a large metal workpieces having different ratios of sizes;

- increased output of finished PR the product by reducing the inhomogeneity of the grain structure and anisotropy;

- reducing the number of surface defects in the blanks.

The tasks are achieved by the fact that in the method for forming the ultrafine-grained structure in a metal workpiece by deformation processing pressurized, including phased vertical compression of the workpiece in the mold containing the matrix bounded by a flat bottom with a cavity to accommodate a workpiece and the punch, and for handling the workpiece in three orthogonal directions, with plastic flow of the workpiece material in directions not coincident with the direction of the compressive effort at each stage of deformation of the workpieces to produce its placement in the cavity of the matrix, the compression of the workpiece and removing the deformed workpiece from the cavity of the matrix at each stage of deformation processing of the workpiece prior to its placement into the cavity of the matrix produce filling the lower part of the cavity of the matrix filling of refractory powder is 0.1-0.5 of the compressed height of the workpiece, and then the workpiece is placed on the backfill, fill the free space of the matrix around the blank-filled to a level above the upper point of the workpiece by 0.1-0.5 compressible her height, is inserted into the matrix of the punch and make it move to ensure compression of the billet in 10-60% of its height, and e is the APA deformation of the workpieces to repeat, changing the direction of deformation, prior to the formation of ultrafine-grained structure throughout the volume of the workpiece.

In private cases, the deformation of the metal of the workpiece is carried out in the temperature range from 600°to room, the accumulation of deformation in the workpiece temperature processing to reduce speed from two to eight times the size of the particles of the powder filling is chosen within 5-3·103μm, as a powder filling use the powder of metal oxides, or metal carbides, or borides of metals or metal nitrides, or graphite, or mixtures thereof, and compressing the metal of the workpiece is carried out in a cavity of the matrix is placed in its walls by two orthogonal pairs of movable spring-loaded sliders.

Solution of tasks are achieved in a device for deformation processing of metal blanks pressurized, made in the form of the mold containing the matrix with a rectangular plate-base, a punch and two pairs of sliders arranged in two mutually orthogonal directions, the walls of the matrix is made in the form of two pieces of square tube of the same length, tightly adjacent to each other, each of which is composed of four plates, the outer plate forming the outer wall of the matrix are interconnected by external the commodity seams, in the inner walls of the matrix formed internal plates made two pairs of identical orthogonal two rectangular boxes whose internal dimensions of the first stages bordering the inner cavity of the matrix are smaller than the internal dimensions of the second, adjacent steps in the exterior walls of the matrix with the inner sides made of rectangular cavities, the shape of the section which follows the shape of the cross section of the second speed-UPS, floaters, made in the form of two rectangular pedestals, the upper stages each of which follows the shape of the first stages of the Windows and the shape of the cross section of the lower step - shaped section of the second speed window, the height of the lower step of the podium 0.1-0.2 depth second stage boxes, sliders from the lower level holes-depressions, floaters, placed in the Windows of the inner walls of the matrix with the possibility of radial movement relative to the longitudinal axis of the matrix in the external walls of the matrix opposite the openings of the recesses sliders made through the screw holes in the holes-cavities sliders and end-to-end screw holes placed the ends of the additionally introduced a cylindrical compression spring, which is fixed in the screw holes screwed them ostanovochnyy with flat ends, in the outer walls of the matrix also performed additional end-to-end screw holes, the axes of which are in the same planes with the axes of the above-mentioned end-to-end screw holes at distances from them, equal to half the distance between these axes, and these threaded holes placed stubborn bolts, the heads of which are on the outer faces of the outer walls of the matrix, and persistent posted by bolts nuts, plate-the base is made with a rectangular recess in which is firmly inserted the lower part of the walls of the matrix, and the upper part of the walls of the matrix tightened further introduced rectangular to match the shape and dimensions of the slab-base matrix, stove-the cover, which is a through hole for passage of the punch.

The device, which is the proposed method is illustrated by the following graphics: figure 1 - General view of the device from the side and from above; figure 2 - General view and cross section of the device side; figure 3 is a cross section of the device.

