Method of ship power plant exhaust gas recovery and device to this effect

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and power engineering. Proposed method consists in guiding the ship main internal combustion engine exhaust gases via the engines turbo compressors into waste-heat recovery boiler whereto heat carrier is fed from the steam separator for it to be heated by the aforesaid gases and in feeding the steam formed in the boiler evaporation pipes into the steam separator. Here note that the ship main engine exhaust gases are forced into the exhaust pipe, their temperature behind the aforesaid waste-heat recovery boiler is kept, in all operating ranges, not less than 160°C. In compliance with this invention, given the reduction of the main engine output or the ship auxiliary loads heat consumption drop, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is replaced with an air heat carrier. For this, the boiler evaporation pipes are, first, disconnected from the steam separator by appropriate shut-off valves, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is dried off for the pipes to receive air heat carrier by communicating them with air reservoir communicating, in its turn, with the ship compressed air system. Then, air heat carrier is heated by exhaust gases in the waste-heat recovery boiler to be fed into heat exchanger for sea and mineral water desalination. Note here that brine and hot air resulted at the desalination apparatus outlet are used for ship service purposes while generated steam is fed into separator for its condensation. The proposed device incorporates additionally a heat exchanger for water desalination, a compressed air reservoir communicating with the ship compressed air system. Note here that the said reservoir outlet communicates via pressure control and shut-off valves with the waste-heat recovery boiler feed pipeline at the section between its coils and shut-off valve. The boiler coil discharge pipeline at the section between the boiler shut-off valve and coils communicates via the said shutoff valve with the said desalination heat exchanger heat carrier inlet. Note also that the boiler coils are furnished with devices to remove working heat carrier and that the desalination apparatus outlets communicate with the ship brine, steam and hot air consumers.

EFFECT: higher degree of internal combustion engine exhaust gas recovery.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of shipbuilding and energy and is designed for heat recovery from the exhaust gases of marine power plants and can be used in stationary power plants.

There is a method in which the utilization of heat loss main marine internal combustion engines operate by using part of the heat of exhaust gases [see Kozlov V.I., Titov P.I., yuditsky FL Ship power plant, Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1969. - 496 S., RIS, s]. It is that in the main internal combustion engine exhaust gases partially used in turbochargers for supercharged engines, then it is sent to a digester and then direct the exhaust in a chimney. The estimated gas temperature before the utilizing boiler 270-420° [see Belyaev I.G. Operation of recycling plants diesel vessels. - M.: Transport, 1979. - 144 S., table 1, p.7-8]. If for some modes of operation in this method of disposal is not necessary in the operation of the utilizing boiler, the regulation of its production carried out by getproposal valve when the boiler is off and the gases are directed to the exhaust in addition to the boiler, i.e. the part of the heat of the exhaust gases in this mode of operation is lost. The temperature of the gases before utilis is operating the boiler depending on the type of engine is almost in the range of 250-400° C. the temperature of the gases for exhaust gas boiler can withstand quite high - at least 160-180°because when trying to install a lower temperature contained in gases water vapor condenses upon contact with heat transfer surfaces and cause their enhanced corrosion.

Known, and a device that implements the method of disposal of heat loss flue gas main marine internal combustion engines, containing the main engine turbocharger, heat recovery boiler, steam separator, circulation pumps, condenser, piping and valves, regulating steam capacity utilization of the boiler by limiting the heating surface [see Kozlov V.I., Titov P.I., yuditsky FL Ship power plants. - Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1969. - 496 S., RIS, s-211].

