Brake block of railway vehicle

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to railway transport, namely to brake blocks of railway vehicles. Brake block contains composite friction element, wire framework, solid insert located in central part of block and pressed into composite friction element. Wire framework is essentially two closed up frames around block periphery pressed into composite friction element in the rear part of brake block. Inner parts of two closed up frames overlap each other are folded outside rear part of brake block forming an eye for a splint. The block contains in its rear part wire-mesh or perforated metal sheet pressed into composite friction element. Insert has slot in its upper idle part pressed by composite friction element with orifice for splint and cantilevers symmetrically located over insert length from each side. Upper idle part of insert is put in wire frame and jammed in it. Enhancement of strength, reliability of brake block construction, tool-life gain are reached.

EFFECT: enhancement of strength, reliability of brake block construction, tool-life gain are reached.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to brake devices, namely to the brake pads for rail vehicles.

The prior art commercially produced at present cast-iron brake pads, for example, produced according to GOST 1205-73 "Pads cast-iron brake for cars and tenders Railways. Design and basic dimensions and composition brake blocks for railway cars. Composite brake blocks for railway cars are made in two types:

with a metal frame made of a steel strip with a U-shaped ledge and welded to reinforcing plate;

- wire mesh-wire frame.

(see Baserev. Production of brake pads made of composite materials for railroad cars. M. Chemistry, 1982, p.8-14).

Known block of a rail vehicle on the author's certificate of the USSR No. 518403 (IPC VN 7/02, 1976), consisting of friction material and metal frame. Metal frame is tylenol made in the form shrunk in the friction material on the perimeter pads two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing the checks. Tylenol equipped with a metal mesh is whether perforated sheet, shrunk in the friction material. This frame is received at the serial production name mesh-wire, because it consists of wire and mesh frames.

The main significant external and constructive difference of composite pads with mesh wire frame of composite pads with steel metal frame is that the Central boss these pads are made of a composite material with internal reinforcement, which increases upregulations properties pads and, as a consequence, vibration pads and prevents separation of the composite material from the frame and the destruction of the skeleton in place a U-shaped ledge.

These pads compared to the composite with a metal frame also have a longer service life, lower cost and metal.

Brake composite block compared to cast iron has become significantly more widespread use, as they have a higher coefficient of friction, less clicking and durability, several times higher service life, less weight, cost, and provide quiet and smooth braking of the train.

However, during the operation of composite brake blocks can occur separate defects, including: thermal cracks on top of the spine rolling wheels the wear of the rolling surface of the wheels, reducing braking efficiency of the brake pads in contact with water in the friction zone (rain, snow), and in the presence of coal or peat dust and leaves on the surface of the rail.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed, and has shared with him the essential features: "composite friction material and the wire frame, made in the form shrunk in the friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing checks", "Central boss with a hole for the pin and two side lugs made from a friction composite material", "Telnic equipped with a metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in frictional material.

The prior art composite brake pads containing one or more solid inserts designed to reduce the aforementioned disadvantages of composite brake blocks.

Known brake Shoe (copyright certificate of the USSR No. 159186 (20f.1, IPC 61h, 1963).

Brake Shoe is intended mainly for railway rolling stock, with solid inserts on friction hour and, characterized in that to increase the effectiveness of interactions pads with the wheel rim, a pair of rigid inserts are symmetrical about the horizontal axis pads, covers its frictional portion across the entire width.

The inserts are held by friction forces arising between them and the friction material pads.

The design of these pads do not provide the required reliability, as with long-term and emergency braking, especially in hot weather, there is an intensive heat transfer from the zone of friction on the surface of solid inserts, moreover, that the inserts have a higher thermal conductivity, so that the temperature of the composite material on the surfaces which are in contact with solid inserts, increases sharply and is fading and melting organic materials included in a composite block including a binder, and therefore the fastening inserts diminished and they no longer serve its purpose and may fall on the pad.

These pads do not reduce the inherent composite pads uneven wear due to damage to the wheelset due to the formation of thermal cracks, floaters, and a fat, increased wear (Bicycle) wheel surface. The data pads are telemetries the th frame, resulting in the vibrations generated in the brake node during operation, there may be cases not only falling out of hard insertions of the pads due to the weakening their attachment with frictional material, but the gap frictional part of the pads from the whole metal frame, as well as cracks and bending a metal frame.

The essential features most similar analogue: "solid insert overlying the strip across its width and the friction part are shared with the essential features of the claimed pads.

