Geo-electrical prospecting method
FIELD: physics; measurements.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to electrical prospecting using an electrical resistance technique. The invention can be used chiefly, for detecting tectonically crushed, water permeable rocks, detection of ore-bearing objects, covered by loose formations, studying the spread of industrially contaminated underground water in the geological environment etc. One supply ground connection is put at infinity. In a well, several supply ground connections are arranged at a given distance from each other. These connections are successively connected to a current source. For each connection, the potential drop between receiving ground connections are measured using a measurement grid. The apparent electrical resistance values are determined from the potential drop values. Isolines for electrical resistance for all depths where the supply ground connections are drawn up. Presence and position of geoelectric irregularities is determined from the layout of the isolines. Within the boundaries of the detected irregular regions, one of the receiving ground connections is moved around the other. The potential drop between them is measured. In the direction of the receiving line, at maximum voltage value, the spread of linear-stretched irregularities or the position of local objects with increased electroconductivity can be determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of detecting irregularities in the geological environment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The present invention relates to an electrical exploration method of electrical resistivity and improves the efficiency study of the upper part of the geological section, identify local variations in the bedrock.
The field of application of the proposed method: identification of tectonically fragmented, permeable rocks; the discovery of ore-bearing objects, covered with unconsolidated entities; the study of the distribution in the geological environment of human-contaminated groundwater and other
A known method of charge intended for exploration of ore deposits, in which one supply grounding refers to practical infinity, the other is placed in the ore of undercutting opened by the well, and on the earth surface system profiles traced the lines of equal potential, or studied the potential distribution or gradient. According to the plan configuration of the lines of equal values, or by changing the profile of the values of the potential and its gradient is judged on the distribution of the surveyed area of the ore-bearing zone .
The known method has significant drawbacks: first, the results depend on changes in the power and electrical resistivity overlying unconsolidated formations, secondly, experimental graphics capabilities and the and its gradient are compared with theoretical designed for homogeneous environments, although the geological environment is heterogeneous in both the horizontal and vertical direction .
There is a method of small-scale charge intended for examination of large ore fields and selection within individual ore objects. As in the method of the charge, one supply grounding refers to practical infinity, and the second is arranged in the ore undercutting opened by the well. Because the tablets using the method of small-scale charge are of considerable size, with two receiving grounding system profiles measured the distribution of electrical potential less potential gradient .
The known method has significant drawbacks: first, when measuring the electric potential is necessary to use a long measuring lines that in areas with a high level of noise makes it difficult works, secondly, the interpretation of the experimental data is extremely complex and subjective, as it requires a great amount of geological and geophysical information.
The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a method of submerged electrodes, in which one supply grounding refer to practical infinity, another place well even in the absence of the ore undercutting, and the and the surface of the earth, using two receiving ground system profiles study the distribution of the gradient of electric potential.
Prototype method has significant drawbacks: the distorting influence of inhomogeneous both in capacity and electric resistance of a coating of loose formations; the influence of vertical contacts of rocks .
The aim of the proposed method is to increase the efficiency of detection tectonically fragmented, permeable rocks; the discovery of ore-bearing objects, covered with unconsolidated entities; the study of the distribution in the geological environment of human-contaminated groundwater.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in the proposed geoelectroprospecting that uses the first power supply ground reserved in practical infinity and connected to one of terminals of the electric current, and the second feeding ground, placed in the borehole and connected to the other terminal of the source of electric current, and two foster grounding, connected to the measuring device for measuring on the surface of the electrostatic voltage between the profile system, which consists in the fact that it uses several feeding ground, placed in the borehole at a given distance from each other, are alternately connected to terminal East is cnica electric current, and each time you connect the downhole power supply grounding measure the voltage drop between the receiving ground along profile observations, determine the values of the apparent electrical resistance and the distribution of the apparent resistivity on the area of observations and the incisions are judged on the presence and position of the geoelectric inhomogeneities. Within the identified anomalous areas one of the receiving ground move circumferentially relative to the second receiving ground at a given angle up until the absolute value of the measured voltage reaches the maximum value, and in the direction of the suction line in the area of maximum measured voltage is judged on the stretch of the geoelectric inhomogeneities.
Figure 1-2 shows the schematic of the proposed installations. The first supply earthing (included in the practical infinity. Figure 1 is a feeding ground A1-Anplaced at a given distance from each other in the borehole; M and N foster grounding; ΔUMN1- drop voltage, measured along the profile of observations; 1 - switch unit supply grounding; 2 - source of electrical current; 3 - measuring device. The arrows in figure 2 is shown moving along the circle foster SATELLINE the N 2-Ni; ΔUMniposition the suction line when the maximum absolute value of the measured voltage drop.
