FIELD: transportation; agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: tractor comprises front axle unloading sensor hydraulically connected with spool-type device and weight transfer unit with ballast weight and hydraulic cylinder. The said front axle unloading sensor is cinematically connected with spool-type device which is hydraulically connected with weight transfer unit with ballast weight located on the front axle. Bracket to which weight transfer unit with ballast weight is attached is connected with hydraulic cylinder rod to allow fluid drain into tank and for direct adjustment of front axle load.
EFFECT: straight-line stability improvement, tractor aggregate drivability improvement and quality improvement of agricultural operations.
The invention relates to tractor engineering and can be used when mounting the tractor with heavy mounted or semi-mounted agricultural machine.
Known tractor equipped secured to its frame by a hydraulic cylinder and guides. The piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder is connected to the bracket for movement in said guides. The working cavity of the above-mentioned hydraulic cylinder is connected with the drive mechanism of the rear hinge. To secure the repayment of the bracket with corrugatedes to its original position, the piston rod of the cylinder is accomplished by a spring-activated (description A.S. USSR №734051, IPC362D 49/08). This design provides automatic zagrozenia tractor front wheels depending on the vertical load acting on the mechanism of the rear hinge. The disadvantage of this invention is that the load on the front axle of the tractor is regulated by indirect parameter.
A device to control the traction mechanism support frame of the tractor, containing the hydraulic regulation of the length of the top link, cavity through which the hose with locking elements is in communication with the first and second lines of the three-position four of the valve. The third and fourth lines are connected respectively to the pump and drain hose. The output element of the job p is the position of the valve is connected with the governing body. To improve traction properties of the articulated tractor and its control by regulating the distribution of the normal load during transient modes of motion, the element to set the position of the valve is made in the form of sensor normal load wheels of the tractor and the valve is made with fixation in the initial position in the first position, the housing of the valve is kinematically connected with the rod of the hydraulic cylinder control the length of the top link (the description of the patent RF №2033009 AV, 63/10). The disadvantage of this device is too complex the design, the load on the front axle is adjusted by indirect parameter, and that the sensor normal load on the front wheels hydraulically connected to Bolotnikova device that tightness affects the quality of regulation load on the front axle.
The objective of the invention is a device that automatically regulate directly the load on the front axle of the tractor when mounting it with heavy mounted or semi-mounted agricultural machine.
The technical result is improved handling and increased stability of the rectilinear motion tillage tractor unit, improving the quality of is agricultural purpos the business operations.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the tractor, comprising a sensor unloading the front axle, hydraulically connected with Bolotnikova device, and corrugating with ballast load and the hydraulic cylinder, the specified sensor unloading the front axle kinematically associated with Bolotnikova device that is hydraulically connected with corrugatedes with ballast cargo located on the front axle, the bracket to which is attached togreater with ballast load, connected with the rod of the hydraulic cylinder to allow drainage of fluid in the tank and direct control load on the front axle.
1 shows a General view of the tractor, side view; figure 2 is a view along arrow a in figure 1; figure 3 is a cross-section B-B in figure 2; figure 4 - sensor unloading the front axle of the tractor.
The tractor includes a sensor unloading the front axle 1, the sensitive element of which is twisted cylindrical spring 2. Case 3 sensor unloading the front axle 1 is connected with the housing 4 spool device 5. Spool device 5 through the hydroline 6 is connected with the working cavity 7 of the hydraulic cylinder 8. With the rod 9 of the hydraulic cylinder 8 is connected to the bracket 10, to which is attached togreater with ballast load 11. The bracket 10 is installed in the guide 12. Rod cylinder chamber 8 has a spring 13 to return corrugates with ballast load 11 vychodne position. The sensor unloading the front axle 1 is equipped with a damping device 14. Spool device 5 through the hydroline 15 is connected with the hydraulic pump 16 all system of the tractor.
The device operates as follows.
