Method for evaluation of defect in rail head

FIELD: transportation, physics.

SUBSTANCE: at least three electroacoustic transducers are installed so that their sounding lines are intersecting by pairs. Sounding plane is selected being parallel to rail generatix. Rail head is sounded by all pairs of electroacoustic transducers separately. Then all electroacoustic transducers are moved over mentioned plane, position of each of detected defect boundaries lines is saved, all lines are conjointly analysed and defect position and orientation in sounding plane is calculated.

EFFECT: reliable estimate of sizes, position and orientation of defect in rail head.

3 cl, 8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of ultrasonic nondestructive testing of products, in particular rails. The method can be used to estimate the defect in the rail head, previously detected by other means of testing, and decision-making about the risk of malfunction and need repair section of rail track.

The traditional procedure for the proper condition of the rails includes two stages:

1. High-speed non-destructive testing of railway high-speed flaw detection by means of rail flaw detectors or railcars to detect suspicious at the defect sites at the lowest time-lesson pathways. Suspicious areas are marked or saved their coordinates.

2. Check out repair crews on the site of an alleged defect, assessment of rail in place of the defect and, if necessary, repair works.

The practice of repair work shows that a significant (50%) part of the defects found in the first stage, the signals are "false alarms"caused by errors in the operation of high-speed flaw detection means, or defects do not pose a threat to traffic safety.

Known General methods for finding defects in rails [1]. Vast (up to 93%) of the number m of the methods, actually used in practice at the first stage, are echo and mirror methods of ultrasonic inspection. These methods involve the detection of defects by emitting ULTRASONIC signals and receiving signals reflected from defects. Wide dissemination of these methods is explained by the fact that the complex shape of the rail when the speed control allows you to set electroacoustic transducers (there's) only on the rolling surface of the rail.

Known methods of detecting the defect in the rail head: [2-7], which consists in various embodiments, the practical implementation of echo and mirror methods of ultrasonic testing.

The lack of echo and mirror methods these methods is the low accuracy of detection and measurement of defects associated with the following circumstances:

- different orientation defects;

- the complex nature of the reflection of the ULTRASONIC signal from the surface defect complicating the reception of the reflected ULTRASONIC signals.

As a result, echo or mirror reflected ULTRASONIC signals are mainly formed not on the entire area of the defect, but only on a separate so-called reflecting points of the defect.

These circumstances result in the need to increase the sensitivity of high-speed detectors, which further increases the probability of "false alarm". Thus, all of these is the means were not suitable for assessing the actual size and orientation of defects in the rail head.

Known methods of evaluation of the defect in the rail head [8, 9], namely, that in the vicinity of the alleged defect on the opposite surfaces of the rail head set pair of electroacoustic transducers, sensing lines, facing each other and located in the same plane as the sensing probe head rail, which emit ultrasonic signals transducers with one and take them transducers on the other side of the rail head, move all together electroacoustic transducers along the rail, detect and determine the position of the boundary line defect shadow method, determine the size of the defect in the plane of the sensing. In these methods, there's a few features in the vertical plane with the opposite sides of the rail head. The sensing head rail ULTRASONIC signals from one side of the rail head, and receive from the other when moving there allows you to find the border line of the defect - loss of received ULTRASONIC signals. The position of the lower border of the defect allows us to estimate one size - the depth of the defect. The resolution in depth determines the number there.

The disadvantage of this method is the limited evaluation of defect, because it allows the op is adelite only the depth of the defect in the rail head.

Closest to the claimed method is [10], namely, that in the vicinity of the alleged defect on the opposite surfaces of the rail head set pair of electroacoustic transducers, sensing lines, facing each other and located in the same plane as the sensing probe head rail, which emit ultrasonic signals transducers with one and take them transducers on the other side of the rail head, move all together electroacoustic transducers along the rail, detect and determine the position of the boundary line defect shadow method, determine the size of the defect in the plane of the sensing. In this way also a few there are in the vertical plane with the opposite sides of the rail head. The sensing head rail ULTRASONIC signals on one and receive on the other side of the rail head when moving there allows you to find the border line of the defect - loss of received ULTRASONIC signals. The position of the lower border of the defect allows us to estimate one size - the depth of the defect. The resolution in depth determines the number there.