A disadvantage of the known method and device utilization is the presence of the inevitable dependence of the amount of waste heat of the exhaust gases of marine engines from the requirements of use at the moment, the warmth. This results in the underutilization of large heating surfaces of the heat exchanger utilization of the boiler and the loss of a significant amount of heat. This disadvantage manifests itself in the fact that in the known solutions there is no possibility to take measures ISOE is itaniu the heat of the exhaust gases for other marine users. The disadvantages also include the fact that with the failure of several heating evaporative pipe utilization of the boiler in operation often becomes impossible to operate the utilization of the boiler vessel. In the operation of ship recycling boiler, especially with multiple forced circulation, there are cases when damaged his evaporating pipes that can not be reversed, and other heating surfaces of the utilization of the boiler [see V.V. Maslov heat of marine diesel engines. - M.: Transport, 1990. - 144 S., p.30]. One of the disadvantages of the known device and method of its use are quite high demands on the quality of feed water, especially the oxygen content in it, as well as to the quality of the fuel that is running the main engine. Ongoing mass failures vessel digester occur mainly due to oxygen corrosion evaporative coil pipes. The reason is because in the steam separator vessel utilization boiler feed water is usually served with a temperature of 40-60°and the oxygen content is usually quite high - up to 5 mg/l, that is pretty low quality. When the periodic supply of ship utilization of the boiler water, saturated with oxygen, passes Cartago coils. As its heating and evaporation of the oxygen is liberated, causing intense internal corrosion of pipes. The failure of the coils also called sulfur corrosion external surfaces of the utilization of the boiler. It is typical for cases where the main ship engine operated on fuel with sulfur content greater than 0.5% when the temperature of the circulating water at the entrance to the digester below 110°and low values of power of the main engine.

There is a method in which the utilization of heat loss main marine internal combustion engines operate by using part of the heat only cooling water in the vacuum evaporation installation [see Kamkin SV analysis of the efficiency of marine diesel installations. - M.: Transport, 1965. - 112 S., p.57-61]. It is that heat flow of water circulating in the engine cooling system, used in the evaporative system for producing fresh water. This method of disposal has been a huge success on the ships, because of the possibility of using low heat capacity and achieved substantial economic efficiency.

Known, and a device that implements the method of disposal of heat losses, containing the main ship engine (diesel), water fresh water diesel, IP is Ariel, the ejector ejector pump, brine pump, rotameter, condensate pump, salt, sea water pump, pump fresh water diesel, pipelines and valves that regulate the performance of the evaporator unit by limiting the amount of fresh water through evaporation plant [see the same source, p.59, 15].

A disadvantage of the known method and device utilization is the need to maintain optimal temperature in the engine cooling system because of a change in its mode of operation. As a result of his change occurs in the regime of operation of a desalination plant. With water cooling the main engine, lost fewer heat than with exhaust gases, such as water, cooling the main engine, has a lower thermal capacity than the exhaust gases from the engine. Also one of the drawbacks manifested when operating any type of desalination plants is the formation of scale or salt deposits on heat transfer surfaces. The emergence of scale and polluting sediments clearly affects the performance of the installation, the quality of produced water, failure of main machine and auxiliary elements and, as a result, the inevitable worsening economy due to the increase particularly the (fuel, electricity, reagents) [see Slesarenko V.N., Slesarenko CENTURIES Shipboard desalination plant. - Vladivostok: Maritime state University, 2001. - 448 S. ISBN-5-8343-0088 Agricultural, s].

The use of modern low-speed marine internal combustion engines, as you know, is associated with the problem fully meet the needs of the traveling mode of the vessel in thermal and electrical energy, secondary energy, i.e. without the additional cost of fuel. Reducing the same amount of heat exhaust of such engines to 27-29% of the amount of heat of combustion and the temperature to small quantities - 235-285°that often in operation, makes it generally unsuitable even known scheme of deep disposal. Known integrated system of waste heat low-speed marine engines [see Sedelnikov HD energy Saving system low-speed diesel engines. - Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2003. - 230 C., p.3], which uses heat as exhaust gas, charge air and fresh water, cooling the cylinder liners low-speed main engines, increase production teplooborudovanie in such marine diesel installation, but significantly complicate her. For this reason, they are not widely used.

The closest technical solution known adopted for the prototype by b is the most signs, a known method of utilization of the heat of the exhaust gases of the main ship of the internal combustion engine, by which the digester is able to replace fully or partially auxiliary boiler vessel.

