Method and installation for complex thermal treatment of solid fuel

FIELD: technological processes, fuel.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drying of solid fuel, its pyrolysis in reactor in fluidizated layer with solid coolant with preparation of steam-gas mixture and coal char, their discharge from reactor and separation. Steam-gas mixture is cleaned, and part of it is burned in combustion chamber of gas turbine with generation of electric energy and utilization of exhaust gases. Coal char is separated into coal char separator into two flows by fractions. Coarse fraction is sent to activator for production of activated coal, and the fine one - into gas generator for preparation of generator gas, which is then cleaned and conditioned together with remaining part of cleaned steam-gas mixture to prepare synthesis-gas, which is supplied to reactor for synthesis of liquid carbohydrates. Solid coolant is heated in technological furnace by its partial combustion with production of smoke gases and returned to pyrolysis reactor. At that prepared activated coal is directed as sorption material for purification of steam-gas mixture and generator gas, and spent activated coal is returned back to gasification stage.

EFFECT: maximum possible amount of high-quality liquid fuels of wide purpose with simultaneous efficient power generation by application of gas tube installation.

6 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to complex thermal processing of solid fuel and can be applied in toplivoprovoda industry, petrochemical industry producing synthetic liquid fuel (SLF), and in the energy sector.

A known method of thermal processing of solid fuel by direct gasification using oxygen or steam-oxygen blast with obtaining synthesis gas, which can be used to produce liquid fuels (see U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2052492, CL C10J 3/00; C10J 3/54, op. 20.01.1996 year).

The disadvantages of this method is low efficiency of thermal processing of solid fuel and low quality gas the gas used as raw material for synthesis of liquid fuels. And a large amount of gas gasification complicates it and clean it.

A known method of thermal processing of fine fuels, which describes the installation for its implementation. Solid fuel is dried and fed into the pyrolysis reactor for pyrolysis of solid heat carrier in a fluidized bed with the receipt of char and gas mixture. The char was partially burned in the processing furnace of obtaining fine-grained sorbent and particulate heat carrier supplied to the pyrolysis. Steam-gas mixture is sent to the heat exchanger-adsorber for condensation and removal the Oia from her heavy fractions of the resin and heating the source of fuel. The apparatus comprises a pyrolysis reactor and connected with it the process furnace. The process ensures the production of carbon sorbent, gas pyrolysis and tar, from which the liquid fuel (see U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2074223, CL SW 49/22, SW 31/08, op. 27.02.1997 year).

The disadvantages of the method and installation is the low yield of liquid fuels derived from tar pyrolysis, and no in the process of thermal energy.

The closest technical solution relating to the method and installation of complex thermal processing of solid fuels are the way and setting proposed in the patent of Russian Federation №2211927, CL F01K 13/00, F02C 6/00, op. 10.09.2003,).

The known method complex thermal processing of solid fuels, representing brown coal. Raw materials after crushing and drying is subjected to pyrolysis by solid heat carrier process thermocontact coking with getting vapor-gas mixture and char. Gas-vapor mixture purify and condense. Neskondensirovannyh part of the vapor-gas mixture is burned in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine with the subsequent disposal of waste gases. Part of the coke is burned with getting heated coke and solid carrier which is sent to the stage of pyrolysis. The heated char is divided into two streams, one of which is gasification with getting the generator g is for. Another stream of heated coke sent for activation. Producer gas is cleaned from dust and serves as fuel for combustion in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. During the activation process get fine-grained activated carbon.

Known installation includes drying of the solid fuel, the reactor of pyrolysis, the process furnace system cleaning gas mixture. Conclusion neskondensirovannyh part of the vapor-gas mixture treatment system connected to the gas turbine to generate electricity. The apparatus comprises a gas generator connected to the output of the char from the process furnace and generator gas purification system. To the conclusion of the heated char is also connected to the activator.

The disadvantage of this method and installation is the low yield of liquid fuels, which are only from pyrolysis resin.