The disadvantage of this method is the limited evaluation of defect, because they allow the t to determine only the depth of the defect in the rail head.

The problem solved by the claimed method is a more complete assessment of previously identified defect, in particular the determination of all its dimensions, and the position and orientation of the rail head. The presence of the defect parameters allows reasonably determine the need for time-consuming repair work.

To solve this task according to claim 1 of the claims in the method of estimating defect in the rail head, namely, that in the vicinity of the alleged defect on the opposite surfaces of the rail head set pair of electroacoustic transducers, sensing lines, facing each other and located in the same plane as the sensing probe head rail, which emit ultrasonic signals transducers with one and take them transducers on the other side of the rail head, move all together electroacoustic transducers along the rail, detect and determine the position of the boundary line defect shadow method, determine the size of the defect in the plane of the sensing set at least three pairs described electroacoustic transducers so that their line sensing pairwise overlap, the sensing plane is chosen parallel continue the Noah forming rail, probe head rail all pairs of electroacoustic transducers individually move all of electroacoustic transducers on the specified plane, save the position of all of the detected boundary lines of the defect, jointly analyze them, calculates the position and orientation of the defect in the plane of the sensing.

To solve this task according to claim 2 in method evaluation of the defect in the rail head according to claim 1 the steps performed at different positions of the plane of the sensing sequentially calculates the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect.

To solve this task according to claim 3 of the formula of the invention in the method of estimating defect in the rail head according to claim 1 the steps performed simultaneously in different planes sensing calculate the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect.

Significant differences of the proposed method according to claim 1 claims are:

at least three pairs there can uniquely solve the problem of determining the spatial size, position and orientation of the defect in the plane of the sensing.

The number of pairs used there in the prototype can be as little and big three, as their number determines the resolution in depth, but whatever the number is and, this there's help to find only one dimension - the depth of the defect.

Installation there so that line sensing pairs crossed, means that none of the sensing lines not parallel to the other. This arrangement there allows us to construct a basis in which you can clearly define the boundaries of the defect in the plane of the sensing.

In the prototype line sensing parallel and can detect only the depth of the defect, but not its position and orientation.

The sensing plane is chosen parallel to the longitudinal generatrix of the rail. This orientation of the plane of the sensing allows a technician to easily organize its movement along the rail.

In the prototype the sensing plane is located at an angle to the base of the rail, in particular perpendicularly.

Move all there on the sensing plane.

In the prototype when searching for the defect plane sensing together with there moves the plane.

The sensing head rail all pairs there separately means that each radiating there interacts with only one, corresponding to the adoptive there, while ULTRASONIC signals reflected from defect, not accepted by others there. Such sensing eliminates errors in the estimation of the defect.

In the prototype receiving there can take a sounding signal from any radiating from there-is but the reflection from defect or pattern width there.

Save the position of all of the detected boundary lines of the defect due to the fact that multidirectional find there's line defect not at the same time.

In the prototype there is no need to keep the boundary line of the defect because the defect evaluation is reduced to a single definition of one size - depth.

Joint analysis of the situation of all the detected boundary lines of the defect allows to unambiguously determine the position and orientation of the defect in the rail head.

In the prototype analyze one boundary line of the most profound defect, which appears (disappears) of the probe signal. The boundary lines of the defect detected other there, give information about the direction to the border of the defect, but not about its position and orientation.

Calculate the position and orientation of the defect, which are the intersection points of the detected boundary lines of the defect.

In the prototype there is no possibility to determine the position and orientation of the defect, because one of the detected boundary line defect allows you to define only the depth of the defect.

Thus, the method, as claimed in claim 1, allows you to find the spatial location of the two points of the borders of the defect in the rail head, lying in the plane of sensing, i.e. to estimate the size, position and orientation of the defect.

Significant differences of the proposed method according to claim 2 fo the mules of the invention are:

perform actions according to claim 1 of the formula of the invention at different positions in the plane of the sensing sequentially means that after each determination of the size, position and orientation of defect one in the plane of the sensing change its position and repeat these steps. In the result, we can determine the set of points of the borders of the defect in the rail head, lying in different planes sensing. Resolution flaw detection depends on the number of planes sensing.

