Method of strain treatment of bars from metals and alloys
FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: stock is assembled by means of laying of bars from metals and alloys in the form of packet. Assembled stock is deformed by means of equally-channeled angular pressing by punching of mentioned stock in the form of packet of bars through crossing vertical and horizontal channels of matrix. After that the mentioned stock is separated into bars that are calibrated to prepare finished bar.
EFFECT: reinforced bars from metals and alloys.
The invention relates to a pressure treatment of materials, and in particular to methods of hardening metals during processing.
A method of obtaining bars of the alloys according to which is made from an alloy by extrusion or produced by cross-helical rolling semi-finished products in the form of rods, heated them and are made of semi-finished bars and rods, rotary forging [RF patent 2162900, MKI C22F1/18, SS 1/02, publ. 10.02.2001].
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of efficiency of the hardening material.
A known method of deformation processing bars, close to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved positive effect consists in the Assembly of the workpiece by placing the package bars of metals and alloys, the deformation of the workpiece, the separation of the rods and the calibration to the finished rod [EN 2146975 C1, 27.03.2000, VS 1/00, 5 S.(prototype)].
The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of intensive plastic deformation of the bars.
The objective of the proposed method is to develop a method of producing a hardened rods of metals and alloys.
This object is achieved in that in the known method of deformation processing rods of metals and alloys, which consists in the Assembly of the workpiece by placing the package bars of metals is alloys, the deformation of the workpiece, the separation of the rods and the calibration to the finished rod, according to the invention, the deformation of the workpiece is carried out by equal channel angular pressing by pushing the workpiece through intersecting vertical and horizontal channels of the matrix.
In addition, this object is achieved:
- if the Assembly of the workpiece is performed by twisting the bars.
The proposed solution provides strengthening ligaments rods of metals and alloys and efficiency technologies deformation processing due to the simultaneous hardening of the few metal bars.
Equal channel angular pressing of the workpiece in the form of twisted rods of metals and alloys and the torsional deformation of the workpiece composed of rods, in a horizontal channel matrix allows you to increase the intensity of plastic deformation in a single processing cycle.
The method is as follows.
The workpiece is composed of a bunch of metal rods, placed in a vertical channel using a punch deform in the horizontal channel. In the process of pushing rods are subjected to plastic deformation, grinding grain and hardening of the material.
To achieve high degrees of plastic de is ormeci, deformation processing is subjected to the workpiece collected by twisting rods of metals and alloys.
1. Method of deformation processing rods of metals and alloys, including the Assembly of the workpiece in the form of a package stacking bars of metals and alloys, the deformation of the assembled workpiece, the division into rods, which are calibrated to the finished rod, characterized in that the deformation is carried out by equal channel angular pressing the punching blanks collected workpiece in the form of a package of rods through the intersecting vertical and horizontal channels of the matrix.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the Assembly of the workpiece is performed by the torsion bars.
FIELD: pressure shaping; manufacture of blanks from materials at preset structure including submicro-crystalline structure and nano-crystalline structure at respective level of physico-mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in successive deformation cycles of initial blank by compression in height, thus obtaining blank with lateral faces. Proposed method ensures smooth plastic flow of material of blank in opposite directions along axis perpendicular to direction of application of deformation force. Each deformation cycle includes placing the blank in device, subjecting it to deformation, withdrawing the blank from device and re-setting for next cycle. Device proposed for realization of this method has working part with cavity and upper and lower punches. Working cavity consists of two parts: upper and lower. Lower part is widened along one of its horizontal axes.
EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity of ultrafine-grained structure at improved mechanical properties.
9 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: pressure treatment of materials, particularly to obtain parts with predetermined service performance level by cold plastic deforming thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging cylindrical billet in matrix interior on shpero-dynamic fluctuation module so that the billet is supported by pusher, wherein the module comprises cavity with main resonator located in the cavity; performing double-sided billet deformation from the opposite directions thereof, wherein from upper billet end the billet is deformed by applying rolling force thereto by means of die, from lower billet end the billet is deformed by applying summary pulsed force of shpero-dynamic fluctuation module and main resonator. Additional resonator is freely installed in module interior to apply additional percussion force to lower billet end during billet deformation.
EFFECT: provision of wavy plastic deformation and creation of "artificial intelligence" zones in billet.