The apparatus for forming ultrafine-grained structure in a metal workpiece includes the following main components and parts: matrix 1 with a rectangular plate-the base 2 and the plate-lid 3, the punch 4 and two pairs of spring-loaded sliders 5, located in the walls of the matrix 1 in two mutually orthogonal nab is awliyah. Die wall 1 made in the form of two pieces of square tube, equal length, closely adjacent to each other, each of which is composed of four plates. The outer plate 6 forming the outer wall of the matrix 1, is connected with the outer weld 7. In the inner walls of the matrix 1 formed internal plates 8 made two pairs of identical orthogonal two rectangular Windows 9, whose inner dimensions of the first stages bordering the inner cavity of the matrix 1, are smaller than the internal dimensions of the second, adjacent stages. In the outer walls of the matrix 1 with the inner sides made of rectangular recesses 10, the shape of the section which follows the shape of the second speed window 9. Floaters 5 made in the form of two rectangular pedestals, the upper stages each of which follows the shape of the first stages of Windows 9. The height of the bottom step of the podium 0.1-0.2 depth of the second stage of the Windows. In slide 5 from the lower level holes-holes 11. Floaters 5 posted by Windows 9 with the possibility of radial movement relative to the longitudinal axis of the matrix 1. In the external walls of the matrix 1, opposite holes-holes 11 slide 5, is made through the screw holes 12. Holes-cavities 11 floor is UNOV 5 and the through screw holes 12 are placed the ends of the additionally introduced a cylindrical compression spring 13, which are fixed in the screw holes 12 are screwed them set screws 14 having flat ends. The plate base is made with a rectangular recess in which is firmly inserted the lower part of the walls of the matrix 1. The upper part of the walls of the matrix 1 drawn rectangular to match the shape and dimensions of the slab-base 2, a stove-lid 3, which is a through hole for passage of the punch 4. In the outer walls of the matrix 1 has an additional end-to-end screw holes 15, the axes of which are in the same planes with the axes of the threaded holes 12 at a distance from them, equal to half the distance between these axes. In the threaded holes 15 posted by stubborn bolts 16, the heads of which are on the outer faces of the outer walls of the matrix 1, the thrust bolt 16 posted by nuts 17.

The device is movable, except for the exterior walls of the matrix 1, which are connected by means of welded seams 7.

In the cavity of the matrix 1 is a metal workpiece 18 and its surrounding filling of refractory powder 19.

The proposed device is assembled from its constituent parts and components as follows. In box 9 four plates 8 forming the inner wall of the matrix 1, insert the slide 5. Of the plates 8 collect cut square tube which is firmly inserted inside cut the pipe, formed by the plates 6. The bottom wall of the matrix 1 firmly insert in the recess of the plate-base 2. Over the top of the walls of the matrix 1 with the effort put on the stove-lid 3. Then by means of bolts 16 floaters, 5 move in the direction of the Central axis of the device to another with the inner edges of Windows 9. Later in the through screw holes 12 insert the spring 13 until it stops with the bottom openings of the recesses 11 and the spring 13 are pressed to the slide 5 by means screwed into the threaded holes 12 of the set screws 14. After fixing device of the springs 13, the bolts 16 are partially vivencial of threaded holes 12 on the length of stroke of the spring-loaded slide 5, and their position is fixed by lock nuts 17.

The work of the claimed devices and methods of forming the ultrafine-grained structure in a metal workpiece is performed as follows.

The device Assembly (without punch) put on the bottom plate of the press, which is deformation processing of metal blanks. Fill the lower part of the cavity of the matrix filling of refractory powder with particle sizes 5-3·103μm at a height of 0.1-0.5 compressible height of the workpiece. Then the workpiece is placed on the backfill. Fill the free space of the matrix around the blank-filled to a level above the upper point of the workpiece by 0.1-0.5 it with imaamah height. Insert into matrix a punch and make it move the upper plate of the press to ensure compression of the workpiece at 10-60% (compression of the workpiece is determined by the stroke of the slide and type powder filling). After removing the pressure on the punch plate-the base is removed from the mold and squeeze punch the workpiece with powder filling. Under the action of the spring slides back to its original state by squeezing the filling out of the Windows. Then the mold is lead in original working condition, and stages of deformation of the workpieces to be repeated at every step of changing the direction of the source to the axis of the sample orthogonal to the vertical axis of the punch. The deformation of the sample is carried out each time along the vertical axis of the punch to produce ultrafine-grained structure throughout the sample volume.

Control the grain size of the workpiece after each stage of processing is made by means of optical and/or electronic devices on the microsections performed on its surface. Deformation of the metal blank can be carried out in the temperature range from 600°C to room temperature. The accumulation of deformation in the workpiece temperature processing may decrease stepwise from two to eight times.