In the prototype also change the position of the sensing plane, however, a parallel arrangement of sensing lines and plane-parallel way change the provisions do not provide an accurate picture of the location of the defect.

The calculation of the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect allows a high degree of reliability to evaluate the nature of the defect rail and the degree of danger for railway transport.

In the prototype there is no possibility to estimate the spatial position and orientation of the defect. In the prototype is only one size of the defect depth. This option is not possible to reasonably estimate the defect, because the same depth may have defects of different sizes and spatial orientation.

Significant differences of the proposed method according to claim 3 of the formula and the finding are:

perform actions according to claim 1 claims simultaneously in different planes sensing and calculating the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect allows to solve the same tasks as in claim 2, but with greater speed, since the edge detection of the defect is carried out simultaneously in several planes sensing.

In the prototype is only one size of the defect depth. The inventive method are illustrated in the following graphics:

Figure 1. - Arrangement there on the rail head.

Figure 2. - Assessment scheme of the defect in the plane of the sensing.

Figure 3. - Type of device evaluation defect in the rail head.

Figure 4. - The measuring unit of the device according to claim 1 of the claims.

Figure 5. - The measuring unit of the device according to claim 2, mounted on the rail head.

6. - The measuring unit of the device according to claim 2.

7. - The measuring unit of the device according to claim 3 claims.

Fig. - Visualization of the evaluation results of the defect in the rail head.

Consider the implementation of the proposed method according to claim 1 of the claims.

In the simplest scenario, figure 1, in the vicinity of the alleged defect 1 on the opposite surfaces of the rail head 2 install three pairs (3-3', 4-4', 5-5') there, with the sensing lines facing each other the ha, intersecting and located in the same plane sensing. The sensing plane 7 is chosen parallel to the longitudinal generatrix of the rail, i.e. any longitudinal line of rail. In figure 1 this plane 7 parallel to the base of the rail, but can be located and at an angle thereto (path, position 10).

Probe head rail 2, which individually emit ultrasonic signals there's 3-5 with one and take them there 3'-5' on the other side of the rail head. Separate sensing assumes that the excitation signal emitted by the i-th there may be adopted only by the corresponding i'm there, i.e. ULTRASONIC signals reflected from defect 1 will not be accepted. This can be achieved either temporary or frequency division sensing pairs there.

Jointly move all there along the rail in the plane of the sensing 7 and probe the rail head all pairs there.

Each pair there find the position of the boundary line defect shadow method, figure 2, i.e. find the line sensing, since which disappears ULTRASONIC signal in the reception there because it gets in the shadow of defect 1, or, on the contrary, you receive the ULTRASONIC signal in the reception there because of the output line sensing from the shadows. Thus, each pair finds there are two lines - the beginning and the end of the defect, except when the defect is parallel to the line of Senderov the deposits.

Determine the spatial position of all the boundary lines of the defect relative to the rail.

Maintain position relative to the rail all the detected boundary lines of defect 1, since the latter are found not at the same time all the couples there, and in the process of their movement.

Joint analysis of the spatial position of all detected boundary lines of the defect in the plane of the sensing allows us to calculate the dimensions and orientation of the defect 1. In figure 2 the boundary lines of the defect obtained pairs there 5-5' and 3-3'may correspond to defects 1 and 8. The use of the boundary lines of the defect obtained by the pair there 4-4', allows you to resolve this ambiguity. Therefore, the joint analysis of all boundary lines of the defect allows you to get the size, position and orientation of the defect.

Thus, claim 1 of the formula of the invention can determine the size, position and orientation of the defect 1 head rail in the plane of the sensing 7.

According to claim 2. the formula of the invention changes the position of the plane of the sensing 7 and repeat the steps. In the case considered above, the sensing plane 7 can be raised to 9 or lowered relative to the base rail or changed its angular position 10, figure 1. The result will be detected boundary lines of defect 1 in a different plane sensing. Repeating the above steps,you can get a full idea of the size, the position and orientation of the defect. A number of provisions of the sensing plane is chosen based on the requirements of resolution estimate the size and orientation of the defect 1.