The known method is that the main marine exhaust gases of internal combustion engines is sent to the turbochargers to boost these engines, which use their warmth, then sent to a digester and then direct the exhaust in a chimney. While in the utilizing boiler is supplied from the steam separator, the water coolant, which it is heated by these gases, and forming in its evaporative pipe steam is sent to the steam separator. Regulation of the vapor pressure of the utilization of the boiler in the known method is carried out by discharge through a control valve of the excess steam to the condenser. The temperature of the gases before the exhaust gas boiler depending on the type of engine is kept within 235-400°C. the temperature of the gases for recycling boiler forced to endure not below 160-180°With, that is high enough [see Kamkin SV improving the efficiency of operation of marine diesel plants on the basis of utilization and choice of operation modes: the Texts of the lectures. - M.: "Moregenerally", 1989. - 56 S., p.14-15]. Regulation of heat is the notes, transferred to the waste gas of the main engine feed water utilization boiler, with this known method of disposal is completely absent. If for some modes of operation in this method of disposal is not necessary in the operation of the utilizing boiler, all the resulting steam dump to the condenser, that is, all the heat is lost. Part of the heat of the exhaust gases on most modes of plant operation is not used, it is lost and, in addition, there will be additional and considerable loss of heat associated with providing work for nutrients and circulation pumps utilization of the boiler and circulation pump capacitor, providing respectively the supply of water in the digester and in the steam separator and cooling the excess steam in the condenser. Compared with other known methods, this method is the simplest, it requires minimal costs to the system of automatic regulation, however, requires the highest operating costs associated with the operation of the pump capacitor that supplies fresh water to the condenser. This pump should run continuously with increased performance in case of discharge into the capacitor through the control valve all excess steam.

Know and make the creation, adopted as a prototype for most signs, which implements this method, which includes the main engine turbocharger, heat recovery boiler, steam separator, nutritious and circulation pumps utilization of the boiler, condenser and circulating pump capacitor, pipeline, telling feed pump utilization boiler with coils evaporator tubes utilization of the boiler through the steam separator and circulating pump utilization of the boiler on the one hand, and pipeline reporting coils evaporator tubes utilization of the boiler with the steam separator on the other hand, releasing the valve on the inlet and outlet of the utilization of the boiler before and after the coils of the evaporator tubes [see the same source, Fig.9, p.15].

A disadvantage of the known method and device is not using the heat energy of exhaust gases, due to the frequent mismatch of needs in consumption paired with the possibilities of heat of exhaust gas of the main engine, which depend on the mode in which the source of heat - the main engine. For the full replacement of the consumers of the pair of auxiliary boiler on the ship usually known, the required capacity of the main ship engine, at least 50% of nominal. In addition, when the power of the work is s the main ship engine mode more than 50% of the nominal in this known technical solution is an inevitable dependence of the amount of useful heat from exhaust gases to the needs of consumers. If you need warmth in some modes of operation of the power plant of the vessel is small, in this known solution, the excess steam dump to the condenser, i.e. the heat on these modes is not used. The efficiency of the device circuit that implements this method is limited, especially when swimming in the summer in tropical areas. Because of this often is the utilization of large heating surfaces of the utilization of the boiler and the loss of a significant amount of heat. In addition, corrosion (oxygen and sulfur) evaporative his pipe coils shorten the life of the evaporator coils of a device that operates on this well-known way of using the heat of the exhaust gases.

The technical problem, though long overdue, which directed the claimed invention is to remedy these disadvantages, namely improving the degree of utilization of the heat of the exhaust gases of marine internal combustion engines, power plants due to more complete use of their heat and during the period of inability to work the utilizing boiler in some modes of operation due to the fact that the temperature of the flue gas after it has value less than 160-180°and in the period of small ship needs of consumers of thermal energy (for example, when the sailing vessel is the tropics). The technical objective is also to increase the service life of the evaporative coils utilization of the boiler.

The specified technical task is achieved by the fact that in the known method of heat recovery from flue gas power plant of the vessel, which consists in the fact that the main marine exhaust gases of internal combustion engines through their turbochargers are sent to a digester, which is supplied from the steam separator coolant, which is heated in the heat-recovery boiler these gases, and forming in its evaporative pipe steam is directed into the steam separator and the exhaust gases of the main ship engines direct the exhaust in a chimney, and the temperature of the gases for the recovery boiler in all modes of operation motors maintain not less than 160°With, CONTRAST, in the inventive operational modes reduce the power output of the main ship engine or reduction of heat energy consumption of the ship auxiliary consumers replace water evaporative coolant pipes utilization of the boiler on the air. For this purpose, we first disable the evaporative pipe utilization of the boiler from the steam separator through releasing valve, drain evaporator pipe utilization of the boiler from the water coolant and serves them in osushniy coolant through messages evaporative pipe utilization of the boiler with an air tank, reported to the ship's compressed air system. Heated air coolant in the heat-recovery boiler flue gases of the ship's engine and serves it on a heat exchange apparatus for the desalination of sea and brackish water by opening the corresponding releasing armature utilization of the boiler. And the resulting outputs openaudio apparatus brine and hot air used for the needs of the vessel, and the resulting steam is directed into the steam separator to the condensation.