The present invention aims at solving the problem of obtaining the maximum possible number of high-quality liquid fuels General-purpose (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, turbine fuel) while making efficient power generation through the use of a gas-turbine installation.

To achieve these technical results, the method includes crushing and drying of the solid fuel, its pyrolysis in the fluidized bed of solid talonite is eaten with obtain vapor-gas mixture and char, the output vapor-gas mixture together with the char from the stage of pyrolysis and separating the carbon from the gas mixture, the cleaning gas mixture, heating the solid carrier due to its partial combustion with receiving flue gas and feeding solid heat carrier to the stage of pyrolysis, the separation of char on two threads on fractions and supply small fraction of the char in the gasification of obtaining gas from the gas generator and its subsequent treatment, and a large fraction of the char - to activate with active charcoal, served as a sorption material for cleaning gas mixture and generating gas, the exhaust direction of the active coal gasification, the separation of the steam-treated mixture into two streams, feeding one part of the stream for combustion in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine with electricity generation and subsequent disposal of waste gases, feeding another part of the flow of gas-vapor mixture to air conditioning together with cleaned gas generator to obtain synthesis gas and the direction of the synthesis gas to the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuels.

Moreover, as the solid fuel use peat.

Crushing peat carry out together with the contained inclusions of plant origin and chips to obtain large fractions

Drying Tverdov the fuel to provide combustion gases, supplied with heating stage solid carrier.

To solve the above problems, the system includes a dryer, connected with it by a pyrolysis reactor, equipped with output vapor-gas mixture, the process furnace input connected to the pyrolysis reactor and supplied with the output of the flue gas and the output of the solid carrier, connected to the pyrolysis reactor, separator char and gas mixture connected to the output vapor-gas mixture of the pyrolysis reactor, the separator char, connected to the separator char and gas-vapor mixtures and is equipped with the conclusions of the coarse and fine fractions of char, purification system gas mixture connected to the separator char and gas mixture, the gas turbine with the output of waste gases and combustion chamber connected the purification system gas mixture, a device for disposing of waste gases, connected to the output of waste gases of the gas turbine, generator, equipped with a purification system gas generator and is connected to the output of the fine fraction of char separator, a trigger connected to the output of a large fraction of char separator and supplied with the output of the active charcoal, air conditioning, connected to the outputs of the systems cleaning gas mixture and generating gas, and the reactor for the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons, coupled with conditioning, and si is the subject of cleaning gas mixture and the gas generator is connected to the pins of the coal activator and supplied with the conclusions of spent activated carbon, connected to the gas generator.

Moreover, the output of flue gases technological furnace is connected to the dryer.

Pyrolysis offers the technology thermocontact coking developed in oil refining and preparereport.

The pre-gasification of deep drying and pyrolysis fuel removed from all external moisture and the bulk paragenetically moisture, improving the quality of producer gas as a raw material for the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons, reducing the volume of gas, simplifying and reducing costs of his treatment.

Pre-pyrolysis fuel increase economic production indicators, as part of the resulting gas mixture is used in a gas turbine plant, providing electricity for own production needs, including oxygen station.

In addition, obtained by pyrolysis coke is a carbon sorbent, and by additional activation of the it is proposed to obtain high-quality active coal-sorbent.

The process uses the principle of recycling, providing waste disposal and waste reduction of the production cycle : used in the cleaning process gas sorbents are returned to the cycle of re-gasification with decomposition and neutralization of trapped gases from substances and waste gasification of carbon is different sorbents.

The proposed method and installation allow processing as a solid fuel peat. The high moisture content of the peat is removed by drying flue gases and subsequent pyrolysis output vapor-gas mixture. Crushing peat exercise jointly with floral elements and chips to obtain a coarse fraction, in order to improve the content of coarse particles of coke and, accordingly, increase the percentage of coarse fraction in the produced active coal.

The drawing shows a block diagram of the installation of complex thermal processing of solid fuels.