In the static position of the unit twisted cylindrical spring 2 is maximally loaded. When this valve device 5 divides the working cavity 7 of the hydraulic cylinder 8 with a pressure line (hydroline 15) of the pump 16. Depending on the type of implement of the machine and the external environment spool device 5 is regulated at different maximum load on the front axle of the tractor. During movement of the tractor unit with heavy mounted agricultural machine (cultivator-rasteniepitateley) is a redistribution of normal reactions of the soil to support a mounted unit. This causes unloading the front axle of the tractor, which leads to deterioration of controllability and reduce the quality of agricultural operations. When unloading the front axle of the tractor reduces the load on the spring 2 sensor unloading the front axle 1. The decrease in load causes movement of the body 3 of the sensor unloading the front axle 1 and the housing 4 spool device 5. Spool device 5 provides a hydraulic connection to the hydraulic pump 16 with the working cavity 7 of the hydraulic cylinder 8 (communication implementation through the camping by hydroline 6), what causes the movement of the stem 9 of the bracket 10 with corrugatedes cargo and ballast 11 forward in the direction of travel of the tractor. This movement leads to an increase in load on the front axle of the tractor, and hence increasing the stability of rectilinear motion and to improve controllability of the unit. As you increase the load on the front axle of the tractor increases the deformation of the spring 2 sensor unloading the front axle 1. This leads to movement of the body 3 of the sensor unloading the front axle 1 in the reverse direction together with the casing 4 spool device 5. Spool device 5 through the hydroline 6 connects the working cavity 7 of the hydraulic cylinder 8 with the sink in the tank. Due to the efforts of the compressed spring 13 of the shaft 9 together with the ballast load 11 is moved back in the direction of travel of the tractor. This reduces the load on the front axle to the specified Bolotnikova device 5 level. The damping device 14 serves for damping oscillations of the sensor unloading the front axle 1.
Due to the kinematic connection of the sensor unloading the front axle 1 with Bolotnikova device 4 provided better regulation load on the front axle. In addition, the installation of corrugates with ballast load 11 on the front axle allows you to adjust the load directly on the axis.
The application of the proposed izaberete the Oia allows to increase the stability of the rectilinear motion, to improve the controllability of the tractor unit, to improve the quality of agricultural operations.
The tractor includes a sensor unloading the front axle, hydraulically connected with Bolotnikova device, and corrugating with ballast load and the hydraulic cylinder, characterized in that the sensor unloading the front axle kinematically associated with Bolotnikova device that is hydraulically connected with corrugatedes with ballast cargo located on the front axle, the bracket to which is attached togreater with ballast load, connected with the rod of the hydraulic cylinder to allow drainage of fluid in the tank and direct control load on the front axle.
SUBSTANCE: combined tilling device for soil treatment aggregated with a tractor with an attached system includes a frame and a toothed harrow. The device contains an impact device, arms and balancing-driving wheels. The frame of the device is hinged to the arm of the plough or coupling unit being able to turn and move vertically to copy relief of the soil in lateral-vertical and transverse-vertical planes. Balancing-driving wheels are arranged on the axes. Axes are secured with swinging arms which are hinged to joint eyes and connected to the frame through shock dampers. Left in the direction of movement of the device shock damper is arranged on the frame adjusting its position. Impact device is made as a fixed on the frame of the device axle tree with welded to it discs, whereat pivotally interconnected connectors and changeable tillage tools are arranged with the means of axes. Each axis of the pivotal connection of connectors with tillage tools has rollers for moving along the guide way, axle tree of the impact device is driven by chain gear from balancing-driving wheels. Teeth of the harrow are fixed on the rollers. Rollers are arranged on the frame of the device pivotally and are connected with the system of levers and extension springs to the rod, which is set moving on the frame in cross direction for adjustment of the deviation force of the teeth of the harrow coming across an obstacle and arresting by means of holding lock. A lever going through the hinge, fixed on the harrow for turning and moving when lifting and descending of the tractor attached system, is arranged on the lower axis of the attached system of the tractor vehicle system for operation of the device together with the harrow. The other end of the lever is connected to the arms of the frame of the device by means of length adjustable chains. Method of soil treatment includes tilling, whereat during tilling or right afterwards impact action or harrowing is performed. Impact action is performed with removable tillage tools in the form of blades, rod and chains depending on the physical-mechanical characteristics of the soil and the goal of soil processing. Treatment of soil conducted at linear speed of the tillage tools increasing speed of the device, while deviation effort of the teeth of the harrow is adjusted according to physical - mechanical characteristics of the soil.