The results are displayed on the monitor screen (Fig), and the operator will be able to make a decision on expediency of carrying out of repair work.

According to claim 3 of the formula of the invention the steps performed simultaneously in different planes sensing, i.e. specified by the rules set there in several planes sensing. In this case, the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect can be computed in one move all there in the vicinity of the defect.

Devices that implement the inventive method according to claim 1, figure 3, include:

11.- the measuring unit, intended for installation on the rail head 2 and move through it.

12. - electronic unit designed for generating and receiving probe signals, estimates the position of the measuring unit relative to the rail and display results and other actions. The composition and functions of the electronic unit are dependent on options for the implementation of the proposed method (p.1-p.3).

The measuring unit 11, which implements the inventive method according to claim 1, figure 4, contains:

13. is the basis on which you installed not less than three couples there (3 -5 and 3'-5') and position markers there's -15;

14.- the mechanism for moving the head rail, made in the form of guide rollers.

The electronic unit 12 in this case may contain three generators and three receiver of ULTRASONIC signals for each pair there, as well as indicators of received signals, for example LEDs. The measuring unit 11 (base 13) moves along the surface of the rail. Upon detection of the boundaries of the defect in each pair there on a signal from the corresponding indicator on the surface of the rail between the respective markers 15 on the surface of the rail is represented by the projection of this border. Thus, saving the found boundaries of a defect occurs in the form of a pattern on the tread surface of the rail head. In the detection of all boundary lines of the defect is received, the picture shown in figure 2, which allows to estimate the size, position and orientation of the defect, but only in the sensing plane.

The measuring unit 11, which implements the inventive method according to claim 2, 5, 6, additionally contains:

16. the mechanism for vertical movement of the base 13 on the rail;

17. sensor vertical movement of the base 13 on the rail;

18. sensor horizontal movement of the base 13 on the rail.

The electronic unit 12 in this case should additionally contain units receiving si the signals from the vertical sensors 16 and 17 horizontal movement of the base 13. In addition, in this case, the electronic unit 12 must be able to maintain the position of the defect boundaries at different altitudes of the measuring unit 11 and display the results. This task can be solved on-Board computer.

The measuring unit 11, which implements the inventive method according to claim 3, (7), contains several groups there, similar to (3-5 and 3'-5'), located at different levels of lateral surfaces of the rail head, forming multiple planes sensing. As a result of this there is no need for the vertical movement of the base 13. In other respects the operation is the same as in the previous version.

On Fig see the real results of the evaluation of the defect in the rail head in the form of three projections.

Thus, the inventive method can be implemented in practice, provides a reliable estimate of the size, position and orientation of the defect in the rail head. On the basis of the received information can be reasoned decision about the feasibility of repair or periodic surveillance of the growth defect (monitoring) of the rail until it reaches the critical size.

Literature

1. Markov, A.A., Shpagin D.A. Ultrasonic rail flaw detection. - S.-Petersburg: "Education culture". 1999., p.37.

2. Patent RU 2060493.

3. Patent RU 2184960.

4. Patent RU 2230.

5. Patent RU 23987.

6. Patent RU 2184374.

7. Patent RU 2006114984/28(016290).

8. Patent JP 2000009698.

9. Patent JP 2001183349.

10. Patent JP 11337529.

1. The method of evaluation of the defect in the rail head, namely, that in the vicinity of the alleged defect on the opposite surfaces of the rail head set pair of electroacoustic transducers with sensing lines facing each other and located in the same plane as the sensing probe head rail, which emit ultrasonic signals transducers with one and take them transducers on the other side of the rail head, move all together electroacoustic transducers along the rail, detect and determine the position of the boundary line defect shadow method, determine the size of the defect in the plane of the sensing, wherein the set of at least three pairs described electroacoustic transducers so that their line sensing pairwise overlap, the sensing plane is chosen parallel to the longitudinal generatrix of the rail, probe head rail all pairs of electroacoustic transducers individually move all of electroacoustic transducers on the specified plane, save the position of all detected l the deposits in the borders of the defect, jointly analyze them, calculates the position and orientation of the defect in the plane of the sensing.