The primary node installation - pyrolysis unit, which consists of two main units fluidized bed : the pyrolysis reactor 1 and the processing furnace 2, connected by oxoproline, which is continuously circulated in a fluidized bed state of the dispersed material - solid heat carrier represents part obtained in the pyrolysis char.

The system includes a dryer 3, is connected by a supply line 4 torrefied fuel pyrolysis reactor. The pyrolysis reactor 1 is supplied with the output vapor-gas mixture (ASG) 5. The separator 6 PGS and char contains the output char 7 and the output ASG 8. Technological furnace 2 is provided with output solid carrier 9 in the pyrolysis reactor 1 and the input 10 of the circulating solids is of teplonositelya from the pyrolysis reactor 1. Conclusion flue gas 11 from the process furnace 2 is connected to the dryer 3. The separator 6 is supplied with the output char 7 connected to the separator char 12. The separator char contains 12 conclusion 13 a large fraction of the carbon in the activator 14 and the output 15 of the fine fraction of the char in the gasifier 16. Conclusion ASG 8 separator 6 is connected to the purification system ASG 17, which are connected to the output 18 from the combustion chamber of the gas turbine 19 and the output of the 20 air-conditioned 21. The output 22 of the air conditioner 21 is connected to the synthesis reactor 23 of liquid hydrocarbons. The gas generator 16 is supplied with the output 24 connected through a purification system gas generator 25 and through the output 26 of the air 21. The activator 14 is connected through a steam line 27 to the gas generator 16 and supplied with the output of the active coal 28 connected to the purification system ASG 17, and the output 29 is connected to a cleaning gas from the gas generator 25. The gas turbine 19 of the duct 30 is connected to the boiler-exchanger 31, which is connected by a duct 32 with the flue gas cleaning system 33 and then the duct 34 with the chimney 35. Cleaning system ASG 17 connected to the output 36 of spent activated carbon from the gas generator 16, and the cleaning system gas generator 25 output 37 of spent activated carbon from the generator 16. Dryer 3 are connected by a duct 38 with the flue gas cleaning system 33. HRSG 31 connected ProPR what Bodom 39 to the activator 14. Installation is also provided with an oxygen station 40, connected by pipeline 41 oxygen from the gas generator 16.

The device operates as follows.

In the dryer 3 processed solid fuels (lignite, peat) are subjected to crushing to fraction 0-10 mm and drying and line 4 serves in the pyrolysis reactor 1 fluidized bed. In the pyrolysis reactor 1, the fuel is heated to ˜500°due to its mixing with a solid carrier, continuously coming from the process furnace 2 at the output 9 and with a higher temperature of about 650°C. For heating the solid carrier in the processing furnace 2 produce partial combustion contained in the char combustible substances by filing in the processing furnace blast air. Flue gases at the output 11 is fed to the dryer 3 as a drying agent, and the used drying agent is fed via a duct 38 in the flue gas cleaning system 33 and then is discharged into the atmosphere. In the pyrolysis reactor 1 fuel decomposes with the formation of the vapor-gas mixture (ASG) and the solid residue of char. The char together with the flow of the calibration gas is removed from the pyrolysis reactor 1 through the output vapor-gas mixture 5 in the separator 6 char and gas mixture. In the separator 6 char precipitated and pin 7 is sent to the separator 12. ASG on pin 8 enters the system on isdi ASG 17.

Gas-vapor mixture after treatment is divided into two streams: one is directed into the combustion chamber of the gas turbine 19, which provides the own needs of the production of electricity (including the most energy-intensive oxygen station 40), and the second stream is fed into the unit 21 for optimization of composition (gas conditioning). From gas to remove carbon dioxide and other impurities and get known methods optimal ratio of N2and, for example, by adding H2. The resulting synthesis gas is sent to the synthesis reactor 23 of liquid hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuels by catalytic technology Fischer-Tropsch process. All the catalysts used for synthesis, sensitive to sulfur compounds, Halogens, heavy metals, salabrasion and resinous substances. Pre-cleaning gas mixture generator and gas purification systems 17 and 25 with the use of activated carbon removes the specified elements.