The specified technical task is also achieved by the fact that in the known device for heat recovery from flue gas power plant of the vessel containing the turbocharger main ship engine, digester with evaporative coils of pipes, steam separator, nutritious and circulation pumps utilization of the boiler, piping, inlet and outlet to salvage the boiler working fluid and signaling his coils evaporator tubes, respectively, on the one hand with a nutrient pump through the steam separator and circulating pump utilization of the boiler, and on the other with a steam separator, and releasing the valve on the pipeline, IN CONTRAST, claimed further comprises a heat exchanger apparatus for the desalination of sea and brackish waters [see positively the decision on the application No. 2005116658/15 (019001) of 31.05.2005,], a tank of compressed air which is connected to the ship's compressed air system. The yield of a reservoir of compressed air through a pressure reducing valve and releasing the valve is in communication with the supply line of the utilization of the boiler at the site between its coils and releasing the valve. The discharge pipe coils utilization of the boiler in the area between its releasing valve and coils communicated through releasing the valve from the inlet of the coolant mentioned heat exchanger for the desalination of sea and brackish waters. Moreover, the coils of the utilization of the boiler is equipped with a device for the removal of the working fluid, and the outlets of the apparatus for the desalination of sea and brackish waters communicated respectively with the ship consumers brine, steam and hot air.

The inventive method and device, the set of elements of the device, the set of operations of a method performed with the use of these elements increase the degree of utilization of the heat of the exhaust gases through the use of products of combustion installation during the inability to work or lack of necessity of replacement of the auxiliary boiler and increase the service life of the evaporative coils utilization of the boiler.

Obtaining fresh water on ships in utilis is the waste heat of a power plant is known by are, basically, the use of heat main engine cooling water [see Belyaev I.G. Operation of recycling plants diesel vessels. - M.: Transport, 1979. - 144 S., p.119-126, see Kamkin SV analysis of the efficiency of marine diesel installations. - M.: Transport, 1965. - 112 S., p.57-61]. The advantage of using the heat of the exhaust gases for seawater desalination according to the claimed solution is that the loss of heat from the exhaust gases of low-speed internal combustion engines are 25-39%, while the losses from the cooling fresh water is 7.4-15% [see V.V. Maslov heat of marine diesel engines. - M.: Transport, 1990. - 144 S., p.42], according to other sources loss of heat from the exhaust gases of 25.5-36,9%, and loss of coolant with fresh water to 5.4 to 8.8% [see Sedelnikov HD energy Saving system low-speed diesel engines. - Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2003. - 230 C., p.32]. In addition, the temperature level of the exhaust gases 235-290°and the temperature leaving the engine fresh water 80-85° [ibid]. When replacing according to the claimed technical solution is heated in the heat-recovery boiler of the heat carrier is water in the air there are no conditions for the development of oxygen corrosion of the internal surfaces and reduced conditions for the development of sulfur corrosion of external surfaces. Thus, increases life of IP is artelinic coils utilization of the boiler. As the number of sea water does not depend on needs at the moment, there is an increase in the degree of utilization of the heat of the exhaust gases over the entire period of operation of the plant. For example, if the operation mode of the main ship engine such that when using the utilizing boiler to heat water and convert it into steam, the temperature of the exhaust gases before the exhaust gas boiler 230°that often in operation, and boiler 130°C, i.e. the temperature level at the output of the utilizing boiler is small, therefore, to operate the boiler is impossible. Since the coefficient of heat transfer from the gases to the air less than the gases from the water, at least 2 times, so the temperature of the flue gases at the outlet of the utilization of the boiler with the heating gases of the air, with the same mass flow of air and water, will be reduced not to the same extent as at heating water. It will be reduced to approximately 180°therefore, in the present decision of the wider possibilities of using energy of exhaust gases at light loads the main engine.