EFFECT: improvement quality of soil treatment, increasing productivity of agricultural crops.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: agro-complex contains plots of land with separating ditches. Agro- bridges are installed on permanent operating track. Mobile greenhouses are also installed on their permanent operating track. Greenhouses are represented as several sections of arch rigidly interconnected on top. Each arch ensures coverage of at least two plots of land for the received shift of crops. Vertical walls of greenhouse are rigidly fixed to the upper parts of sections along the perimeter; vertical walls are also rigidly fixed to upper ceilings of greenhouses and connected to each other. Rolling contact bearings are fastened at both ends of greenhouse and in symmetrical alignment at two sides of end walls so that can be removed. Rolling contact bearings are installed inside greenhouse along separating ditch axis, in symmetrical alignment and at equal space. Bridges are mounted on separating ditch. Rolling contact bearings are fixed to vertical supports as removable elements connected to upper ceilings of greenhouse. Permanent track rails for agro-bridges are installed flush with soil level along short and long sides of land plots. Lower crosscut of all greenhouse walls along the whole perimeter is provided with movable heaters having mechanical drives. Heat generators are placed inside greenhouse corners along one of diagonal. Heat generators are fixed to greenhouse structures so that they can be removed and controlled automatically from on-board computer. Rolling contact bearings displaced along long sides of greenhouse are implemented as rollers with diameter being less than diameter of other rolling contact bearings.
EFFECT: increase of agro-complex output.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises frame, hopper with a dosing unit and a seed tube and operation elements. The operation elements are made as cone discs and vertical poles. Discs are divided into spiral sectors with two surfaces. The first surface has sharpening and smaller ascending angle than the second one. The poles are rigidly fixed on the frame and inclined to the line of motion to provide for penetration of the discs into soil. Poles are made as pipes with loading cone in the upper part and inserted screws. Discs are fixed on the poles by hinges and fitted with cone distributors. The distributors are connected to the discs by draw bars. Screws are coaxially welded to the cone distributors tops. Operation elements are placed on the frame in a staggered order.
EFFECT: improving quality of distributing fertiliser granules in the subsoil layer without blocking.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame of a hitch and a concave disc. Wave disc rotatable around the axis, precision roller seed driller, furrow-forming wheel and packing wheel are mounted on the frame after the concave disc. Additionally a cutting disc is fixed in the front part of the frame. The frame is fitted with runner-type supports. Diameter of the concave disc is calculated by the formula Dcd=(4.5...5.5)H, diameter of the wave disc - Dwd=(0.8...0.9)Dcd, and diameter of the cutting disc - Dwd=Dcd. Low point of the wave disc is placed at the distance h=(0.3...0.6)H below the low point of the concave disc, where H stands for seed furrow depth.
EFFECT: qualitative tillage, sowing and covering of small sylvula cultures seeds.
SUBSTANCE: aggregate comprises a hitch tongue connected by hinges to a frame consisting of central and hinge-connected side sections, transport wheels with hydraulic lift and sink cylinders, two-row strip rollers and folding mechanisms for the frame side sections. The hitch tongue is connected to the frame lowering unit and can be rotated by the hydraulic cylinder mounted on the frame and connected by a rod to a groove on the bracket of the hitch tongue. Two rows of concave discs are mounted on the frame. Each disc is set on a separate pole and is spring-loaded relative to the frame. Each concave disc pole is connected to the bracket by a horizontal hinge. The bracket is fitted with a square shank set into the corresponding staple on the frame. Strips of the two-row rollers are wound in the opposite directions in the first and second rows. The central part is equipped with two carrier wheels with depth adjusting mechanisms and the side sections is fitted with one carrier wheel each. The transport wheels are fixed coaxially on the central frame part between the second row of the concave discs and strip rollers.
EFFECT: improving quality of tillage, decreasing quantity of metal required for the device and facilitating the aggregate maintenance.