Known brake pad, mainly railway vehicle according to the patent of Russian Federation №2188347 from 27.08.2002. Brake pad contains a metal wire frame and a friction part, consisting of fixed thereto three inserts. The Central insert is made of cast iron and provided with a hole for the pin, and the other two inserts made of composite friction material and are located at both ends of the rigid insert.

This brake pad can improve the braking performance and increase the service life of the wheels, however, has insufficient strength and service life. thermal conductivity of cast iron is several times greater than thermal conductivity of a composite material, and the heat resistance of the composite material is insufficient. the and joints of cast-iron insert with composite inserts, on the surface they are in contact during operation there is a gradual fading of the composite material, resulting in brake pad loses the desired rigidity and long-term operation can be divided into three parts, United only by a wire frame.

Separation pads in operation for three inserts, United only wire frame is particularly causes a negative feature of this design pads, namely the contact inserts with each other in a vertical plane throughout the cross section of the pad that facilitates the rapid development of a single vertical crack and break pads.

In addition, proposed for the manufacture of the phosphor paste or grey cast iron provides insufficient effect on the improvement and preservation of the wheelset as it has in the microstructure of lamellar form of graphite, which explains its low mechanical strength and poor elongation.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed, and has shared with him the essential features: metal wire frame", "mounted thereon a friction part", "solid box", "frictional material.

The patent for useful model RU # 56522 (F16B 65/04, 22B 19/02, 2006) known brake pad of a rail vehicle, comprising a metal frame with U-shaped ledge in the Central part of the composite friction element and one solid box, located in the Central part of the pad and welded to the metal frame, wherein the rigid insert is made of ductile or malleable iron, and the ratio of the area of the working surface of a solid insert to the total area of the working surface of the pad is from 4 to 20%. Composite coleosperma brake pads with an insert made from special high-strength cast iron allow you to increase the life of the wheel, as used type of cast iron has a ferritic structure and graphite in the form of spherical or flaky inclusions, high mechanical properties, including tensile strength and elongation, resulting in the braking process at high temperatures, the iron melts, spread on the surface of the wheel and fills microcracks on the surface of the wheel, thus preventing further development of these cracks; improves wheelset and increase the resistance of the wheels to the formation of fishermen and other defects. In addition, insertion of special cast iron due to its inherent abrasiveness has at normal and low is emperature cleansing effect on the wheel, increases the roughness of the running surface of the wheel and increases the traction wheels with the rail and stability, braking performance, especially in autumn and spring.

However, this design pads with strong vibrations and frost occurs a separation of the friction element from the metal frame, and sometimes the destruction of a metal frame in place of the U-shaped ledge.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose and has a total essential features: "metal frame", "composite friction element", "solid insert of ductile or malleable cast iron".

Known composite brake pads, applicable for railway transport for recovery wheelset during normal braking of such vehicles under patent EP 1074755 (F16D 65/06, publ. 07.02.2001):

1. Composite brake pads used on railway transport for recovery wheelset during normal braking of such vehicles, consist of the following:

a) a frame with a U-shaped protrusion;

b) composite friction material of the first type formed in the brake Shoe which has a definite form;

c) a braking surface for coupling wheelset, imouse the particular form with the above-mentioned brake Shoe of a certain shape;

d) the friction material of the second type, which represents one isolated insert some form embedded in the friction material of the first type, while the friction material of the second type initially completely surrounded composite friction material of the first type, the surface of one of the isolated insert is located obverse surface to a certain area of the above-mentioned braking surface composite brake pads, the surface of at least one isolated inserts used as a composite material of the first type, is destroyed due to a friction clutch with such a rolling surface of the wheel during normal braking, these frictional material of the second type shows large abrasive properties than composition the friction material of the first type, at least one insulated insert of the above-mentioned friction material of the second type is attached to the frame.

2. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula above one insulated insertion of the friction material of the second type is made of metal.

3. In a composition brake Shoe applied to jeleznodorojnay transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 2 of the formula, the above-mentioned one insulated box made of cast iron.

4. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula above one insulated insert is attached to the inner surface of the U-shaped protrusion of the wheel.

5. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 4 of the formula, mount isolated insertion is performed by welding, which increases the U-shaped lug wheels.

6. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula specified composite brake pad includes at least two insulated insert.

7. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 6 of the formula, at least one of these two isolated inserts is located in a zone other than zone a U-shaped ledge.

8. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in soo is according to paragraph 7, of formula, the above two inserts are attached to the frame by welding.

9. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 6 of the formula, two separate inserts are located at equal distances from the center line of the specified N-shaped protrusion disposed perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the frame.

10. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula specified composite brake pad includes at least three insulated insert.

11. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 10 of the formula, three isolated inserts are attached to the U-shaped guide frame.

12. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 11 of the formula, the above three isolated inserts are attached to the U-shaped guide frame by welding, which increases the area of the N-shaped protrusion of the frame.

13. In a composition brake Shoe applied to the tra the th transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula the set design has a curved shape in the longitudinal direction.

14. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula, the friction material of the first type is attached to the frame during molding.

15. In composite brake pad applied in railway transport for recovery wheelset in accordance with paragraph 1, of the formula, the predefined shape of the friction material of the first type has a rectangular shape in a plane located perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the specified brake pads, and to a certain area of the braking surface has a concave shape to match the surface of the railway wheel, and opposite the braking surface has a concave shape for forming the skeleton brake pads and the edges of the arcuate shape along the longitudinal direction of the brake pads.

However, this composite brake blocks with U-shaped metal frame and welded to it inserts made of cast iron have drawbacks.

The welding of inserts made of cast iron to steel frame at its N-shaped protrusion increases the stiffness and location of the weld causes the em weakening of the metal frame, in the process of operation, particularly at high temperatures under constant vibration and shock loads, causes in this place of microcracks with a subsequent break in the frame and pads in General. The welding of inserts made of cast iron to the main strip steel metal frame at its N-shaped protrusion not only reduces the flexibility of the frame and reliability of a design shoes, but also requires the use of expensive special electrodes.

In patent formula not shown the type of metal and cast iron, which is inserted to restore the wheelset during normal braking, for example, no grey - friction cast iron or phosphorous cast iron, which are usually made of cast iron brake blocks with more abrasive properties than composite friction material, are not applicable to recovery wheelset during normal braking, as have lamellar structure of graphite in microstructure cast iron, low mechanical strength and elongation.

Due to the fact that the range of metals is very high and varied in its properties, including the opposite in relation to the impact on the wheel: conservation-sparing properties, or Vice versa - wear-intensive (wheel) specified in a sign that the insert is made of metal, has a General, non-specific.

Thus, these patent formula signs, insufficient for the manufacture of brake pads, reducing the rolling surface of the wheel during normal braking.

These pads with a single insertion of cast iron, welded to a steel frame with a U-shaped protrusion due to the higher abrasiveness of metal and/or iron, as has already been explained above, only increase the efficiency of interaction of the pads with the rolling surface of the wheel when injected into the friction zone of rain or snow in autumn-winter and spring-winter period.

Moreover, the composite brake pads with inserts of metal have other structural defects as a metal insert on the border of contact with the friction element covers all the cross-section of the pad in a plane close to perpendicular to the working surface of the pad, with the exception of the sectional area of the metal frame. Therefore, in the stocks in the manufacture and operation are transverse cracks across the width and thickness of the pads in the cross section at the place of junction of the frictional element and the metal insert, due to differences in their physico-mechanical properties, including thermal conductivity, heat resistance and others, with subsequent destruction when e is of use in this place and the metal frame and pads in General.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose and has a total essential features: "composite brake pad", "composite friction element", "metal frame", "one box of cast iron".

The closest analogue is a brake pad of a rail vehicle on a Russian patent for useful model №62188 (F16D 65/04, D22D 19/02, publ. 27.03.2006).

This brake pad contains a composite friction element, a metal frame with steel bars and welded thereto a rigid insert located in the Central part of the pad, and the wire frame representing shrunk in composite friction material of the back side of the pad along its perimeter two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing checks, and the metal frame of the steel strip is made of a width less than the width of the wire frame, curved on the radius of the back surface of the pad and pressed into the back surface of the pad between the side bosses and under the Central boss, and composite friction element is made of two longitudinal layers of material, and the layer located on the back side of the pad has a strength greater than the layer, is the first from the working party pads.

Pads on the closest analogue have higher resource use, durability and robust construction and resistance to vibration, as the Central boss is made of durable elastic composite material and reinforced with a wire frame.

However, this composite brake pads with a combined frame have drawbacks. Need welding cast iron insert to the steel frame that requires the use of special expensive electrodes. The absence of a perforated sheet or mesh, plated in the back surface of the pad, unlike pads with mesh-wire frame, determines the possibility of damage to the back surface of the pad (chips, shells, bared wire frame). In the manufacture of (briquetting and vulcanization under pressure pads because of the low yield strength and high coefficient of friction friction composite material in some cases is offset and even squeezing hard insert with welded onto the steel plate, passing under the Central boss in the rear side of the Central boss with the deformation of the weld, and therefore there is reduction in the structural strength of the pads and their reliability.