Used in the inventive solution of known heat exchange apparatus for the desalination of sea and brackish waters [see the positive decision on the application No. 2005116658/15 (019001) of 31.05.2005,] contains the rows under each other "V"-shaped drives, sakan is developing at the bottom through a small gap width over the entire length in the bottom of the drive. The flow of sea water into the machine is produced on the upper "V"-shaped drive. The drives are formed on the exit slit film flow. The layers of film to form a space between them from the entrance of the coolant in the evaporator heat carrier is heated in the heat-recovery boiler air supplied from a tank of compressed air. The resulting secondary vapor rises in the space between the films in the upper part of the drives with the horizontal surface of the film-forming sites through hole for his release. The secondary steam moves upward, separated from the moisture on the surface of the buffer sheet and removed from the apparatus on the ship needs. Heating the coolant - air moves between the layers of film flow and, giving him warmth, leaving heat exchanger also on the ship needs. The use of known heat exchanger for the desalination of sea and brackish waters in the present method of heat recovery from the exhaust gases of the power plant and the device for its implementation due to these qualities, high efficiency thin film flow of the working fluid (sea water), reduced heat capacity heat flow required to heat the evaporated film, a relatively simple design of the device, reduced intensity accounts for the exclusion of metal surfaces and the application of the material in sheet form, reduced power consumption to create pressure privelage product, low cost apparatus and operating costs, reduced scale formation due to the absence of heat transfer surfaces. This is achieved by solving the technical problem of the invention.

The inventive method of heat recovery from flue gas power plant of the vessel is illustrated in the drawing, which presents a scheme of arrangement to implement the inventive method.

The device includes a main turbocharger of the internal combustion engine (not shown), digester 1, the steam separator (not shown), nutrients and circulation pumps utilizing boiler 1 (not shown), the supply line 2 connecting the releasing valve 3 utilization of the boiler 1 with coils evaporator tubes 4 utilization of the boiler 1, the discharge pipe 5 connecting the coils of the evaporation pipe 4 with releasing valve 6 utilization of the boiler, the pipe 7 connecting the compressed air vessel 8, is in communication with the ship's compressed air system (not shown) with a reducing valve 9 to adjust the pressure in the evaporative coils pipe 4 utilization of the boiler 1, the pipe 10 connecting the pressure reducing valve 9 with releasing valve 11, pipe 12, the connection is shining releasing valve 11 through the pipe 2 with coils evaporator tubes 4 utilization of the boiler 1 in the area between them and the valve 3, the pipe 13 connecting through a pipeline 5 coils evaporator tubes 4 utilization of the boiler 1 in the area between them and the valve 6 on the side of the entrance to the steam separator with releasing valve 14, conduit 15 connecting the releasing valve 14 to the input of the carrier 16 of the known heat exchanger for the desalination of sea and brackish waters 17.

The method is as follows. In operation at full load consumers utilizing boiler 1 device use the traditional method. When closed releasing the valves 11 and 14 and open releasing the valves 3 and 6 water is fed a nutrient pump (not shown) in the steam separator (not shown) and then to the evaporator pipe 4 utilization of the boiler 1 with removal of the resulting steam-water mixture through a circulation pump (not shown) in the closed loop in the steam separator. The exhaust gas of the main combustion engine at the outlet of the turbocharger (not shown) heats the coils evaporator pipe 4 and is expelled into the atmosphere. During operation in modes is not required or not utilization of the boiler 1 (i.e. by a known method) block valve 3 utilization of the boiler 1 and dried in a communication with the atmosphere through tubes to USCA and ventilation valve (a device for removing the working fluid from the coils, not shown) coils evaporator tubes 4 utilization of the boiler 1. Then overlap the valve 6. The air from the tank of compressed air 8 compressed air systems with the necessary pressure fed to the coils of the evaporation pipe 4 utilization of the boiler 1 by opening the valve 11. This required the installation of an air pressure before the utilizing boiler 1 is maintained automatically reducing valve 9, which load at this point at the required pressure. The air in the coils of the utilization of the boiler 1 is heated up to 180°C. Open valve 14. Heated in the coils of the evaporation pipe 4 utilization of the boiler 1, the air enters at the input of the carrier 16 of the heat exchanger 17, which at its input sea water 18 from the engine cooling system (not shown) fail outboard marine water. In the heat exchanger 17 is the process of desalination. Exhaust in the heat exchanger the hot air through its outlet 19 and the brine from the output 20 is used for marine purposes, such as domestic heating, galley, etc. (not shown), or the air released into the atmosphere. Emerging from the heat exchanger 17 at its output 21 pairs is sent to the steam separator to the condensation (not shown).

When using devices that operate by the present method, achieved the following benefits:

1. Behavior is knosti heating water distiller is missing, since the transfer of heat is from heating thermal fluid film flow of a heated fluid, which prevents the formation of scale, both in traditional stills.