The proposed method is carried out with commercially manufactured equipment ERA, ERA-MARK as follows. In the presence of the surveyed area of the earth surface of the well, not even uncovered ore undercutting, placing in the borehole a series of supply grounding (A1-An), located at a specified distance (depth) from each other and connected to the switching unit, which connects each of the supply ground to one terminal of a source of electric current. Another feeding ground (In) refer to practical infinity, i.e. at such a distance, to conform to the condition: AB 10-15 times larger than the distance between the receiver ground. Supply grounding is connected to the other terminal of the source of electric current. Receiving the grounding of M and N is attached to a measuring device. When connecting the terminals of a source of electric current to the supply grounding A1measure the drop in voltage ΔUMN(A1). Then to the terminal of the electrical power source is connected to ground And2And3...Andnand measure the voltage drop ΔUMN(A2)...ΔUsub> MN(An). After performing the above measurements foster grounding moved along the profile with a step equal to MN and all operations will be repeated. According to the obtained results are the values of the apparent electrical resistance ρto(A1)...ρto(An) by the well-known expression ρto=to·|ΔUMN|/I. Here is a geometric factor setup; |ΔUMN| is the absolute value of the voltage between the receiving ground; I is the current flowing from the supply ground.
Performing such measurements in the survey area, make plans contours of apparent electrical resistance for different depths, the relevant provisions of the supply grounding A1...An. Each heterogeneity, which has a higher electrical conductivity compared to the host rocks, will be noted on these plans by the region of low values of apparent electrical resistance of the geological environment.
When performing research on individual profiles, given the different depth of placement of supply grounding A1...Anbuild the distribution of apparent electrical resistance of rocks in the context of and judge the position of heterogeneity depending on the depth.
On the anomalous areas identified as at areal studies and works on the nutrient profiles, one of the receiving ground, located along the observation profile, move on a circle whose center is the second power supply ground, and the radius is equal to MN. Moving exercise at a given angle in one direction (figure 2). At each position of the movable receiving ground measure the drop in voltage. The rolling movement of the receiving ground to produce the maximum absolute value of the voltage drop. Obtained in this case, the direction of the line MN indicates the position of the geoelectric inhomogeneities. For example, if the presence in the geological cross section linearly elongated heterogeneity with, compared with the host environment increased conductivity, the direction of the selection line MN, which is fixed to the maximum value of the electrostatic voltage between foster grounding corresponds to the strike zone of increased conductivity and receiver lines obtained at different observation points, will indicate the position of heterogeneity in the geological environment.
Thus, the advantage of the proposed method is to increase the efficiency of detection of inhomogeneities as the upper part of the section, and in the bedrock in various geological conditions, discovery of ore-bearing zones and local is bjectiv, so as an end result of research based on obtaining views on the major parameters of the geological environment - its electrical characteristics.
1. Geoelectroprospecting that uses the first power supply ground reserved in practical infinity, is connected to one terminal of a source of electric current, and the second feeding ground, placed in the borehole and connected to the other terminal of the source of electric current, and two foster grounding, connected to the measuring device for measuring on the surface of the electrostatic voltage between the profile system, characterized in that it uses multiple feeding ground, placed in the borehole at a given distance from each other, are alternately connected to the terminal of the source of electric current, and at each connection borehole supply grounding measure the drop in voltage between the receiving ground along profile observations, determine the values of the apparent electrical resistance, and the distribution of the apparent resistivity on the area of observation and the incisions are judged on the presence and position of the geoelectric inhomogeneities.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it is one of the receiving ground move in the environment and the activity related to the second receiving ground at a given angle until while the absolute value of the measured voltage reaches the maximum value, and in the direction of the suction line in the area of maximum measured voltage clarify the position of the geoelectric inhomogeneities.
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory includes creation with the help of transmitter and transmitting antenna the electromagnetic field oriented along direction of pneumatic puncher movement. At the output of receive antennas signals are extracted which are proportional to electromagnetic field component strength and which are separated using decoupler and alternatively supplied to receiver input where they are detected and amplified. According to difference of these signals the pneumatic puncher deviation angle from prescribed trajectory is evaluated. As transmitting antenna a nonsymmetric dipole is used where pneumatic puncher is long arm and conducting material disk is short arm which disk is connected to it via dielectric disk. Electromagnetic field directional pattern is created in the form of cone in microwave frequency band against electric component. Deviation angle is evaluated according to difference of signal amplitudes at output of comparing device connected by its input to receiver output and by its output - to indicator.
EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency due to increase in accuracy, range capability and interference resistance relative to external natural and artificial noise.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system includes recorder containing multichannel module of analog signal reception and transform; each channel of module includes low-pass filter, analog amplifier and analog-to-digital converter. The system also includes data control and processing module containing interconnected numeric processor, data memory and master microcontroller with program memory. The recorder contains AD converters overload detectors designed as timing units included in numerical processor. The recorder also contains built-in screen and keyboard assembly, connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory of data control and processing module. Differential operational amplifiers with controlled input are used as analog amplifiers in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder contains comprised in numerical processor timing units computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. The recorder input contains units, comprised in numerical processor timing, computing signal invariable component in channels of module of analog signal reception and transform. Input of each specified unit is connected through data exchange bus to master microcontroller with program memory, and output is connected through digital-to-analog converter to driving input of differential operational amplifier mounted in corresponding channel of module of analog signal reception and transform.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and reliability of received data and enhanced ease of use.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sound vibrations are generated in a pipeline to cause mechanic vibration of metal pipe fittings in the magnetic field of Earth. Electric E and magnetic H components of induced electromagnetic emission, ground temperature and noise level environment in the medium transported by the pipe are measured. Pipeline is located by the maximum of E-H correlation function. Ground temperature indicates leakage. The device includes acoustic oscillator with magnetostriction exciter, and gauge. The gauge consists of a case with indicator of electromagnetic emission characteristics and digital temperature indicator installed in the front panel of the case. Battery-powered receiver of electromagnetic, thermal and acoustic emission with amplifier and comparator is placed inside. The receiver can be connected with remote thermal sensor, sensor of ground acoustic oscillations with built-in antenna receiving electromagnetic emission parameters, and geomicrophone.
EFFECT: simple and highly reliable search; wider functional capabilities.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: low-frequency electromagnetic signal is transmitted through the cable. Near the bottom of the water basin, above the cable and across its route, two identical equally oriented systems of magnetic probes tuned to the same frequency, placed at a fixed distance above each other, are moved. At the axis between the magnetic probe systems, a position transducer is placed, used to measure the angle Θ of deviation of this axis from the vertical. Under the lower magnetic probe system, an ultrasonic transducer is placed, used to measure the distance from it to the water basin bottom surface h. The signals from the magnetic probes, the position transducer, and the ultrasonic transducer, are sent to the processing unit. The underwater cable laying depth d is determined using the formula where D is the distance between the magnetic probe systems; α=EL/EU is the ratio of the magnetic field intensity measured by the lower magnetic probe system to the magnetic field intensity measured by the upper magnetic probe system.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and decreased cost.
FIELD: electric geological exploration.
SUBSTANCE: before submergence, clocks installed on the current dipole and the bottom stations are synchronized. The dipole is placed vertically, so that its upper end would be at a distance of no more than 200 metres from the sea surface, and the lower end would be no more than 100 m from the sea bottom (optimally, 20-30 m from the sea bottom). The dipole is excitated with alternating rectangular pulses. The bottom stations are used to record the sweep of the horizontal and vertical field components in time when the current is applied and when it is absent. During signal analysis, the change of primary and secondary fields in time is taken into account and data describing the medium resistance and its polarisation characteristics are determined. The system of equipment includes vessel with a generator and energising field generation unit, which are connected with a vertical dipole with current electrodes, submerged in water, and an onboard data recording and processing unit, using a cable. The system also includes set of bottom stations with horizontal and vertical electrodes and magnetic field sensors. The dipole and the bottom stations are equipped with clocks supporting synchronization.
EFFECT: possibility to obtain data about specific resistance and polarisability of strata during exploration of deep water areas, and provision of more accurate predictions.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: technologies for measurement of specific electric conductivity of sea bottom.
SUBSTANCE: the system contains a large number of blocks, each block representing a unit, made with possible positioning in place on sea bottom for measuring horizontal electrical and magnetic fields. To the block unit, a vertically oriented rigid bar is attached and stretched vertically from it. The bar has a pair of electrodes, shifted vertically, which form a vertically oriented dipole antenna. The electrodes are in electric connection with the amplifier positioned inside the unit. Signal from the amplifier is dispatched to data registration processor, which is also positioned inside the unit. By means of the processor, time series of amplified signals of electric and magnetic fields are accumulated over a given time period.
EFFECT: usage of vertical field for measuring transverse changes in the geological structure of sea bottom.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology; specifying cable laying route.