Below are examples of deformation processing of metal billets predlagaemom using the proposed device.

Example 1. The device Assembly (without punch) with pre-adjusted thrust bolts (restrictors sliders) were placed on the bottom plate of the press are capable of pressures up to 1000 ft Made filling the lower part of the matrix to a height of 4 mm, a filling of refractory powder with a particle size up to 3 mm, consisting of 50 wt.% Al2O3+25 wt.% SiO2+20 wt.% TiC+5 wt.% graphite. Then the billet titanium W 1-0, having the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped sizes 40×40×60 mm3was placed on the backfill. Fill free space cavity of the matrix around the workpiece powder filling to a level above the upper point of the workpiece 10 mm was Inserted in the window of the upper plate-lid punch, and made his move the upper plate of the press to ensure compression of the workpiece through the powder filling 50% of its height. After removal of the lower pressure plate is the base of the mold was removed. Inserted in its place auxiliary plate similar to the plate-lid, and squeeze punch of the metal of the workpiece with powder filling. Then again led the mold to its original state, and the stages of deformation of the workpieces to be repeated until the formation of ultrafine-grained structure throughout the volume of the workpiece. Upon reaching the total of the true deformation or the tion ln(l/LK), equal 10.8, where l/LK is the ratio of the initial height of the workpiece to the target, a force on the workpiece is stopped, as carried out at each stage of the optical and electronic control structures (surface microsections) showed that on the sample surface macro - and microcracks were absent, and the structure was crushed. Additional research on the structure of surfaces obtained after cutting a workpiece in three orthogonal cross-sections showed that its structure is homogeneous throughout the volume, and the average grain size was 0.2 μm. Sequential change of the direction of deformation of the workpiece at each stage provide almost the same deformation in three mutually orthogonal directions. True strain ln(l/LK) at each stage of force amounted to about 0.4. In the workpiece processed by the method of the prototype, the average grain size was 0.3 μm.

Example 2. Analogously to example 1 device Assembly (with billets of titanium nickelide and filling) without punch, and the punch was heated in a muffle furnace up to 600°C. the Device Assembly (without punch) were placed on the bottom plate of the same press. Made the filling the lower part of the matrix to a height of 20 mm filling of refractory powder with a particle size up to 3 mm, consisting of 50 wt.% AlN+25 wt.% SiO2+20 wt.% TiB2+5 wt.% gra the ITA. Cylindrical billet of titanium nickelide a height of 60 mm and a diameter of 20 mm was placed on the backfill, fills the free space cavity of the matrix around the blank-filled to a level above the upper point of the workpiece 30 mm, was inserted into the window plate-lid punch and made his move to ensure compression of the workpiece through the powder filling 50% of its height. After removal of the lower pressure plate-base deleted, inserted in its place auxiliary plate similar to the plate-lid, and pushed the punch of the metal of the workpiece with powder filling. Then again led the mold to its original state, and the stages of deformation of the workpieces to be repeated, as in example 1, prior to the formation of ultrafine-grained structure throughout the volume of the workpiece. Upon reaching the total true strain titanium nickelide ln(l/LK), equal to 8.4, on the surface of the billet trunk cracks were absent. The microhardness of the surface obtained after cutting the workpiece along several orthogonal cross-sections did not reveal deviations microhardness more than 10% from the average. In the workpiece processed by the method of the prototype, the dispersion of the values of microhardness was 15%.

Example 3. Analogously to example 1 preparation of Nickel-titanium powder and backfill load, the Wali in a muffle furnace up to 600° With hot laid in the mold and inserted the plug. Put the mold on the bottom plate of the press, made the filling the lower part of the cavity of the matrix filling of refractory powder consisting of 50 wt.% AlN+25 wt.% SiO2+20 wt.% TiB2+5 wt.% graphite, to a height of 20 mm Billet of titanium nickelide a height of 60 mm and a diameter of 20 mm was placed on the backfill, fills the free space cavity of the matrix around the blank-filled to a level above the upper point of the workpiece 30 mm, was inserted into the window plate-lid punch and made his move to ensure compression of the workpiece through the powder filling 50% of its height. After removal of the pressure plate is the base of the mold was removed. Inserted in its place auxiliary plate similar to the plate-lid, and pushed the punch of the metal of the workpiece with powder filling. Then again led the mold to its original state, and the stages of deformation of the workpieces to be repeated until the formation of ultrafine-grained structure throughout the volume of the workpiece.