2. From the desalination plant emitted a clean environment.

3. Desalination is performed using a high temperature potential of the working fluid (air heating is possible up to 180°).

The advantages of the proposed method of disposal compared to traditional lie in the possibilities of improving thermal scheme of ship power plants. This is achieved through:

1. Comprehensive energy consumption produced by the ship's compressor (not shown)serving marine power installation, which increases the time of its useful life.

2. Heat recovery from the exhaust gas of the main engine at the air heater, the function which performs the digester 1.

3. Obtaining fresh water by desalination installation is stable, regardless of the mode of operation of the main ship engine with heat recovery from exhaust gases of a power plant.

1. The method of utilization of the heat of the exhaust gases of the power installation vessel, which consists in the fact that the main marine exhaust gases of internal combustion engines through their turbocompressors in the digester, where is served from the steam separator coolant, which is heated in the heat-recovery boiler these gases, and forming in its evaporative pipe steam is directed into the steam separator and the exhaust gases of the main ship engines direct the exhaust in a chimney, and the temperature of the gases for the recovery boiler in all modes of operation motors maintain not less than 160°C, characterized in that the operational modes reduce the power output of the main ship engine or reduction of heat energy consumption of the ship auxiliary consumers replace water evaporative coolant pipes utilizing boiler air pre-disconnect the evaporative pipe utilization boiler from the steam separator through releasing valve, drain evaporator pipe utilization of the boiler from the water coolant and serves them in the air coolant through messages evaporative pipe utilization of the boiler with air reservoir in communication with the ship's compressed air system; heated air coolant in the heat-recovery boiler flue gases of the ship's engine and serves it on a heat exchange apparatus for the desalination of sea and brackish water by opening the corresponding releasing valve utilizationa the boiler, and the resulting outputs openaudio apparatus brine and hot air used for the needs of the vessel, and the resulting steam is directed into the steam separator to the condensation.

2. Device for heat recovery from flue gas power plant of the vessel containing the turbocharger main ship engine, digester with evaporative coils of pipes, steam separator, nutritious and circulation pumps utilization of the boiler, piping, inlet and outlet to salvage the boiler working fluid and signaling his coils evaporator tubes respectively with a nutrient pump through the steam separator and circulating pump utilization of the boiler on the one hand, and with the steam separator on the other hand, and releasing the valve on the pipeline, characterized in that it further comprises a heat exchanger for the desalination of sea and brackish water, a reservoir of compressed air, reported to the ship's compressed air system, the yield of a reservoir of compressed air through a pressure reducing valve and releasing the valve is in communication with the supply line of the utilization of the boiler at the site between its coils and releasing the valve, the discharge pipe coils utilization of the boiler in the area between its releasing valve and ZM is awicami communicated through releasing the valve from the inlet of the coolant mentioned heat exchanger for the desalination of sea and brackish waters, moreover, the coils of the utilization of the boiler is equipped with a device for the removal of the working fluid, and the outlets of the apparatus for the desalination of sea and brackish waters communicated respectively with the ship consumers brine, steam and hot air.



 

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The invention relates to the field of engine development and allows to increase the efficiency of the engine without compromising its operational reliability

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and power engineering. Proposed method consists in guiding the ship main internal combustion engine exhaust gases via the engines turbo compressors into waste-heat recovery boiler whereto heat carrier is fed from the steam separator for it to be heated by the aforesaid gases and in feeding the steam formed in the boiler evaporation pipes into the steam separator. Here note that the ship main engine exhaust gases are forced into the exhaust pipe, their temperature behind the aforesaid waste-heat recovery boiler is kept, in all operating ranges, not less than 160°C. In compliance with this invention, given the reduction of the main engine output or the ship auxiliary loads heat consumption drop, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is replaced with an air heat carrier. For this, the boiler evaporation pipes are, first, disconnected from the steam separator by appropriate shut-off valves, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is dried off for the pipes to receive air heat carrier by communicating them with air reservoir communicating, in its turn, with the ship compressed air system. Then, air heat carrier is heated by exhaust gases in the waste-heat recovery boiler to be fed into heat exchanger for sea and mineral water desalination. Note here that brine and hot air resulted at the desalination apparatus outlet are used for ship service purposes while generated steam is fed into separator for its condensation. The proposed device incorporates additionally a heat exchanger for water desalination, a compressed air reservoir communicating with the ship compressed air system. Note here that the said reservoir outlet communicates via pressure control and shut-off valves with the waste-heat recovery boiler feed pipeline at the section between its coils and shut-off valve. The boiler coil discharge pipeline at the section between the boiler shut-off valve and coils communicates via the said shutoff valve with the said desalination heat exchanger heat carrier inlet. Note also that the boiler coils are furnished with devices to remove working heat carrier and that the desalination apparatus outlets communicate with the ship brine, steam and hot air consumers.