Formed in the pyrolysis reactor 1 char partially burned in the processing furnace 2 in the fluidized bed with receiving flue gas and solid carrier which is sent to the stage of pyrolysis. From separator 6 char enters the separator 12, where it is divided into two fractions : small (less than 0.5 mm) and large (0.5 to 5.0 mm). A large fraction of the directions of the t in the activator 14 for processing in the active coal. A small fraction is fed into the gas generator 16 for processing gas in the gas by gasification oxygen blast entering the gas generator 16 from the oxygen plant 40.

In the case of processing of peat in order to increase the output of large fractions of char from it and to create the possibility of obtaining coarse-grained activated carbon, is provided at the stage of preliminary preparation of peat to produce coarse crushing peat together with its contained elements of plant origin and chips.

Get in the activator 14 active carbon is used in purification systems gas mixture 17 and the gas generator 25 (along with other reagents used for the purification of gas). The spent activated carbon with absorbed them from the vapor-gas mixture and generating gas pollutants are removed from the system cleanse ASG 17 on the output 36 of the purification system gas generator 25 to the output 37 and returned to the gas generator 16 for disposal by gasification.

The waste gases of the gas turbine on the output 30 is sent to the HRSG 31 for use of heat in the development of steam applied for the production of activated carbon in the activator 14. Flue gases after purification system 33 is vented into the atmosphere via a flue 35.

Thus, offers the I low-waste technology for the efficient use of all the obtained intermediate and final products, in which wastes are only cooled and purified flue gases and slag, which can be used in construction and road technology.

1. How complex thermal processing of solid fuels, comprising grinding and drying of the solid fuel, its pyrolysis in the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier with getting vapor-gas mixture and char, clean steam and gas mixture burning it in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine with electricity generation and subsequent disposal of waste gases, the separation of char into two streams, one of which is fed to the gasification of obtaining gas from the gas generator and subsequent cleaning of producer gas, and the other thread send char to activate with active coal, heating of the solid carrier due to its partial combustion with receiving flue gas and the flow of heated particulate heat carrier to stage pyrolysis, characterized in that the cleaned producer gas and part of the gas mixture condition to obtain synthesis gas derived synthesis gas fed to the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuels, the resulting char output from the stage of pyrolysis with steam-gas mixture, separating the char from the gas-vapor mixture and then serve it to split into two streams, the separation of char carry out is to reklam large fraction for activation and fines for gasification, active carbon are referred to as a sorption material for cleaning gas mixture and generating gas and the spent active carbon return to the stage gasification.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the solid fuel use peat.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the crushing of peat carry out together with the contained inclusions of plant origin and chips to obtain a large fraction.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the drying of the solid fuel to provide combustion gases supplied from the heating stage solid carrier.

5. Installation for complex thermal processing of solid fuels containing dryer, coupled with the pyrolysis reactor, equipped with output vapor-gas mixture, the process furnace input connected to the pyrolysis reactor and supplied with the output of the flue gas and the output of the solid carrier connected with the rector of the pyrolysis system, clean steam and gas mixture, the gas turbine with the output of waste gases and combustion chamber connected to the purification system gas mixture, a device for disposing of waste gases, connected to the output of waste gases of the gas turbine, generator, equipped with a purification system gas generator and activator, supplied you in the house activated carbon, characterized in that the installation includes air conditioning, connected to a cleaning gas mixture and generating gas, the reactor for the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons, coupled with conditioning, the separator vapor-gas mixture and the carbon connected to the output vapor-gas mixture from the reactor of pyrolysis and to the inlet of the purification system gas mixture, the separator char, connected to the separator vapor-gas mixture and char and supplied with the output of a large fraction of the carbon that is connected to the activator, and a small fraction of the carbon that is connected to the gas generator, and system cleaning gas mixture and the gas generator is connected to the output of the active coal activator and supplied with the conclusions of spent activated carbon connected to the gas generator.

6. Installation according to claim 5, characterized in that the output of flue gases technological furnace is connected to the dryer.



 

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