Deformation of the metal pieces was carried out in the temperature range from 600°C to room temperature. The accumulation of deformation in the workpiece temperature processing reduced speed eight times in sequence 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 150, 100, 22°C. When dostijeniyami true strain titanium nickelide ln(l/LK), equal to 8.4, on the surface of the sample main cracks were absent. The microhardness of the surface obtained after cutting the workpiece along several orthogonal cross-sections did not reveal deviations microhardness more than 10% from the average. In the workpiece processed by the method of the prototype, the dispersion of the values of microhardness was 15%.

Example 4. Analogously to example 1 was produced by filling the lower part of the matrix filling of refractory powder, consisting of 25 wt.% AlN+25 wt.% SiO2+50 wt.% MgO, at a height of 10 mm, then preparation of sintered aluminum in the form of a cylindrical rod with a height of 50 mm and a diameter of 45 mm was placed on the backfill, fills the free space cavity of the matrix around the blank-filled to a level above the upper point of the workpiece 15 mm, was inserted in the window of the upper plate of the device plug, put the device in the collection in a muffle furnace and heated it to a temperature of 250°taking out the mold from the oven, put it on the bottom plate of the press and produced the movement of the punch to provide compression of the workpiece through the powder filling 40% its height. After removal of the pressure plate is the base of the mold was removed. Inserted in its place auxiliary plate and said punch metal of the workpiece with powder filling. Then again led mold is in its original state, and stages of deformation of the workpieces to be repeated until the formation of ultrafine-grained structure throughout the volume of the billet, which was carried out by selective optical and electronic control. Total true strain ln(l/LK) procurement amounted to 3.5. Harvesting was not defective, on its surface there were no macro-cracking and micro-cracks. A similar workpiece processed by the method of the prototype, with the same degree of deformation, collapsed, and on the surface of its fragments had a deep macro - and microcracks.

In the proposed method, and the device is implemented comprehensive scheme of uniform compression due to pressurization powder filling, which allows the deformation of workpieces as of plastic, so maloplastichnye materials. This improves the deformability and increases the homogeneity of the metal workpiece. Spring-loaded sliders and thrust bolts provide the necessary back pressure and the degree of deformation in the direction of metal flow.

The proposed method for the formation of ultrafine-grained structure in a metal workpiece and a device for its implementation to handle large piece of metal with different ratios of sizes, to increase the yield by reducing the inhomogeneity of the grain is structure and anisotropy on the volume of the workpiece, to reduce the number of surface defects in the blanks, and to expand the types of materials of the workpieces to be processed to ultrafine-grained state.

Thus, in the proposed method and device are fundamental differences and significant advantages compared to the prototype method and device prototype.

1. The method for forming the ultrafine-grained structure in a metal workpiece by deformation processing pressurized, including the gradual compression of the workpiece vertically compressive punch in the mold containing the matrix, bottom, limited flat bottom with a cavity to accommodate a workpiece and for handling the workpiece in three orthogonal directions with the provision of a plastic flow of the workpiece material in directions not coincident with the direction of the compressive effort at each stage of deformation processing, the workpiece is placed in the cavity of the matrix, compress and extract the deformed blank from the cavity of the matrix, characterized in that at each stage of deformation processing of the workpiece before it placement into the cavity of the matrix produce filling the lower part of the cavity of the matrix filling of refractory powder is 0.1-0.5 of the compressed height of the workpiece, and then the workpiece is placed on the backfill, fill with filling loose the e space formed between the two pairs of sliders arranged in two mutually orthogonal directions in the matrix, and the workpiece to a level above the upper point of the workpiece by 0.1-0.5 compressible height, is inserted into the matrix of the punch, move it up to ensure compression of the billet in 10-60% of its height, and the stages of deformation of the workpieces to repeat, changing directions of deformation, prior to the formation of ultrafine-grained structure throughout the volume of the workpiece.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the deformation of the metal of the workpiece is carried out in the temperature range from 600°to room.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the accumulation of deformation in the workpiece temperature processing to reduce speed from two to eight times.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the particle size of the powder filling is chosen within 5-3·103um.