Known technical solution is used by including the same purpose, as claimed, and has shared with him the essential features: "composite friction element is made of two longitudinal layers of material", "the wire frame representing shrunk in composite friction material of the back side of the pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing cheques, solid box, located in the Central part of the pad.

The challenge which seeks inventive brake pad is increased strength and structural safety pads, increasing its service life.

The task decides brake pad railway vehicle containing:

- composite friction element;

- the wire frame representing shrunk in composite friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing cheques;

metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in composite friction element;

- solid box, located in the Central part of the pad and having at the top outside the hour and a groove, the notch and four console. The groove is located on the back side of the insert and pressed frictional material with a drilled hole in it to pass the checks. Four console symmetrically arranged two on each side of the insert along its length. The length of the insert in place consoles greater than the length of the Central boss, but less than the distance between the supporting bosses. The notch is located on one side across the width of the insert, and on the other side of the insert is made of rock. The upper outside portion of the insert is inserted into the wire frame and pinched it on both sides along the length on both sides for width and height so that the back surface of the insert is in the same plane with the surface of the mesh or perforated sheet at the rear surface of the Central boss, and the crushing force exceeds the weight of the insert.

The essential features of the claimed pads: "back surface of the pad includes a metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in a compositional element, insert outside of the cross-section of its upper part has a groove on its rear side, pressed friction composite material with a hole in it a hole for the passage of checks and two symmetrical console with each side along the length of the insert, diastance in place consoles greater than the length of the Central boss, but less than the distance between the auxiliary base", "notch on the side across the width of the insert, and on the other side of the ledge and the upper outside portion of the insert is inserted into the wire frame and pinched it on both sides along the length on both sides for width and height so that the back surface of the insert is in the same plane with the surface of the mesh or perforated sheet at the rear surface of the Central boss, and the crushing force exceeds the weight inserts are distinctive from the essential features of the closest analogue.

Composite friction element can be made of one or two longitudinal layers of two different composite friction materials with different strength, and the layer located on the back side of the pad has a strength greater than the layer located on the working side of the pad, for example, due to the increased content in its composition of reinforcing fibers, their range and size of the fibers. The composition of the working and non-working layers is determined in accordance with the purpose and conditions of the pads.

The wire frame is made in currently commercially by cutting lengths of wire with a diameter of 4 mm, bending and welding of these two (inner and outer) for Knuth and curved frames and paste them into each other and welded to each other on the center of the received frame at the point of contact so the inner part of the mutually overlapped and bent outward, forming an eyelet for passing checks in the Central boss after zavarovanja frame inside the rear of the block.

Perforated workpiece may be produced, for example, of tin with a thickness of 0.25 mm by perforation on special perforating die in the press, followed by cutting, bending and cutting the dies on the press.

Solid inserts can be made of special cast iron, such as ductile or malleable, by casting the required form, no further mechanical processing.

To ensure the cleaning, polishing and treatment (penetration material cast iron small microcracks wheel) impact on the wheel on the entire surface area of the contact pads with the wheel cross-section pads with an insert in the working section of the pad has a shape not dissimilar from the shape of the pads in the other cross sections. To avoid breakage of the mold envelope insert in cross-section may be provided by 1-3 mm less than that of the composite friction element, and the size difference zapressovyvajutsja frictional element of the working layer. Brake pad can be installed on cars as specified in the form, and after machining, provides the surrounding surface treatment to reduce the thickness of the pads and the release surface of the insert to produce an immediate effect recovery wheels during normal braking without running shoes.

In order to absolutely achieve a reducing effect on the surface of the wheel coleosperma brake pads during normal braking hard insert is of ductile or malleable iron, and its thickness is determined by calculation and verified experimentally taking into account the specific characteristics of the composite friction element and iron, including mechanical and frictional properties and design considerations. Usually the ratio of the area of the inserts of high-strength cast iron to the area of the frictional element is from 4 to 20%, because the coefficient of friction of cast iron and the stability of its coefficient of friction is significantly lower frictional element, the wear resistance, it is also several times smaller and iron pads (without the use of inserts of composition friction element) is not applicable at speeds above 120 km/h. The construction and dimensions of the upper part of the hard insert of cast iron outside of its cross-section is defined according to the following factors:

with the aim of preventing and reducing the area of the cracks on the vertical lines of contact of the frictional element and the rigid insert of cast iron formed as a result of their different physico-mechanical properties, including teploprovodnost is, heat resistance, hardness and other insert in the upper working section block has two symmetrical console with each side length insertion length insertion in place of consoles is greater than the length of the Central boss, but less than the distance between the supporting bosses. To provide additional strength pads in place of the vertical junction of the insertion and frictional element, the console may have the ends bent toward the working surface of the pad.