EFFECT: higher degree of internal combustion engine exhaust gas recovery.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Power plant // 2255238

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power plants on base of diesel engines including exhaust gas heat recovery systems. Proposed power plant contains diesel engine connected with electric generator, tank for hydrocarbon material, main line to deliver hydrocarbon material, heat exchanger for fuel oil, tanks fir fuel oil and light fractions of fuel, heater and flash column, flash column is arranged inside heater housing, and heating element is arranged in space between heater housing and flash column. Heating element is connected with atomizer arranged inside flash column. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes of heater communicate with space between heater housing and flash column, and branch pipes to let out light fraction and fuel oil communicate, respectively, with upper and lower parts of inner space of flash column. Hydrocarbon material supply branch pipe communicates with inner space of heating element. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes are connected, respectively, with outlet branch pipe of diesel engine and exhaust pipe, and branch pipes to let out light fractions and fuel oil are connected, respectively, with cooling heat exchanger and with fuel oil heat exchanger. Branch pipe to supply hydrocarbon material is connected with hydrocarbon material delivery main line.

EFFECT: reduced heat losses in exhaust gas heat recovery systems designed for producing fuels from hydrocarbon raw material, improved efficiency of heat recovery.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed internal combustion engine contains crankshaft, connecting rod, piston, intake and exhaust valves, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocompressor and nozzle to inject water installed in intake manifold before turbine of turbocompressor.

EFFECT: improved utilization of thermal energy of exhaust gases of turbocharged internal combustion engines.

1 dwg

Gas-steam engine // 2293199

FIELD: transport and power engineering; engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed multicylinder engine has pump and power cylinders interconnected by transfer chamber, with pistons moving synchronously and rigidly connected with rods on ends of which crossmember with two pins is arranged, with connecting rods fitted on pins and rotation opposite to each other, and two synchronizing gears. One more power cylinder operating on steam is added to pump and power cylinders. Steam is formed owing to water heating in heat exchanger arranged in transfer chamber and in exhaust space of power cylinder.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of engine and reduced overall dimensions of engine.

3 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cogeneration plants with Stirling engines designed for simultaneous production of electric energy and heat. Proposed cogeneration plant includes Stirling engine with electric generator fitted on one shaft, Stirling engine cooling system including pump an heat exchange-cooler through which air feed main line passes, external heat supply system with heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases and heat exchanger of preliminary heating through which external heat supply system is coupled with cooling system of Stirling engine, and exhaust gas main line. Plant is furnished additionally with gas generator providing production of generator gas from different types tires of locally available fuel, generator gas main line connecting gas generator with combustion chamber of Stirling engine, main line for partial return of exhaust gases into combustion chamber of stirling engine, pump in external heat supply system providing flow of heat carrier in succession through preliminary heating heat exchanger and heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases. Wood, peat and oil shale can be used as locally available fuel.

EFFECT: possibility of operation of different locally available fuels such as wood, peat, oil shale, etc, increased service life of engine, simplified design of system to convey heat from engine to external consumers.

1 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering, possibly electric energy generating plants on base of liquid low-potential power source.

SUBSTANCE: electric energy generating plant includes converter of neat energy of low-potential water to kinetic energy applied to electric energy generator. Plant is mounted on draining pipeline and it has linear-structure electric energy generator. Said converter is made material with shape memory effect having transition point between temperature of low-potential water and environment and it is kinematically coupled with armature of linear- structure generator. Converter is jointly mounted with possibility of moving from low-potential water to environment and from environment to low-potential water. Environment may be in the form of water pool to which low-potential water is discharged.