SUBSTANCE: low-frequency electromagnetic signal is transmitted over cable. Two identical sets of magnetic field sensors are disposed at fixed distance from one another above cable, one on top of other. One of sensors in each set is oriented to receive vertical component of magnetic field strength and two other ones, to receive relatively perpendicular horizontal components. Sensors of top and bottom sets are positioned identically to receive horizontal components. Sensors are displaced over cable perpendicular to its route. Levels of resultant magnetic-field horizontal component received by sensors of top and bottom sets are measured. Difference between these levels are calculated. Difference between levels of vertical-component strengths measured by sensors of top and bottom sets are measured. Cable laying route is specified at point where mentioned differences in layers for horizontal and vertical magnetic-field components coincide.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of specifying cable route.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technology for finding concealed objects, for example, underground pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: system includes sensor device, having at least two sensors of magnetic field strength vector, positioned in parallel to each other for detecting only distorted magnetic field; device for transformation of direction and value of distorted magnetic field, detected by sensor device, into values for recording and then displaying values in form of letters, digits or graphic symbols; and magnetic marker, formed of magnetic material and attached to cylindrical pipeline. Magnetic marker has upper part and lower part. Lower part has curved structure, such, that center of magnetic material is perpendicular to ground. Polarity of magnetic field is indicated on upper part of magnetic marker.
EFFECT: error-free detection of position, fast attachment of marker to a pipeline, simple measurement of magnetic field.
7 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: controlling and measuring equipment, possible use for determining depth of elements of grounding device of power supply objects and traction substations of railroad transportation.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, strength H1 of electromagnetic field is measured on earth surface above the element of grounding device. Sensor is moved to any point in space for known distance "a" to the side from element of grounding device and known height "b" above the earth surface, and strength H2 of electromagnetic field is measured. Depth of elements of grounding device is determined from formula
EFFECT: movement of sensor away from element of grounding device on earth surface is not required, it is possible to determine depth from any point in space.
FIELD: geo-electro prospecting, possible use during examination of geo-electric composition of Earth to detect abnormally conductive objects, overlapped on top by a layer with reduced specific resistance.
SUBSTANCE: the environment being examined is excited by alternating magnetic field, created by four vertical magnetic momentums, which are positioned on one line in pairs symmetrically in relation to measurement point. Directions of magnetic momentums in each pair are set to mutually opposite. Magnetic momentums, which are positioned on one side of measurement point, are also installed in mutually opposite fashion. Ratio of magnetic momentum to span of internal pair of magnetic momentums is set equal to ratio of magnetic momentum to span of external pair of magnetic momentums. Frequency ratio is measured for real component of horizontal component of magnetic field, parallel to the line, on which magnetic momentums are positioned. On basis of type of frequency ratio of apparent resistance, computed on basis of real component, cut parameters are determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable in agricultural equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the inductance transducer during operation generates interferences which being amplified by an amplifier-filter may cause actuation of the flip-flop and actuator. The maximum interference signal is produced at the instant of passage of the harvester roll weld above the inductance transducer. At this moment the position pickup generates a compensating signal, which is subtracted in the amplifier from the signal of the inductance transducer. Thus, the signal used for comparison with the set point does not contain interferences.
EFFECT: simplified adjustment of the system, enhanced sensitivity, noise immunity.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: geophysics, in particular, paleomagnetism.
SUBSTANCE: the position of the interfaces formed by inversions of the geomagnetic field is determined by pulse radar detection and ranging of the magnetic field with the aid of radar units with a power potential of 500 to 600 dB. The radiating and receiving devices of the radar units include horizontal magnetic dipoles. The interfaces are separated by comparison of the data of pulse radar detection and ranging of the magnetic field and pulse radar detection and ranging of the electric field.
EFFECT: remote determination of interfaces formed by inversions of the geomagnetic field in ice layers, enhanced depth of survey.