2. The method of evaluation of the defect in the rail head according to claim 1, characterized in that the following steps performed at different positions of the plane of the sensing sequentially calculates the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect.

3. The method of evaluation of the defect in the rail head according to claim 1, characterized in that the steps performed simultaneously in different planes sensing calculate the spatial position, size and orientation of the defect.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: using direct and inclined ultrasonic converters simultaneous scanning of across welded joint at pitch smaller than ultrasonic beam diameter is used. Echo signal propagation time through first and second channel is recorded. Total sequence of two-dimensional control zone section images are reconstructed on display and applied to form first channel echo signal images of welded joint in the form of colour lines, line of maximum allowed processing poor penetration, as well as image of junction top with poor penetration. Signals of the second channel are applied to form pre-scaled curve with colour code points of which correspond to pulse time position reflected from poor penetration top area. Peak pulse is computer calculated, designated as the other colour. Ultrasonic image of the whole dimension of welded joint is obtained by combining tails of previous V-scans and beginning of the following V-scans.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of poor penetration dimension evaluation and simplification of evaluating operation of flaw detector.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: conductor is mounted parallel to control object surface. Current pulse is propagated through this conductor combined with current propagation through control object directly under the conductor.

EFFECT: possibility of acoustic wave formation in conducting mediums of control objects without strong external field effects; improved functionality of equipment of nondestructive testing and possibility not to use powerful large-size magnets.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: object of invention includes contact-free exciting of ultrasonic wave in object by laser emission and wave registration in reflection or transit mode by optic fiber device with interferometre. Ultrasonic wave in vicinity of welded seam is excited by powerful spatial electric pulse charge synchronised in time with light pulse source of system of ultrasonic wave registration in object.

EFFECT: increased control depth and microfault resolution during contact-free ultrasonicdiagnostics of welded seams.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: forced oscillation is excited in a product; forced oscillation frequency is changed until resonance oscillation occurs in a product; resonance oscillation parameters are measured. At that oscillation is excited in a product by electromagnetic method; phase difference between reference excitation signal and product oscillation is measured in several various points; and variations of phase oscillation difference shows defectiveness. Faultless products show phase difference variation of certain ratio; and in case of defect it will jump, that will be indicator of product defectiveness.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and reliability of product operating conditions control.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: radiation is made with elastic wave pulse converters normally to surface of flat product consistently at two frequencies f and fj; the first ground pulses are received at these frequencies and their amplitudes are measures. In addition amplitude of the second ground pulse is measured at frequency f, while the n ground pulse is measured at frequency. Amplitude ratio of the first and the second ground pulses is detected at frequency f and the first, and of the first and n ground pulses - at frequency fj, where fj=f/m, a m=n-1 where n is the odd integer, and the average size of grain D of material is calculated by corresponding formula.

EFFECT: provided control of grain average size of material without application of reference samples.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurements.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for inspecting rail tracks. The essence lies in that the device consists of a chassis on wheels firmly joined to a holder, which is linked to a fixing unit. The fixing unit is movable and is made in the form of a lever, which has at least three selected positions, and fitted with provision for rotation around a horizontal axis, fixed in the case, fitted on bearings with provision for rotation within a 90° limit around the vertical axis, fixed on the said holder. The lever is joined, through a holding unit, to a vertical strut, to which through a rotating mechanism, is joined a suspension mount of converter units with provision for rotating the converter units and roller followers as a single unit around said strut within a ±15° limit about the longitudinal axis of the inspected rail track. Holding the roller followers in the operation position to the lateral edges of the butt end of the inspected rail track is done by a torsion spring put on the said vertical axis, the ends of which are fixed to the said holder and case. The fixing unit of the vertical strut is made with provision for changing the distance between the lever and the suspension mount of the converter units. Displacement of the lever with the vertical strut, rotation mechanism and suspension mount of converter units in the vertical as well as horizontal plane is done on curvilinear trajectories. The technical outcome is the high quality and reliable acoustic contact between the converter units and the roller face of the inspected rail track, increased reliability of centralising the converter units about the longitudinal axis of the rail track and easier transportation and servicing the device.