In addition to reducing the area of the vertical junction of the insertion and frictional element is increased, the area of the layer of homogeneous composition friction element by performing solid insert groove that is open from the rear surface of the insert and pressed frictional element, except for the drilled holes in it to skip the checks. Above this hole to skip checks frictional element is reinforced with a wire frame, and the hole itself surrounded on all sides by composite friction element, reinforced fibers and having the ability to resiliently elastic deformation. Solid insert manually inserted and clamped on two sides in the transverse direction in the hole of the wire frame, formed the ohms between the convex ends of the two closed frames and with the two sides in the longitudinal direction in the hole in the inner frame wire frame in its Central part and with one hand in a vertical plane, in the recess of the side. On the opposite side of the wire frame in its Central part only fits the bottom side on the ledge. Solid insert tamamlama so that the back surface of the insert is in the same plane with the surface of the mesh or perforated sheet at the rear surface of the Central boss, and the crushing force exceeds the weight of the insert.

To do this insert from the side of its vertical surface has a recess in which one of the parties to the framework of the wire frame, and with curved sides of the insert from the back surface to the ledge formed by the difference of its width outside and working sections has a concave inside surface, or the slope, the length of the insert on the back of its surface equal to the length of the holes in the wire frame is formed between the convex ends of the two closed frames, and the width of the insert in place consoles equal to the width of the holes in the inner frame, the wire frame in the Central part and the thickness of the insert is equal to the thickness of the pads or 1-3 mm has less to ensure the safety of molds for vulcanization of the brake pads.

The height of the recess and the thickness of the jumpers from the top of the recess to the back side of the insert were selected based on the need of placing and fixing it two otoh Utah out of part of the wire frame in the vertical plane.

The wire frame is a welded structure consisting of two enclosed, curved, inserted into each other and welded together frames from steel wire. It has a few holes, and its curved side is not enough parallel and perpendicular to each other. For this reason, the design is used to set manually the upper outside part of the insert in the hole and the cavity of the frame and pinch it at the expense of nparalleled and aperpendicular flexible sides of the holes of the wire.

As you know, the train wheel has a crest, slope and curved surface with a decreasing diameter in the direction opposite to the ridge side and therefore in the process of braking brake pad tends to slip from the wheel, and therefore to prevent the output of the solid insert disengaged from the wire frame notch to accommodate the wire frame in the outside section of the solid insert is performed with a lateral vertical side opposite its side curved side in the working section.

Figure 1 shows the brake pad of a rail vehicle, where:

1 - composite friction element;

2 - wire frame;

3 - solid paste;

4 - a metal frame with mesh or perforated sheet;

5 - the Central boss with a hole under check;

6 is a side lugs;

7 - groove solid insert with a hole for the passage of cheques;

8 - notch solid inserts for installation of the wire frame;

9 - ledge;

10 - the slope of the solid paste;

11 - console.

Figure 2 presents a General view of the solid insert Assembly with the metal frame of the steel strip and wire frame.

3 shows the Assembly of a rigid insert with mesh wire frame.

The technology of manufacture of brake pads provides

- the following steps (operations):

- production (casting) insertion of iron;

- production of blanks from a perforated sheet;

- fabrication and welding wire frame wire;

- build wire frame with solid paste by crushing;

- manufacturing composite friction materials for working and non-working layers;

- alternate laying in the press-form the workpieces from a perforated sheet, wire frame with a solid insert, hanging outside layer with leveling and working layer with leveling composite friction materials and followed by molding under pressure in the press;

- vulcanization pads in the mold under pressure and at a temperature of;

- drilling holes for the pin in the brake Shoe.

In IP lucitania if you use a rusty or contaminated metal reinforcement or when specific requirements on the durability of the pad can be cleaned up valve against rust, degreasing and impregnation of adhesive in the usual well-known technologies in order to improve the adhesion and fixing of the metal reinforcement with composite friction element.

All operations except the proposed Assembly wire frame with insert, is described in detail in the present counterparts. Assembly is as follows.