FIELD: geophysical electric prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for ac geophysical electric prospecting which current is induced in ground by inductive method; method can be used for searching and prospecting objects as in non-conducting and conducting media. Low-frequency electromagnet field is induced by current running in non-grounded loop onto day surface of Earth. Phase shifts of components of magnetic induction are measured at preset height for parallel profiles relatively vertical component of magnetic induction along profile crossing epicenter of loop and being perpendicular to parallel profiles. Availability of abnormal conducting objects in Earth is determined from structure in phase shifts at the area.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved efficiency of aerial prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises generating low-frequency electromagnetic field with the use of ungrounded loop at the day earth surface, measuring Cartesian components of magnetic induction from parallel profiles at given levels, measuring real and imaginary parts of the Cartesian components of the magnetic induction with respect to the phase of the vertical component of the magnetic induction in the epicenter of the ground loop, determining deviations of measured components from the normal values for a homogeneous medium, and determining sections of increased electric conductivity from the sign and magnitude of these values.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and efficiency of measuring.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on measurements of electric field, excited using two electrodes. Distanced along supposed subject. Direction of field strength vector is determined on basis of results of measurements of its components in two orthogonal directions. As interpretation parameters value of difference of azimuths of strength vector observed and background, appropriate for homogenous substance, of electric fields, are used. On basis of character of deviation of force lines from background values, presence and position of non-homogenous areas is evaluated and detected.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: system for finding coordinates of track and coordinates of defects of underground pipeline has navigation satellites and starting chamber marker. The latter has navigation receiver, processing and mating units, data storage, receiving chamber marker and track marker connected in series. Mentioned markers have marker receiver and navigation receiver connected in series with processing and mating unit, data storage and intra-pipe inspection tool. The latter has flaw detection module, synchronized reference generator, marker transmitter, route detector, computational and control unit, registrar, angular speed three-component meter, three-component accelerator and longitudinal accelerator, on-ground subsystem. Before making starting intra-tube inspection tool started, its sync reference generator is synchronized with time scale of satellite radar system. Data from flaw detector module is recorded into data registrar by means of intra-tube inspection tool, as well as in registrar of three-component angular speed meter, three-component accelerometer, longitudinal accelerometer, route detector, temperature detector and current time detector. Radar parameters and current time are recorded in marker of starting chamber. Radar parameters, time of passing of inspection tool and current time are recorded route markers and marker of starting chamber. Coordinate of pipeline and coordinates of flaws are calculated in on-ground subsystem on the base of stored data.
EFFECT: improved precision of coordinate finding.
FIELD: diagnosis and control.
SUBSTANCE: as source of electromagnetic field of cathode protection of pipeline is used. Depth of position of pipeline axis is determined on basis of magnetic transverse, longitudinal and vertical components of electromagnetic field of current of cathode protection of pipeline. longitudinal electric component of electromagnetic current field of cathode protection is measured and transverse component of electromagnetic field of current of cathode protection on the left and right from pipeline axes. Results of measurements are made normal for depth of pipeline, resistance of environment, surrounding pipeline, current force in pipeline, background components of electromagnetic fields. On basis of heightened values of normal electric components of electromagnetic field of cathode protection current position and size of disruptions of isolating cover of pipeline are detected.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: pipeline construction technologies.
SUBSTANCE: method shows presence and location of defects of metallic pipelines, includes measuring above pipeline in given points during movement of magnetic field vectors in rectangular coordinates, by at least two three-component sensors, tensor of magnetic field gradients is built, by matrix transformation received information is processed, on basis of results background value is estimated and deviations from this value, on basis of difference of which for given criterion value from background value presence and location of defects of metallic pipelines is decided and magnetic graph is built to show location of defects. Device for realization of method has registration sensors system, quartz generator, frequency divider, analog-digital converter, control block, threshold block, sound and light indication block, automatic battery charge indicator, block for calculation of magnetic field gradients, block for showing information, recording device segment, recording control block, situation alignment block, block for satellite absolute geographic alignment GPS, block for selecting recording segment.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher trustworthiness, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electro-surveying by inductive profiling method, possible use for studying composition of upper part of geological cross-section.
SUBSTANCE: method uses electromagnetic field source and receiving magnetic indicator distanced from one another. Mutual orientation of electromagnetic field source and receiving magnetic indicator is such, that in normal secondary electromagnetic field, excited in radiated geo-electric section without homogeneousness, measured component of magnetic field strength is close to zero. Profiling is performed by means of horizontal displacement relatively to boundary of earth-air splitting simultaneously of source of electromagnetic field and receiving magnetic indicator with discontinuous or continuous registration of abnormal component of magnetic field. On basis of its distribution, presence of geo-electric non-homogeneousness is determined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and resistance to interference, decreased laboriousness.
FIELD: technology for finding deposits of oil and gas, possible use for finding hydrocarbon resources in carbon rocks of foundation of oil-gas containing precipitation beds.
SUBSTANCE: method includes taking samples from oil and gas bearing area with carbon foundation, adjacent to subterranean continental paleorift. Magnetic susceptibility of these is measured. On appearance of magnetic susceptibility values within range 13,0·106-31,0·106 presence of deposits is determined.
EFFECT: increased precision of finding deposits in carbon rocks of foundation, simplified method, lower costs.