EFFECT: provision for reliable ultrasonic inspection of rail tracks and easier transportation and servicing the inspection device.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic pulses are introduced into the part material through the external surface of the part; during the reception of the mixture of ultrasonic pulses reflected from part material structure irregularities, the signal values are measured discontinuously since the preset time t1 until the preset time t2 with a period of (t2-t1)/n, where n is the number of measurements within the time interval t1 to t2, the measured values are memorised, the average value of the measured reflected ultrasonic pulse values and the standard deviation of the mixture of reflected ultrasonic pulses relative to the calculated average value within the time interval (t2-t1) are determined, and the part end-of-life is evaluated by the increase in the standard deviation of the mixture of the reflected ultrasonic pulses for the part inspected, relative to the standard deviation value, measured similarly, of the mixture of reflected ultrasonic pulses for a sample of an unused part made of the same material as the part inspected.

EFFECT: evaluation of end-of-life of alloy parts.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: fire industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for detection of fire locations by inspecting steel items manufactured by cold strain method. To detect latent fire and burning locations and to broaden analytical potential of expert study, similar remaining cold-worked steel items, which are distributed in fire location or different parts of large-sized items are used as subject of research. Monitored parameter is magnetic induction value and local features are defined based on extreme values of this parameter.

EFFECT: results of magnetic induction measurement are applied either to the item itself or to fire location layout, and areas with similar values are drawn.

1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; measurement.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to monitoring of cavities filled with liquid in different mediums. Crack oscillations are registered. Frequencies v(n) of standing boundary waves are determined (n - integer), which are distributed along surfaces of at least one crack filled with liquid. Group speed V(ν(n),w) of boundary wave is determined with account of medium and liquid properties and width of crack w. Typical size L is calculated along distribution of stationary boundary wave by formula . System consists of facility for liquid pressure registration in injection well, facility of data processing for determination of frequencies of standing boundary waves, calculation of group speed of boundary wave and calculation of crack typical size along distribution of stationary boundary wave, device for liquid pressure control, which allows to step-wise decrease or increase pressure and device for signal generation, which contains results of calculations.

EFFECT: provision of efficient monitoring of cavities filled with liquid, which may be performed in real time.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurements.

SUBSTANCE: technique lies in that, in the manual mode, the sensitivity of flaw-detection equipment is tuned, the controlled object is installed on a stand, the object is centralised, the converter is brought into the zone of initiating control on the surface of the object, and the automatic control mode is switched on. Using the converter, the surface of the object is scanned in spiral form and presence or absence of defects on the object is fixed during the control process by the flaw-detection equipment. After manual tuning of the flaw-detection equipment, it is then checked in automatic mode and input-receiving of acoustic oscillations in the object during its control, as well as in reference during tuning and its checking is achieved through the contact-slot method with use of a converter with a local basin.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of controlling the objects with the shape of body of rotation, smaller dimensions and amount of metal in the measuring unit.

3 dwg

FIELD: building, road works.

SUBSTANCE: the invention refers to area of a railway transportation and is intended for the supervisory control of a rail way. The method of supervisory control of a railway position consists in installation of device on a rail rut, measurement of the passed way, excess of rails, rail gage, registration of the obtained data and addition of values with distance between measuring elements. Installation of wheel pairs on a device frame on the one hand, is performed rigidly, and on the other hand, with possibility of swinging against a cross-section axis. A gauge is measured by installation of measuring elements on lateral surfaces of rails for measurement of distance to an inside face of rails against the frame. Measuring elements are fixed in whatever position. The wheel pairs are used in a control unit of position of a railway, one of which mounted rigidly on a device frame, and the other so that to swing against the cross-section axis fixed on a device frame. The lock elements and the additional detecting device of linear movement are included into the detecting device of measurement of a gauge. Detecting devices of measurement of a gauge are located on a frame from the interior of each rail and supplied with spring-actuated measuring elements capable of being fixed with the lock elements connected with detecting devices of measurement of a gauge.