5. The apparatus for forming ultrafine-grained structure in a metal workpiece during its deformation processing pressurized, made in the form of the mold containing the matrix with a rectangular plate-base, a punch and two pairs of sliders arranged in two mutually orthogonal directions, wherein the die wall is made in the form of two pieces of square tube of the same length, tight-fitting each karugu, each of which is composed of four plates, the outer plate forming the outer wall of the matrix are interconnected outer welded seams in the inner walls of the matrix formed internal plates made two pairs of identical orthogonal two rectangular boxes whose internal dimensions of the first stages bordering the inner cavity of the matrix are smaller than the internal dimensions of the second, adjacent steps in the exterior walls of the matrix with the inner sides made of rectangular cavities, the shape of the section which follows the shape of the cross section of the second speed-UPS, floaters, made in the form of two rectangular pedestals, the upper stage each of which follows the shape of the first stages of the Windows and the shape of the cross section of the lower step - shaped section of the second speed window, the height of the bottom step of the podium 0.1-0.2 depth second stage boxes, sliders from the lower level holes-depressions, floaters, placed in the Windows of the inner walls of the matrix with the possibility of radial movement relative to the longitudinal axis of the matrix in the external walls of the matrix opposite the openings of the recesses sliders made through the screw holes in the holes-cavities sliders and end-to-end threaded hole is x placed the ends of the additionally introduced a cylindrical compression spring, which are fixed in the screw holes screwed them set screws with flat ends, the plate base is made with a rectangular recess in which is firmly inserted the lower part of the walls of the matrix, and the upper part of the walls of the matrix tightened further introduced rectangular to match the shape and dimensions of the slab-base matrix stove-lid, which is a through hole for passage of the punch, in the exterior walls of the matrix is made optional through screw holes, the axes of which are in the same planes with the axes of the above-mentioned end-to-end screw holes at distances from them, equal to half the distance between these axes, and in these the screw holes are placed stubborn bolts, the heads of which are on the outer faces of the outer walls of the matrix, and persistent posted by bolts locknuts, and props made in the form of filling of refractory powder filling space between the slides, the bottom of the matrix, the punch and the workpiece, while the lower part of the cavity of the matrix is filled by the filling powder is 0.1-0.5 of the compressed height of the workpiece, and the top of the workpiece level backfill above the upper point of the workpiece by 0.1-0.5 compressible height.



 

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5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: ingot 1 of big size - with diameter of 400-700 mm and length of 2-3 m is produced by means of casting. Forging of ingot 1 for fabricating semi-finished product 3 is performed in two stages. The first stage of forging ingot 1 is carried out at temperature corresponding to region of existing of α- and β-phases. Temperature of forging can be for example within range from 850°C to 950°C. Fabricated semi-finished products are used for production of tube component of fuel assembly out of rod or stock such as tube shell or guiding tube of fuel assembly of nuclear reactor cooled with water or component of fuel assembly of CANDU reactor and also for producing rod of smaller diameter for plugs, closing ends of tube shells of rods of fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors.

EFFECT: invention facilitates simplification and reduction of cost of items fabrication.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: top of automotive body roof contains at least steel frame and envelope component made of aluminium alloy, affixed to steel frame before covering and drying heat treatment of paint-and-lacquer coating. Envelope component made of aluminium alloy is implemented of treated for solid solution, hardening and aging during 3 weeks at temperature of sheet environment with content, wt %: Si 0.7-1,3, Fe<0.5, Cu 0.5-1.1, Mn 0.4-1.0, Mg 0.6-1.2, Zn<0.7, Cr<0.25, Zr+Ti<0.20, aluminium and unavoidable admixtures - the rest. After previously mentioned heat processing sheet apparent elastic limit made of aluminium alloy is R0.2 less than 170 MPa, and preferentially - less than 160 MPa. There are developed sheets which are of meant for reuse compound, sufficient deformability and low striation at deep stamping in heavy-load conditions, raised endurance to dent formation, capability of form elastic recovery after deformation, good aptitude for bonding, scarfing without burring, good endurance to filiform corrosion, and improved permanent deformation characteristics after drying.

EFFECT: characteristics improvement.

16 cl, 7 tbl, 2 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: hot rolling of workpiece is carried out in (α+β)- and β-areas. Possibility of high-precision plates manufacture in thickness and nonflatness with minimum level of internal stresses is provided by the fact that final rolling in (α+β)-area is carried out in one direction in several passes with obligatory heating of workpiece up to rolling temperature after every pass. When temperature of plate reaches 500-900°C, preliminarily flattening is performed on roller flattener unit or press. Baking of plates is executed under creep conditions at temperature of 650-800°C with time delay of 5-15 hours and cooling in furnace down to 200-500°C.