EFFECT: possibility of using heat of low-potential waters with temperature 30 - 50°C discharged every day from cooling systems of waters of nuclear and heat electric power stations.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: domestic facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined heat and power supply plant for household use. Proposed domestic combined heat and power plant contains Stirling engine and water heater. Stirling engine is installed for heating by first burner supplied with fuel gas. Plant contains additionally intake gas duct passing from Stirling engine in contact with fuel gas intake in first burner preliminary heating of fuel gas delivered into first burner and then heating of water which is subsequently heated by water heater. Water heater is provided with second burner. Plant is designed so that outlet gas and gas from second burner form combined flow immediately after heating of water, and combined flow for heating of water is located higher from outlet gas relative to flow. Plant contains additionally cooler of Stirling engine arranged for heating water higher than outlet gas relative to direction of flow.

EFFECT: provision of effective heating of water, reduced cost of heating and provision of compact device.

2 cl, 4 dwg

Power plant // 2326257

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat supply systems, particularly, to heat-generating plants. Power plant consists of heat engine, for instance, internal combustion engine, with, at least, one mechanic energy shaft, heat-exchangers of engine cooling, heat-exchanger of heat removal from gas exhaust, all heat-connected via the coolant circulation circuit, with, at least, one heat energy consumer, in which shaft of heat engine is kinematically connected with the drive shaft of cavitating-vortex heat-generator, which - at least, via inlet and outlet hydraulic channels - is connected to the mentioned circulation loop of coolant, for example, water. To provide self-purification of heat-exchangers, cavitating-vortex heat-generator is installed directly before the inlet to heat exchanger of heat removal from engine gas exhaust. Installation provides possibility to control power of the cavitating-vortex heat-generator at stabilised (set) rotations of engine drive shaft and possibility to control a ratio between power values removed from the engine to generate heat and electric energy.

EFFECT: enhancement of operational characteristics; expansion of functional abilities.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: external combustion Stirling engine and electric generator are fitted on one shaft with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every ICE cylinder is provided with a magnetic field source arranged in the upper part of the former and made in the form of an annular electromagnet built in the cylinder wall, or as several radial electromagnets. The Stirling engine working cylinder is enclosed in a housing with its inner space communicating with the ICE exhaust system, the electric generator being wired to the magnetic field source.

EFFECT: lower toxicity of exhaust and fuller combustion of fuel.

5 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine incorporates crankshaft, con-rod, piston pin, cylinder, intake and outlet valves, inlet and outlet manifolds, turbo-compressor, nozzle to inject water into the outlet manifold and pipeline to feed water to the aforesaid nozzle. In compliance with this invention, the aforesaid pipeline feeding water to the nozzle is furnished with the fuel combustion product heat regenerator and water is injected into the outlet manifold in overheated state.

EFFECT: increased steam formation speed in injecting water into outlet manifold and improved enthalpy of combustion products.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and power engineering. Proposed method consists in guiding the ship main internal combustion engine exhaust gases via the engines turbo compressors into waste-heat recovery boiler whereto heat carrier is fed from the steam separator for it to be heated by the aforesaid gases and in feeding the steam formed in the boiler evaporation pipes into the steam separator. Here note that the ship main engine exhaust gases are forced into the exhaust pipe, their temperature behind the aforesaid waste-heat recovery boiler is kept, in all operating ranges, not less than 160°C. In compliance with this invention, given the reduction of the main engine output or the ship auxiliary loads heat consumption drop, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is replaced with an air heat carrier. For this, the boiler evaporation pipes are, first, disconnected from the steam separator by appropriate shut-off valves, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is dried off for the pipes to receive air heat carrier by communicating them with air reservoir communicating, in its turn, with the ship compressed air system. Then, air heat carrier is heated by exhaust gases in the waste-heat recovery boiler to be fed into heat exchanger for sea and mineral water desalination. Note here that brine and hot air resulted at the desalination apparatus outlet are used for ship service purposes while generated steam is fed into separator for its condensation. The proposed device incorporates additionally a heat exchanger for water desalination, a compressed air reservoir communicating with the ship compressed air system. Note here that the said reservoir outlet communicates via pressure control and shut-off valves with the waste-heat recovery boiler feed pipeline at the section between its coils and shut-off valve. The boiler coil discharge pipeline at the section between the boiler shut-off valve and coils communicates via the said shutoff valve with the said desalination heat exchanger heat carrier inlet. Note also that the boiler coils are furnished with devices to remove working heat carrier and that the desalination apparatus outlets communicate with the ship brine, steam and hot air consumers.

EFFECT: higher degree of internal combustion engine exhaust gas recovery.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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