EFFECT: increase in measurement accuracy, higher operation amenity, expansion of the cart functionality.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metrology and can be used for automated control of the rail deflection, for example, in straightening the rail prior to welding the seamless rails. The device incorporates a measuring platform accommodating three optical pickups to keep its front and rear ends and centre, and a measuring device connected to the said pickups. The device comprises also the strips optically contrast relative to the rail surface, arranged on the platform beneath the rail, and a mechanism shifting the rail relative to the immovable measuring platform. The optical pickups are shadow column instruments to record the rail shadow projection against the background of the contrast strip.

EFFECT: possibility of measuring vertical and horizontal rail deflection in straightening.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metrology and can be used for automated control of the rail deflection, for example, in straightening the rail prior to welding the seamless rails. The device incorporates a measuring platform accommodating three optical pickups to keep its front and rear ends and centre, and a measuring device connected to the said pickups. The device comprises also the strips optically contrast relative to the rail surface, arranged on the platform beneath the rail, and a mechanism shifting the rail relative to the immovable measuring platform. The optical pickups are shadow column instruments to record the rail shadow projection against the background of the contrast strip.

EFFECT: possibility of measuring vertical and horizontal rail deflection in straightening.

6 cl, 3 dwg

Force transducer // 2329176

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices intended to measure the rolling stock weight in operating conditions without stopping the said rolling stock and in inclined track automatic control systems. The force transducer incorporates a signal processing unit and a sensitive element fitted on the rail and made up of a passive and active parts moving relative to each other, the passive part being fitted directly on the rail while the active one being fitted on a rigid beam mounted on two hinged supports equidistant, along the rail, from the passive part. The aforesaid passive part represents a bush with an inner and outer threads and is fastened, by means of outer thread and nut, in the rail web hole, while the bush inner thread serves to locate a threaded stepwise rod made from a nonmagnetic material accommodating a magnetic material insert on its end face closer to the sensitive element active part. The said insert magnetisation vector is parallel to the measuring rail direction. The sensitive element active part incorporates a magnetic field intensity meter.

EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.

2 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the equipment for measuring railway rails and wheels. The method of determination of the clearance between the railway wheel ridge (2) and rail head (1) includes attaching a pickup with its sensitive element directed towards the point of contact between the wheel and rail head to a crosswise beam (3) of the car truck. Simultaneously with the start of the car, the data coming the pickup on displacement of the wheel ridge relative to the rail head at a preset distance is continuously recorded. Then the pickup is removed from the car, the data carrier is removed from the pickup and the data obtained is processed using a computer programme to provided for a digital visual picture. On the picture thus obtained, a video image of a ruler with divisions is imposed to define the abode said clearance in divisions of the ruler. The said device has a case with a core, a pickup and light sources arranged on both sides of the pickup at an equal distance from it.

EFFECT: simpler design and smaller sizes of the device.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; track facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention relate to method of straightening railway track in plan, physical profile and level and to device for implementing the method and they can be used in scheduled preventive straightening out of track and finishing of track before handling over for operation after major repairs. According to proposed method, railway track is electronically marked out by fitting electronic marks on track axis on each hundred meter and kilometer mark, and scanners of said marks are installed on track measuring car on each track maintainer. Parameters of track rails in plan, physical profile and level are checked by electronic marks. Marks are uninterruptedly read out, their identification number are kept in memory and distance covered at moment of their detection is recorded. In process of calculations and corresponding shifts of track, data base of said electronic marks is formed containing information on location of each marks and distance between adjacent marks. Results of obtained calculations and data base of electronic marks are transmitted to dispatcher centers of track maintainers and further on to computers of said machines. Track is subjected to straightening out starting from set mark and continuously reading information from electronic marks and automatically correcting current index of program task in moment of detection of mark if measured distance from initial mark differs from Log value. Information on current calculated shifts of track is periodically renewed basing of subsequent passings of track measuring car and is transmitted to track maintainers. Invention increases capacity of machine maintenance of track, cuts down time taken for calculation of required straightening out of track, provides acceleration of total certification of geometrical parameters of rail track gauge geometry measuring device and improves quality of said device, provides automatic tie of readings of track maintainers to longitudinal coordinates of track owing to doubling of existing staking out with electronic marking out.