EFFECT: increased precision of thickness and nonflatness.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at fabrication of thin plates out of stamped or forged slabs by method of hot rolling. The source ingot is subject to preliminary hot rolling in (α+β)-region. The rolled ingot is heated to temperature of 50...150°C higher, than the temperature of polymorphic transformation, then it is held within 15...50 minutes and cooled at a rate of at least 50°C/min. Then the ingot is heated to the temperature of 60...180°C lower, than the temperature of polymorphic transformation, and rolled. Rolling is performed in lengthwise and cross directions against the direction of rolling of the source ingot. The total degree of deformation at rolling is at least 75%. The produced plate is subject to thermo treatment by means of annealing at a temperature of 700...850°C with holding within 30...90 minutes.

EFFECT: facilitating of production of items with fine grain structure and upgraded mechanical properties at minimal anisotropy.

2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at manufacture of preforms for details of gas-turbine drives from high-alloy nickel alloys with the amount of γ-phase exceeding 25%. Obtain initial preforms from measured preforms in the form of a bar of the big section with a rectangular cross-section by upsetting, punching, cutting-out and spacing of the diameter. Before punching, the jumped preforms are shifted in overaged condition. For this purpose heat them in the furnace for hardening to the temperature exceeding on 10...30°C temperature of full dissolution of γ-phase of a nickel alloy. Then the preforms are conditioned for 0.5...2 hours and slowly cooled with speed of 0.5...1.0 deg/minute to the temperature of 950...900°C, conditioned at this temperature and further cooled on air. Before punching a preform is heat in the heating furnace at temperature 1000...950°C within 1...2 hours. The received initial preforms are thermal processed in overaged condition also heat for rolling-off to overaging temperatures. The rolling-off is performed on a ring-rolling mill in one - three operations. The unrolled preforms are thermal processed in overaged condition and gauged according diameter in heated condition.

EFFECT: quality increase of the obtained preforms due to provision of punching of an optimum hole and crack formation exception during spacing.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods of producing nano crystal alloy on base of titanium nickelide and can used, for example, in medicine for creation of biocompatible materials on base of titanium nickelide possessing high physic-mechanical properties. The method includes multiple reduction of a heated blank at temperature of heating 150-250°C and degree of reduction 15-20%.

EFFECT: improved physic-mechanical properties of alloy.

1 ex, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: stock is assembled by means of laying of bars from metals and alloys in the form of packet. Assembled stock is deformed by means of equally-channeled angular pressing by punching of mentioned stock in the form of packet of bars through crossing vertical and horizontal channels of matrix. After that the mentioned stock is separated into bars that are calibrated to prepare finished bar.

EFFECT: reinforced bars from metals and alloys.

2 cl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method includes hot heading, electrocontact heating of whole rod till temperature Ac3+(50-250)°C with velocity 10-200°C/s and tension with strain 0.1-0.5 kilogram-force /mm2, cooling from this temperature on air till workshop temperature, and also heating for tempering till 250-700°C with velocity 10-200°C/s with soaking 1-15 min and tension 0.5-2 kilogram-force /mm2.

EFFECT: homogeneous structure and fine grain, high and uniform mechanical properties, corrosion stability along the full length and section of rods.

1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: technological processes, non-cutting shaping.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to metals non-cutting shaping for improvement of tool steel resistance and may be used in aircraft building, shipbuilding and other industries. In order to improve tools resistance, stocks are subjected to plastic deformation, first by twisting to shear deformation on the stock surface, than by collapsing to logarithmic compression strain, accumulated plastic deformation is determined by the following dependence: where ec is logarithmic compression strain; γ0 - shear deformation on the stock surface, and then the stock is thermally treated.

EFFECT: improves tool steels resistance.