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing cylindrical blank in cavity of lower die on sphere-dynamic fluctuation module and resting part by means of pusher; deforming part by rolling-around punch; imparting to said punch and to pusher motion along curves in the form of logarithmic helixes rising in the same direction. It provides realization of wave structure of plastic deformation and obtaining in blank of material zones of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for producing parts with desired level of operational characteristics.
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing blank onto support; end upsetting of blank and then deforming it with punch; subjecting punch to complex motion in the form of circular rolling out at simultaneous cyclic axial rocking; subjecting blank at side of its support to cyclic striking pulses acting along helical path. Due to such complex motion of punch blank is deformed by value consisting of 5 - 7 % of predetermined deformation degree. Then motion of cyclic axial rocking of punch is interrupted and pulse effort is applied to punch at frequency equal to that of forced oscillations of support. Blank is subjected to finish shaping by rolling it out with use of punch without pulse efforts. Invention provides wave nature of plastic deformation, penetration of rotor to nano-level of blank material for forming in it massifs of material of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for forming desired operational properties in material of blank.
FIELD: plastic working of materials, namely apparatuses for strengthening materials at working process.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes punch; upper and lower die halves respectively with vertical and horizontal mutually crossing ducts. In order to rotate blank in horizontal duct, lower die half is rigidly joined with gear wheel. At outlet of horizontal duct coaxially relative to it changeable washer is mounted; inner opening of said washer is less than outlet opening of horizontal duct. Vertical duct has starting portion with cross section area exceeding cross section area of vertical duct. Horizontal duct has successively arranged ( beginning from crossing line with vertical duct) inlet cylindrical part, cone part and outlet cylindrical part. Upper die half is built-up one, it consists of three parts. Mean part of upper die half is rigidly joined with gear wheel providing rotation of blank in vertical duct. Vertical duct of said mean portion of upper die half may have cone and cylindrical parts.
EFFECT: enhanced mechanical characteristics, improved quality of worked blanks.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hollow cylinder stock is brought with its not subject to treatment end to clamping device and fixed in it. After that a mandrel with a coaxially inserted and lengthwise set off spike is introduced into the end of the zone of the stock, subject to treatment. Its free end passes up to the clamping device. The end of the spike is brought after that in an axial direction of the stock into contact with geometric locking with the clamping device. The mandrel together with the clamping device and stock are axially passed through a stationary technological position. To facilitate inside and, if necessary, outside profiling, the surface of the stock along the section subject to treatment is radially effected in this position. The device contains the first and axially installed to it the secondary spindle straddles, axially set off to the first spindle straddle mandrel and the stationary technological position with cold fabrication tools for operating radially to the axis of the straddle. The clamping device is located coaxially against the axis of the first straddle and it is designed to be set off against the technological position. At that the technological position is situated stationary between the spindle straddles. There is also the movable spike axial-symmetrically situated inside the mandrel.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities.
24 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains forging machine, mechanism for conveying tube stock into deformation site and mandrel. The mandrel is installed at the front end of a mandrel holder in kind of a rod. The rod is secured in the stationary bracket and is designed to axially travel. The end of the rod, backward of the mandrel travel, is located behind the bracket and has threaded and flat parts. Adjusting components are arranged on the threaded part. A cylinder spring and a block of disk springs are successively arranged on the flat part; at that the block of the disk springs thrusts into the stationary bracket. Rigidity of the disk springs exceeds that of the cylinder spring. Besides, a cylinder cartridge, enveloping the cylinder spring, is placed on the flat part; the said cartridge is situated between the adjusting components and the block of the disk springs. The thrust, adjusted along the axis of the rod, is installed on the part of the rod before the stationary bracket. A cylinder compression spring is installed between the thrust and the stationary bracket.
EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of forging process and quality of fabricated items.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns area of constant magnets receiving with fine-grain structure from alloys on the basis of system neodymium -iron-boron or praseodymium - iron-boron, holding increased magnetic characteristic. Method includes blank casting and further its deformation by method of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) in intersected vertical and horizontal channels with intersection angle equal to 90-135° in range of temperatures 500-800°C with achieving accumulated logarithmic degree of deformation not less then 0.5. Method can include further processes of hot deformation by method of settling or rolling or extrusion of blank. Method can include also additional one-phase or multistep annealing 500-1000°C at different stages of treatment.