Insert manually at an angle up to 30° to a horizontal start with the side with the notch in the horizontal plane wire frame, cross his hole formed between the convex ends of the two closed frames, and in its longitudinal hole in the inner frame wire frame in its Central part, with simultaneous installation in the hollow wire frame in its Central part. During subsequent rotation of the insert to 0° to the horizontal with the simultaneous pressing of the insert wire frame in the recess by hand with little effort is the final installation of the insert in frame with the simultaneous jamming it into the frame with two sides along the length on both sides in width and from one side of the insert height in the recess of the insert.

After Assembly, the back surface of the insert is in the same plane with the surface of the mesh or perforated sheet at the rear surface of the Central boss, and force the protect the population exceeds the weight of the insert.

When performing pads thus, as indicated in the characterizing part of the claims of utility model, solid insert rationally connected to the wire frame by pinching in his hole, and with it pressed into the brake pad. The Central boss with a hole for the pin, reinforced vertical cells, a solid insert and wire frame, together with the side lugs are made of durable and elastic composite friction material. The back pads are also made of durable and elastic composite friction material.

In the composite friction element rear surface of the brake pads plated steel perforated band. In the upper broken part of the Central boss and abroad pressed console insert of cast iron.

The removal of excess heat generated in the working layer of the contact area of the brake pads with the wheel, is carried out partially through the solid box on the outside (back) side.

The implementation of the inventive brake pads new design with features indicated in the characterizing part of the formula, can improve the structural strength of the pad and extend the life of brake pads in operation.

The rugged, reliable design of composite brake pads with solid insert and the special ductile or malleable cast iron, in turn, will allow to achieve stable braking performance, including icing and rain, to improve the heat dissipation in the environment, to provide cleaning and polishing and restorative effects on the surface of the wheel, to fill tiny cracks on the wheel cast iron at its melting at high temperatures and prevent their further development and as a consequence, to increase the life of the wheel.

1. Brake pad railway vehicle containing composite friction element, the wire frame representing shrunk in the composite friction element back side pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing checks, solid box, located in the Central part of the pad and pressed into composite friction element, characterized in that the block with the back of her hand contains a metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in composite friction element, the insert in the upper outside part has a groove on its rear side, pressed friction composite material with a hole for the passage of checks and console symmetrically located along the length of the insert to the each side the upper outside portion of the insert is inserted into the wire frame and clamped in it.

2. Brake pad railway vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the length of the insert in place consoles greater than the length of the Central boss, but less than the distance between the side bosses.

3. Brake pad railway vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the outside of the insert has a recess on the side across the width of the insert, and on the other side of the ledge, caught in a wire frame with two sides of length on both sides for width and height so that the back surface of the insert in the Central boss is in the same plane with the bottom surface of the mesh or perforated sheet.

4. Brake pad railway vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the crushing force exceeds the weight of the insert.



 

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Friction disk // 2292498

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: friction disk comprises metallic frame provided with eight hollows arranged over the outer contour of the frame and eight openings. The frame is provided with composition friction linings whose friction surfaces are provided with grooves. The openings and hollows are alternate over the periphery of the disk. The friction surface of each lining has twelve grooves. Four grooves are positioned in the zone of the hollows, and the remanding grooves are positioned out of the zones of hollows and openings, or four grooves are positioned in the zone of openings, and remaining grooves are positioned out of the zones of openings and hollows, or four grooves are positioned in the zone of hollows, four grooves are positioned in the zones of openings, and remaining grooves are positioned out of zones of openings and hollows.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

3 dwg

Friction article // 2290546

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: friction article comprises friction member made of polymeric friction composite. The working surface of the member is provided with a layer made of polymer and filler (or fillers). The surface layer is made of liquid thermo-reactive polymer that is possessed of adhesion with respect to the material of the counter-body. The filler is made of a powder-like material. The sizes of the particles of the material are comparable or less than these of the pores in the layer of the polymeric friction member that is in a contact with the surface layer.

EFFECT: improved performance.

Friction article // 2283974

FIELD: mechanical engineering; friction articles containing polymer composite friction members.

SUBSTANCE: proposed friction article has metal framework and polymer composite friction member consisting of layers; each layer consists of polymer matrix and fillers (or filler).Layer of friction member which is in contact with metal framework has mass ratio of matrix to filler (or fillers) which exceeds this ratio in working layer. Friction member is made of three layers. Layer between working and layer which is in contact with metal framework has ratio of matrix to filler (or fillers) more than this ratio in working layer but lesser than in layer which is contact with metal framework. Resistance of article to thermal fatigue at abrupt heating and cooling is increased due to smooth change of heat conductivity of article in layers from working layer to metal framework.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; enhanced resistance to thermal fatigue.