EFFECT: increased capacity of track maintainers.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; track machines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manually operated devices for checking reliability of anchor fastenings of rail track. Proposed device includes lever with hook, support and force measuring unit and handle connected to end of lever. Said handle is made resilient, is provided with aperture and slot and is furnished with double-arm bar connected by middle part with handle under slot, and contact screw made for contact with first arm of double-arm bar and installed for shifting and fixing in cross bushing installed for turning and fixing in handle over slot. Force measuring unit is made in from of standard indicator whose housing is attached to handle in place of its connection with lever. Head is made for contact with second arm of double-arm bar. Hook is made in form of split hook turnable relative to end of lever and spring-loaded relative to lever to lever to catch crossmember of clamp. Support is made in from of stop turnable relative to lever for engagement with rolling surface and with side faces of rail head.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measuring force of pressing clamp to rail, reduced fatigue of operator.

2 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of measurement of displacement of rails under action of movable loads. According to proposed method, horizontal mark is made on nonworking face of rail and magnetized metal rule is attached to nonworking face of rail so that visible division on rule is parallel to horizontal mark on nonworking face of rail. Then geodetic stand is installed stationary out of the limits of track, and video camera is rigidly secured on stand. Definite focal distance is chosen, and horizontal collimating ray of video camera is directed perpendicular to nonworking face of rail to get simultaneous image of mark and rule division. Video frame of rail in unloaded state is fixed. Rule is removed. Then, without changing position of video camera and focal distance, video survey of change of rail level, when train passes, is carried out. Data, thus obtained, are compared by registration of frames of initial and loaded state of rail in computer program for processing of video frames. Difference in positions of rail head is revealed by displacement of horizontal mark relative to its initial positions, and elastic deflection of rail is determined in divisions of rule.

EFFECT: facilitated measurements, possibility of storing results of measurements.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; measurement facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for automatic checking of rail. Proposed device for checking geometrical parameters of rail has measuring platform carrying six optical sensors, three of which check upper surface of rail head at its beginning, center and end, and remaining three sensors check side surface of rail head, respectively, in beginning, center and end, and measuring device connected with sensors. Device contains also mechanism to compress rail in horizontal and vertical planes, and mechanism to shaft rail relative to stationary measuring platform with rail position sensors connected to measuring device. Laser rangers are used as optical sensors.

EFFECT: possibility of measuring rail parameters after straightening out.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: railway transport; testing facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for checking wear of rails on railways and streetcar tracks. Device for testing wear of rails includes pulse generator and recorder and second pulse generator. First and second pulse generators are made in form of electronic transducers furnished with spring-loaded rods with rack gears engaging with surfaces of rail and with gears on axles of which light breakers are installed, and with light emitting diodes connected by wires with photorelays. Recorder is made up of radio electronic elements, supply unit and control panel with push buttons and change-over switches. Pulse generators and recorder are connected by wires. First pulse generator is installed on base on edges of which bellcranks are mounted for rotation on joints. Position lock of bellcranks is installed between upper parts of bellcranks furnished with handles, position lock being made of concave parts and screw. Second pulse generator is installed lower than the base on one of bellcranks. Stops with slots and fastening screws are made in lower parts of bellcrank to secured their position relative to bellcranks.

EFFECT: improved safety, reduced possibility of breakdown in operation of rolling stock on railways and streetcar tracks.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: device contains origin of coordinates sensor, evaluator for bulkiness coordinate, memory unit and control unit. In addition, scanner and control unit for scanner are introduced into the device. By means of scanner and its control unit scanning is performed in horizontal plane located at height. This allows detection of transport overhead clearance violation at distance of 15-20 m before this transport would cross clearance gage plane. Fact of violation is registered by photoelectric detectors and via control unit turns on warning sound and light also located on clearance gage. Thus, driver is warned about impermissibility of further moving. Providing the locomotive driver of approaching train with warning about foreign object presence at rail crossing or possible damage of through bridge let minimise accident risk due to overhead clearance violation by transport.

EFFECT: on improvement of means for transport bulkiness monitoring.

2 dwg

Up!