EFFECT: increasing of magnets magnetic properties, increase in productivity of process magnets receiving.
4 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: sequential blank compression in through rectangular matrix channel is performed in stages. Difference between channel side sizes is 0.5-1%. After each stage the blank is remounted. According to first variant, compression is performed by repeating cycles, each cycle consisting of three stages. At the first stage compression is performed along Z axis with material flow along Y axis and deformation restriction along X axis. At the second stage compression is performed along X axis with material flow along Z axis and deformation restriction along Y axis. At the thrid stage compression is performed along Y axis with material flow along X axis and deformation restriction along X axis. According to second variant, at the first two stages compression is performed in the same pattern. For the third an each next uneven stage blank is remounted along diagonal matrix channel. At the third stage compression is performed with X and Z axes rotation at an angle close to 45°.
EFFECT: intense plastic deformation of blank material maintained.
22 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of temperature control optimisation in processes, including following stages: temperature definition on dies, data communication to computer platform (9), implementing comparison of received data with target value. Accidental feedback to the running of technological process with usage of fluent heat carrier (12), implementing selection of element quantity of heat from die (8) for the purpose of reducing stage WARM-UP (8).
EFFECT: improvement of method of temperature control optimisation.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for parts production cold-upsetting tool is used in the form of multi-position unit. Unit includes five positions and contains puncheons, thrusters, assembled matrixes and strippers. Assembled matrix in the fourth position is installed motionlessly and is equipped with reduction step at the insert. Stripper of the fourth position is arranged with the opening, in which spring-loaded puncheon is installed. Cut billet is subjected to setting and calibration with leveling of butt ends and formation of conical marks. By means of further billet setting head is created. Then opening is pressed out in the billet and its external diameter is reduced with formation of step. Reduction of diameter is carried out in motionless matrix with insert, which has reduction step. For that purpose billet is displaced until it thrusts stripper with spring-loaded puncheon with its butt-end. Puncheon is installed in billet pressed out opening. Later billet is displaced together with puncheon and stripper via reduction step of matrix. After that billet opening is interweaved.
EFFECT: expansion of technological resources.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for one technological operation two types of pressing are carried out. As one type direct pressing of metal is used from container to its exit via calibrating zone. The second type is equal-channel angular pressing with provision of shift deformations in metal. Direct pressing is carried out prior to angular pressing. Shift deformations at angular pressing are provided immediately after metal exit from calibrating zone of direct pressing. Pressing is performed in the device that contains puncheon, matrix with two crossing channels and container. Container is installed above the matrix. Container cavity forms inlet part of vertically installed matrix channel. Area of inlet part cross section exceeds cross section area of vertically installed channel. The latter is arranged in the form of calibrating belt for direct pressing of metal from container. Height of belt makes 4-10 mm, and its diameter is equal to diameter of matrix second channel.
EFFECT: production of long-length items with high mechanical properties from different structural materials with simultaneous reduction of power intensity.
6 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: construction equipment.
SUBSTANCE: rod ends are made with thickenings which have screw. For rods joining joiner is used with inner screw. Thickenings on rod ends are received on forging press fitted with equipment for cold heading of reinforcing rod ends. As stated device for disembarkation forging die is used, having longitudinal channel along the length for operation security with long reinforced rods.
EFFECT: provision of process capability widening of used equipment with serviceability and economic feasibility preservation.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metal treatment under pressure and can be used at forging of blanks fabricated out of nickel base alloys, super alloys including. A forging press with stamping alloy forging dies is used for this purpose. The blank made out of a super alloy is heated to a temperature within range of approximately 1850°F up to approximately 1950°F. Forging dies made out of a nickel base alloy are heated to a temperature within range of approximately 1500°F up to approximately 1750°F. The blank is then placed between dies and forged. As a result a forged item is produced. A blank out of a packed powdered alloy on nickel base and dies out of a super alloy on nickel base are used for production of a half finished component of a gas turbine engine. The blank and the dies are heated to the above mentioned temperatures. Forging is carried out at an open air at a nominal deformation rate exceeding approximately 0.02/sec.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
15 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: forging is performed in several passes by means of an upper flat and a lower cut out strikers. The lower striker has an impression in a shape of a scalene triangle. During the first pass a blank by compression is shaped into a scalene triangle with an obtuse angle 100-105° and a lesser acute angle 29-34°. During the following passes the blank is placed in the same strikers with support of a lesser side of the triangle of its cross section on a bigger side of a scalene triangle of cross section of the impression of the lower striker.