Friction member // 2283973

FIELD: mechanical engineering; friction members with polymer composite friction components.

SUBSTANCE: proposed friction member has metal framework and polymer composite friction component mounted on it. Polymer composite friction component consists of layers; each layer consists of polymer matrix and filler (or fillers). Polymer composite friction component is made from at least three layers including layer located on working surface of component which is made from unhardened polymer matrix and filler (or fillers); mass ratio of polymer matrix to filler (or fillers) exceeds that of polymer matrix to filler (or fillers) in layer (or layers) of polymer composite friction component located between layer on working surface and layer which is in contact with metal framework. Layer which is in contact with metal framework has ratio of matrix to filler exceeding ratio of matrix to filler in layer (or layers) of polymer composite friction component located between layer which is contact with metal framework and layer located on working surface. Service characteristics of article are improved due to reduced vibrations because of enhanced dampening ability of laminated composite component.

EFFECT: improved service characteristics; reduced running-in time due to charging of working surface in the course of initial period of operation.

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: brake block incorporates a carcass with mounting ledges arranged at the block rear edges, a boss with a central bore designed for fastening inside the shoe. The carcass rear is coated with a steel plate. There are chambers filled with friction elements arranged on the working surface side. The said steel plate represents a plate-like section spring with the ledges fitted under the show points of bearing. There is a corrugated fluoroplastic heat-resistant lining arranged between the steel plate and the carcass. The aforesaid spring and lining are furnished with cuts made opposite the carcass mounting ledges and the boss hole. The aforesaid chambers are divided into cells filled with friction elements. The chambers, cells and friction elements represent truncated pyramids or cones with their smaller base turned towards the carcass working surface and with lateral walls inclined at the angle α=10-15° to form a fixed dovetail joint. The carcass side surfaces feature two openings arranged on both sides opposite the chambers.

EFFECT: reliable and efficient braking at high speed, longer brake block life ensured by elastic interaction between brake block and shoe, reduced noise.

9 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: flangeless brake block incorporates a steel plate, a cast iron arc-like body furnished with friction elements arranged on the block friction side. The block body rear side has a boss with a hole receiving a wedge-type cotter. A lateral stop comes from the said boss, its surface representing a tapered surface with inclination of the generating line from the boss top towards the stop of β=30° and getting transformed into triangular reinforcements running perpendicular to the block side surface from its rear side. The block arc-like body main part represents a carcass with the chambers that can be divided into cells housing the friction elements. The chambers, or cells and friction inserts corresponding to them represent truncated pyramids or cones with their smaller bases turned towards the block friction surface and their walls inclined at the angle of α=10° to 15° to form a fixed joint of the dovetail type. The steel plate covering the main section rear side represents a plate shaped spring with ledges arranged under the shoe point of bearing and rests on the stop bulges. A corrugated heat-resistant fluoroplastic lining is arranged between the aforesaid spring and the block body.

EFFECT: reliable and efficient braking in high-speed conditions, longer life and lower noise.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: braking block incorporates a steel plate, a black iron arc-like body made up of the main and section parts with a passage made therein and friction elements. The said friction elements are placed in the block main part body on the friction surface side and into the section body part, i.e. in the block passage. The block arc-like body main part represents a carcass with chambers that can be divided into cells to house the friction elements. The chambers, or cells and friction inserts corresponding to them represent truncated pyramids or cones with their smaller bases turned towards the block friction surface and their walls inclined at the angle of α=10° to 15° to form a fixed joint of the dovetail type. The steel plate covering the main section rear side represents a plate shaped spring with ledges arranged under the shoe point of bearing and rests on the stop bulges. A corrugated heat-resistant fluoroplastic lining is arranged between the aforesaid spring and the block body. The section part passage lateral wall is furnished with a truncated-pyramid cavities with their smaller bases facing the block passage friction surfaces, the said cavities housing the appropriate friction elements to form the aforesaid dovetail joint.

EFFECT: reliable and efficient braking in high-speed conditions, longer life and lower noise.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; brake shoes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains metal skeleton, polymeric composite friction member, one or several abrasive friction inserts and support layer placed between polymeric composite friction member and metal skeleton. Support layer is placed also between polymeric composite friction member and abrasive friction insert (inserts), or between polymeric composite friction member and part of surface of abrasive friction insert (inserts). Invention is aimed at improving operating characteristics of shoe owing to increased strength of connection of insert (inserts) and polymeric composite friction member by additional locking and reduced possibility of burning out of polymeric composite friction member in zone of insert (inserts) owing to provision of heat insulation of member relative to insert.