SUBSTANCE: soil cultivation device comprising two rows of disks (1, 3, Fig. 1) mounted under an angle of attack, flat cutting working members (2) mounted behind front row disks (1), along their travel lines, and rollers (5). The working members are attached to frame (6). Back row disks (2) are installed between the travel lines of front row disks (1). Back row disks (3) are equipped with working elements (4) installed discontinuously on their periphery. Besides that the distance between the rows of disks (1, 3) is determined according the formula L<B/2tgα, where L is the distance between the disk rows; B is the spacing between disks in a row; α is the angle of attack (the disk positioning angle relative to the device direction of travel).
EFFECT: accumulation and preservation of moisture; protection against erosion, decreased power consumption of soil cultivation process due to increased degree of soil clod pulverisation and decreased tractive resistance of device.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wheel track comprising a V-shaped water-supplying channel, reinforced concrete plates embedded into the ground, with recessed profiled tracks for module wheels made in the plates according to the gauge width of the unit power modules. The reinforced concrete plates are laid to the ground so that they rest on the V-shaped channel edges, gaps are left between the plates, and the plates are embedded into the ground by 65-80% of their thickness. The plates have longitudinal recesses at the bottom, and the upper sides of the V-shaped channel have longitudinal projecting parts, the shape of which matches that of the recesses. The recesses and the projecting parts have semi-circular or trapezoidal cross-sections.
EFFECT: increased labour efficiency.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex with bridge aggregate includes agricultural ground with permanent shaped and punched ferroconcrete wheel tracks, laid on the drainage channel, the bridge aggregate with a frame fixed on power modules and cabin. The bridge aggregate has water intaking pipe fixed on rotational axis of one of power modules with possibility of vertical travel on in stock tube. Water intaking pipe is fastened to rod of actuator and through flexible tube with suction pipe of electro pump, with outlet fitting through the rigid vent pipe fixed on energy module is coaxially connected to the water intaking pipe, has transitive gyrating joint mounted at its top connected to water distributive pipes, fixed on the frame of rectangular section having connector fitting pipes with wing walls, bearing sprinklers. Fittings enclosed with demountable screw plugs for connection of flexible irrigation hoses are also fixed on water distributive pipes. Transmitters interacting with transmitters on ferroconcrete wheel tracks for stopping of the bridge aggregate over holes in wheel tracks are fixed on the bottom of one of the energy modules. The holes in track are oval.
EFFECT: functionality extention and labour productivity increase.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: assembly consists of ploughshares, disc section mounted in front of the ploughshares, fertiliser- and seed tubes, coverer, adjusting mechanism. Double concave discs are mounted on section axis. The section is fitted with a mechanism for adjusting discs vertically. Coulters of ploughshares slope at different angles to the line of motion. Front ploughshares are fitted with fore-sharpened coulters, back ploughshares - with back-sharpened coulters. Running depth of front ploughshares is more than that of back ones. Coverer is designed as a roller with U-shape executive elements mounted on its surface. Coverer is front-mounted behind second-row ploughshares and is fitted with pressure adjusting mechanism in the form of pressure bar. The executive elements are inclined at an angle to the symmetry axis of the assembly.
EFFECT: improved quality and uniformity of seeds and fertilisers distribution.
2 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: seeding machine has milling sections on a frame, a seed storage silo with seed sowing devices and their actuators, grain tubes, seed grains, support driving wheels and packing wheels. The milling sections are covered and have a mechanism for regulating the tilling depth. On the output shafts of milling sections there are working organs, equipped with inverted L-shaped blades. Each working organ is made from a driving disc, fixed at the output shaft of the milling section, and a drive plate with inverted L-shaped blades, which are fixed on one axis with provision for rotation around each other. The discs are joined together by damping springs fitted in the grooves of the discs. The milling sections are hinged to the frame, with an angle of inclination of the axis of symmetry of the milling section, passing through the axis of rotation of the suspension of the milling section and the working organ, perpendicular to the tangent to the trajectory of the inverted L-shaped blade at the moment of entry into the ground. Relative the frame, the milling sections are spring-loaded with a force, equal to the force of complete compression of the damping spring of the working organ, but not exceeding the maximum permissible load on the inverted-L shaped blade.
EFFECT: higher quality of tilling and sowing; longer life service of the blades and reduction of energy consumption of the milling process.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.
EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.
3 cl, 9 dwg