3 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to the field of metallurgy and may be used in the automotive industry, ship building, and chemical equipment building industry. For the manufacture of complex shape hardware with a tensile strength exceeding 1400 MPa and high ductility properties (Ψ>55% and δ>25%), a preliminary heat treated workpiece is machined; the machining includes heading by cold working and thread rolling; after the thread rolling, the parts are quenched by heating in a salt bath at 1000-1050°C and water cooling, and tempered in a caustic bath at 400-450°C during 1-2 hours, with subsequent additional treatment in a rotary drum, with a mixture of steel balls with a diameter of 0.002-0.005 m and wooden cubes with an edge height of 0.02-0.03 m during no less than 10 hours. Besides that, the treatment in the rotary drum is performed at a drum rotation speed of 40-50 rpm alternating the rotation direction every 2 minutes.

EFFECT: complex shape hardware with high tensile strength and enhanced ductility.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly local strengthening of hollow and solid blanks of axially symmetrical parts of iron-base mean- and high-alloy steels and alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of plastically deforming blank rigidly fastened between clamps and heated till temperature no less than phase conversion ending temperature and no more than recrystallization starting temperature due to rotating at least of one clamp. Deformation is realized at rate and deformation degree sufficient for providing dynamic recrystallization processes but not causing stability loss at plastic deformation related to energy dislocation. Deformation is performed near peripheral layer of blank. Due to dynamic crystallization maximally possible grain size disintegration in near-surface region is achieved and gradient structure is created along cross section and length of blank.

EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties in near-surface of blank, lowered cost of strengthening process.

7 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process for plastic working of metals, may be used in aerospace industry, as well as in mechanical engineering and instrument building.

SUBSTANCE: method involves deforming blank by twisting which is performed within zone restricted by individual matrices by pulling blank via through openings provided in said matrices and having sections corresponding to shape of blank profile. Blank has section different from round section. Part of blank disposed between matrices is preliminarily twisted.

EFFECT: improved physico-mechanical properties of elongated articles, increased efficiency, and high metal utilization coefficient.

3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of sleeves with fine crystalline structure.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of simultaneously working inner and outer surfaces of hollow blank; working inner surface by multiple reciprocation axial motion of expanding punch; working outer surface by rolling around in roller die while fixing ends of blank and squeezing blank.

EFFECT: improved mechanical properties of ready articles, lowered metal consumption.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: pressure shaping; manufacture of blanks from materials at preset structure including submicro-crystalline structure and nano-crystalline structure at respective level of physico-mechanical properties.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in successive deformation cycles of initial blank by compression in height, thus obtaining blank with lateral faces. Proposed method ensures smooth plastic flow of material of blank in opposite directions along axis perpendicular to direction of application of deformation force. Each deformation cycle includes placing the blank in device, subjecting it to deformation, withdrawing the blank from device and re-setting for next cycle. Device proposed for realization of this method has working part with cavity and upper and lower punches. Working cavity consists of two parts: upper and lower. Lower part is widened along one of its horizontal axes.

EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity of ultrafine-grained structure at improved mechanical properties.

9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mechanical engineering; methods of volumetric hardenings of the metallic products.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of volumetric hardenings of the metallic products by methods of training mechanical actions. The technical result of the invention is the increased cyclic service life. For reaching the technical result the cylindrical thin-walled pipe is subjected to the multiple training action at the continuous gyration of the main axes of the stressed state by the simultaneous application of the stretching axial force, the interior pressure and the twisting moment. At that the axial thrust and the interior pressure are applied in the form of the constant sign cycles in the opposite phase, and the torque - in compliance with the symmetrical cycle with the lag or with the phase advance by the quarter of the cycle concerning the phase of one of the extreme values of the axial thrust. At that the formed rotational training biaxial stretching is given the helical rising character with bringing the maximal main stress up to the level of the material tensile strength at the rotation frequency of the main axes of the stress state of no less than 5-10 Hz.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased cyclic service life of the of the metallic thin-wall cylindrical pipes.

6 dwg

FIELD: processes and equipment for thermal treatment of machine parts.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of subjecting machine parts to cold treatment in liquid medium, for example in liquefied nitrogen in temperature range (-150°С)- (-269° С) and simultaneously subjecting parts to action of electro-hydraulic shocks.

EFFECT: improved wear resistance of machine parts, die and metal cutting tools.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: stock is assembled by means of laying of bars from metals and alloys in the form of packet. Assembled stock is deformed by means of equally-channeled angular pressing by punching of mentioned stock in the form of packet of bars through crossing vertical and horizontal channels of matrix. After that the mentioned stock is separated into bars that are calibrated to prepare finished bar.

EFFECT: reinforced bars from metals and alloys.

2 cl

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