EFFECT: increased service life of shoe.

3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; brake shoes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains metal skeleton and fitted-on composite friction member consisting of two longitudinal layers of different thermal conductivity. Lower conductivity layer is made of composite friction material of greater adhesion to metal and strength as compared with layer arranged at working surface of shoe. Thickness of lower heat thermal conductivity layer is less than minimum thickness of shoe approved for operation, but is greater than thickness from rear surface of shoe to projecting parts of metal skeleton. According to second design version, brake shoe contains metal skeleton and fitted-on composite friction member consisting of two longitudinal layers and cast iron insert arranged in central part of shoe. Lower thermal conductivity layer is made of composition friction material featuring higher adhesion to metal and strength, as compared with layer arranged from working surface of shoe. Thickness of lower thermal conductivity layer is less than minimum thickness of shoe approved for operation, but is greater than thickness from rear surface of shoe to projecting parts of metal skeleton.

EFFECT: increased strength, improved reliability and increased service life of shoe.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to brake shoes, mainly, to drum-type brake shoe units with high friction coefficient. Proposed brake shoe unit has cylindrical curved platform of brake shoe forming part of cylinder, inner support surface and outer support surface and matrix made of brake friction material. Said matrix is arranged on outer support surface of brake shoe platform forming braking surface. Great number of bosses project from outer support surface of brake shoe platform through matrix to friction surface. Said bosses engage with friction surface to create friction with opposite rotating member of vehicle wheel.

EFFECT: improved efficiency at emergency braking.

10 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains composite friction member, metal skeleton made of steel strip and hard insert welded to skeleton and arranged in central part of shoe, wire framing, central boss and two side bosses. Wire framing consists essentially of two closed frames press-fitted into composite friction material from rear side of shoe over perimeter of shoe, whose inner parts are relatively overlapped and bent outwards relative to rear part of shoe, thus forming eye to pass cotter pin. Central boss is provided with hole for cotter, pin. Two side bosses are made of composite friction material. Metal skeleton made of steel strip has width less than width of wire framing, being bent to radius of rear surface of shoe and press-fitted into rear surface of shoe between side bosses and under central boss. Composite friction member consists of two longitudinal layers of material. Strength of layer arranged from rear side of shoe is greater than that of layer arranged from working side of shoe.

EFFECT: increased strength of shoe.

2 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; vehicle brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains metal skeleton and composite polymeric friction member secured on skeleton. Composite polymeric friction member is manufacture of material containing fiber-like steel particles. Material of friction member contains additionally iron powder and iron ore concentrate in form of powder. Total content of iron containing components is 40-70% of mass.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of shoe, increased service life of wheels.

1 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; vehicle brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains metal skeleton and polymeric composite friction member with dispersed abrasive particles. Introduced additionally into composite member are porous abrasive particles, pore sizes in particles are commensurable with sizes of dispersed abrasive particles.

EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of shoe owing to increased holding of microabrasive particles in shoe body in process of operation provided by their additional fixing.

FIELD: railway transport; rail vehicle brake systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe contains friction composite member and metal skeleton with U-shaped projection in central part with two side bosses. Skeleton consists of two parts, one being bent to radius of holder of main strip with two side bosses, and central boss in form of u-shaped projection with four teeth secured on main strip by passing teeth through holes in main strip and bending teeth from inner side of skeleton at cold stamping.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of metal, weight of brake shoe, simplified manufacture of shoe.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: automatic controller incorporates damper part housing spring-loaded damper piston with con-rod and yoke spring-loaded relative to the aforesaid con-rod, pressure relay accommodating lever, spring-loaded power and shut-off pistons tail-coupled with the aforesaid lever and one- or two-seat feed valve communicating with the shut-off piston and arranged between the pressure relay chambers. The aforesaid relay chambers communicate with the braking cylinder, an air control valve and, in the case of the two-seat valve, with atmosphere. The damper piston con-rod is furnished with a plate rigidly attached thereto and provided with slider to shift it parallel to the co-rod axis. The damper part housing accommodates shut-off lever linking the aforesaid plate and the slider by the "slot-pin" engagement, the slider being furnished with a block to interact with the pressure relay.

EFFECT: expanded performances with sizes intact.

2 dwg

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