EFFECT: risk of defect formation is excluded.
12 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: technological processes, tool.
SUBSTANCE: tool contains container with heater, hollow press-stamp with pressure pad, movable holder and chamber matrix. Matrix splitter has central cylindrical opening for holder passage and alignment. Annular gap for pipe extrusion is formed with central cylindrical opening of splitter and working channel of matrix ring. Longitudinal grooves are arranged on the surface of splitter opening, and channels - feeders of welding chamber are formed with these grooves and holder.
EFFECT: quality of pipes is increased with reduction of pressing pressure.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method of profiles pressing may be used in production in profiles, mostly bars, by method of hot pressing from hard-to-deform materials, in particular, from titanium alloys, during pressing of profiles front technological washer is placed between glass washer and billet. Technological washer is made of material, the yield point of which at preset temperature amounts to 0.8÷1.5 of yield point of billet material at pressing temperature. End of technological washer that faces matrix has conical-cylindrical surface. Angle of washer end taper αt is less than angle of matrix taper αm, which is measured between axis of matrix and generatrix of working surface, by 5÷25°, diameter of cylindrical part corresponds to diameter of matrix calibrating part, and washer end that faces billet has spherical convex surface with radius that is equal to 0.7÷3.0 of press containers' diameters.
EFFECT: reduction of pressed profile front end cutoff pieces and obtainment of regulated structure along the whole length of bar.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: production of large diameter tubes from high strength aluminum alloys of system such as Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu satisfying high accuracy demands of wall thickness and diameter and also of tube rectilinearity.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of casting, homogenization, cutting and mechanically working, induction heating of ingots, hot extrusion of tubes, straightening them by tension, quenching and aging. Hot extrusion is realized with use of lock joint of needle and needle holder in order to provide possibility for self centering of needle relative to die. Before guiding ingots to container ingots are turned around lengthwise axis by 180° in order to level temperature field of extruded metal. Ingots are subjected to mechanical working at wall thickness difference in range 0.6 - 1.0 mm and skewing of ends 0.4 - 0.7 mm. Tensile straightening of tubes with very large diameters and cross section surface areas not suitable for straightening in quenched state is realized in hot extruded state at residual deformation degree 1 - 3% and at lowest value of limit yield.
EFFECT: possibility for providing high accuracy of wall thickness, diameter and rectilinearity of tubes.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 notes
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely apparatuses for extruding materials.
SUBSTANCE: press includes container, hollow ram that carries lower die, movable crosspiece in which push cylinder is rigidly mounted. Ram is mounted in plunger of said cylinder. Ram is built-up one, it includes solid cylindrical part secured to plunger of push cylinder and hollow sleeve of ram with cylindrical part. Hollow sleeve is mounted in lid of push cylinder. Length of sleeve of ram consists of 0.1 - 0.4 of length of container. Relation of wall thickness of cylindrical part of ram sleeve to inner diameter of container is in range 0.1 - 0.2. Lid of push cylinder is secured to movable crosspiece and it engages with container. In central portion said lid has through opening and cylindrical large-diameter slope. Ram sleeve inner cavity that faces lower die has cone portion with inclination angle of generatrix to its axis in range 30 - 60°. Relation of thickness of end portion of sleeve of ram with cone part to thickness of sleeve cylindrical part is in range 0.3 - 0.5.
EFFECT: possibility for flexible control of metal extrusion process for making articles with uniform distribution of mechanical properties along their length and cross section or with preset distribution of mechanical properties along article length.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly manufacture of seamless hot extruded tubes of expensive metals and alloys, such as titanium alloys.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises step of placing in container technological washer in the form of disc before loading heated solid cross-section blank into it. Said washer is made of material whose yield limit at predetermined heating temperature exceeds that of blank material at extrusion temperature. Central opening is made in blank by through piercing at pressing out metal to container and at forming scrap of technological plate material. Then tube is extruded in gap between needle and die at forming remainder of technological plate material. Before extrusion process technological washer with formed opening is placed between blank and pressure pad.
EFFECT: reduced cost for making extruded tubes of expensive materials due to improved factor of using metal and due to lowered labor consumption for making technological washers.