Reactor with induction heating for gas-phase catalytic reactions

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for carrying out gas-phase catalytic chemical reaction of obtaining HCN contains catalyst/current-collector 1, located coaxially inside reactor 2 and having in essence circular transverse section. Catalyst/current-collector 1 is surrounded by non-electroconducting cylinder. Catalyst/current-collector 1 is inductionally heated by means of alternating magnetic field, generated by surrounding it induction coil 3, to temperature sufficient for carrying out chemical reaction. Intensity of energy release by induction coil 3 is measured along length of cylindrical catalyst/current-collector 1. Apparatus can be additionally equipped with gas-proof cylinder for gas flow in axial direction through catalyst/current-collector 1, or gas-permeable cylinder for gas flow in radial direction through catalyst/current-collector 1.

EFFECT: increase of efficient length of conducting tract in object from metal of platinum group; minimisation of temperature fluctuations in catalyst and minimisation of flow changes in it; reduction of capital investment and production expenditures.

25 cl, 32 ex, 8 dwg, 4 tbl

 

The SCOPE of the INVENTION

The invention relates to gas-phase catalytic process for the production of HCN at elevated temperatures, in which the energy source is applied induction heating, and apparatus for implementing such methods.

The prior art INVENTIONS

Induction heating is a non-contact method of selective heating electrically conductive materials using alternating magnetic fields to induce electric current, known as an eddy current in the material, known as a pantograph, which leads to heating of the current collector. Induction heating for a long time was used in the metallurgical industry for heating metals, for example, when melting, cleaning, heat treatment, welding and soldering. Induction heating is practiced in a wide range of frequencies from a frequency AC 50 Hz up to frequencies of tens of MHz.

At this frequency induction efficiency of heating in the induction field is increased in the presence of the object long pathways. Large chunks of the processed solid material can be heated at lower frequencies, whereas small objects require higher frequencies. Too low frequency for the heated object of this size makes the heating is inefficient because the energy in inductional field does not generate object eddy currents required intensity. On the other hand, too high frequency causes non-uniform heating because the energy of the induction field does not penetrate deep into the object and eddy currents are induced only on the surface or near it. However, induction heating for the gas permeable metal structures still was not known.

Known in the field methods of implementation of the gas-phase catalytic reactions require that the catalyst had a large surface, so that the molecules of the reactive gas to have maximum contact with the surface of the catalyst. In the known methods usually used or porous catalytic material, or a large number of small particles of the catalyst on a suitable carrier in order to obtain the required size of the surface. In such methods, the necessary heating of the catalyst is provided by conduction, radiation or convection.

To achieve good selectivity of chemical reactions all portions of the reactants must be in terms of a homogeneous distribution of temperature and catalyst. In the case of endothermic reaction heat release rate must be uniform throughout the volume of the catalyst layer. As conduction and convection, and radiation have limited ability to achieve the necessary speed and uniformity of transmission is of Ala.

Typical of the known hitherto patents - patent GB 2210286 (GB '286) - recommends the use of small-electroconductive particles of the catalyst on a metal carrier or to modify the catalyst to give him conductivity. Metal media or modifier induction heated, and they, in turn, heat the catalyst. In this patent it is proposed to use a ferromagnetic core, passing through the center of the catalyst layer. The preferred material for the ferromagnetic core is silicon iron. Although the apparatus according to patent GB 2210286 can be used for carrying out reactions at temperatures up to approximately 600°C, at higher temperatures, its use is very limited. At higher temperatures the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic core is noticeably reduced. According to the Handbook Erickson, C.J., "Handbook of Heating for Industry", pp 84-85, the magnetic permeability of iron begins to decrease at 600°and falls sharply at 750°C. As in the design proposed in patent GB '286, the magnetic field in the layer of catalyst depends on the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic core, such a device cannot provide effective heating of the catalyst to temperatures above 750°With, not to mention temperatures above 1000°required to obtain HC.

It can be assumed that the apparatus proposed in patent GB 22102286, chemically unsuitable for the synthesis of HCN. HCN get by the reaction of ammonia with gaseous hydrocarbons. It is known that iron causes the decomposition of ammonia at elevated temperatures. In addition, the iron present in the ferromagnetic core and the carrier for the catalyst in the reaction chamber, described in the patent GB '286 will cause decomposition of ammonia, and thus inhibit, but does not promote the final reaction of ammonia with hydrocarbons, leading to the formation of HCN.

The hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is an important chemical product, widely used in the chemical and mining industries. For example, HCN is the starting substance for the production of adiponitrile, acetonecyanohydrin, sodium cyanide and intermediate products in the manufacture of pesticides, agricultural products, chelating reagents and animal feed. HCN is a highly toxic liquid with a boiling point of 26°and requires a strict control during packaging and transportation. In some cases, HCN is consumed in areas remote from large-scale production of HCN. Transport of HCN in such places, involves many risks. Production of HCN in the place where it will be used, would avoid the risks associated with its Tran is assisted by, storage and processing. Low-tonnage production of HCN using known in the field of methods would be uneconomical. However, both small and large-scale production of HCN in the place turns out to be technically and economically feasible using methods and apparatus, as claimed in this invention.

HCN can be obtained by contacting compounds containing hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon at high temperatures in the presence of a catalyst or without him. For example, usually HCN get in the strongly endothermic reaction of ammonia with hydrocarbons. There are three known industrial method of producing HCN - way BMA (Blausaure aus Methan und Ammoniak, ie "hydrocyanic acid from methane and ammonia), the way Androsova and the way Shawinigan. These methods differ in the way the generation and transfer of heat and the type of the used catalyst.

The way Androsova uses the heat generated during the combustion of the hydrocarbon gas and oxygen in the reactor volume, to provide the heat of reaction. Method BMA uses the heat generated by burning fuel out of the reactor for heating the outer surface of the walls of the reactor, which in turn heats the inner surface of the walls of the reactor and thus provide heat for the reaction. The way Shawinigan uses to provide heat of reaction elec the historical current, flowing through the electrodes in a fluidized bed.

In the way Androsova natural gas (a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons with a high content of methane, ammonia and oxygen or air is lead into the interaction in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst typically contains many layers of platinum-rhodium wire mesh. The amount of oxygen is chosen so that in case of incomplete combustion reagents were allocated sufficient energy for preheating the reactants to the working temperature above 1000°and for the formation of HCN. The reaction products are HCN, H2H2O, CO, CO2and traces of higher NITRILES, which then need to separate.

In the method BMA mixture of ammonia and methane takes place inside the tubes of porous ceramics made of refractory material. The inner surface of each tube is covered with platinum particles. The tube is placed in a high temperature furnace and heated from the outside. Heat passes through the ceramic wall to the surface of the catalyst, which is part of the wall. Usually the reaction is carried out at 1300°by contact of the reactants with the catalyst. You need a sufficiently large flow of heat due to the high reaction temperature, a high heat of reaction, and also due to the fact that at temperatures below the reaction temperature may occur soup is rorovana the catalyst surface, which deactivates the catalyst. Since the diameter of each tube is usually about 1", to implement the method, you must have a large number of tubes. The reaction products are HCN and hydrogen.

In the way Shawinigan energy necessary for the reaction in a mixture comprising propane and ammonia, provides electrical current flowing between electrodes immersed in the fluidized bed of non-catalytic coke particles. The absence of a catalyst, as well as the absence of oxygen or air, in the way Shawinigan means that the reaction should be carried out at very high temperatures, usually above 1500°C. higher temperatures impose more severe restrictions on the materials used for implementing the method.

Although, as indicated above, it is known that HCN can be obtained by the reaction of NH3and hydrocarbon gas, such as CH4or C3H8in the presence of a catalyst of platinum group metal, there is still a need to improve the effectiveness of these and similar ways, i.e. improve efficiency of obtaining HCN, especially when low-tonnage production. It is particularly important to minimise energy consumption and unproductive expenditure of ammonia and to maximize the rate of formation of HCN with respect to the number used by the noble metal. In addition, the catalyst is e to affect the synthesis of HCN by promotion undesirable reactions for example, supervivencia. Moreover, it is desirable to increase the activity and lifetime of the catalysts in this process. It is important that a significant portion of the cost of obtaining HCN falls on the catalyst of the platinum group metals. The present invention provides a method of direct rather than indirect heating of the catalyst used in previous developments in this area, and thus satisfies the specified requirements.

As shown above, it is known that relatively low-frequency induction heating provides high uniformity of heat at high power levels with the presence of relatively long conductive paths. When the supply of energy endothermic gas-phase catalytic reaction is necessary to bring the heat directly to the catalyst with minimal energy loss. Requirements uniform and efficient supply of heat to the catalytic gas-permeable mass with a highly developed surface, apparently in contradiction with the possibilities of induction heating. The present invention is based on the unexpected results obtained in the reactor in which the catalyst has a new structural form. This structural form is characterized by the following features: 1) efficient long conductive path, lightening the e immediate effective uniform induction heating of the catalyst and (2) the catalyst with a developed surface; both of these features facilitate the flow of endothermic chemical reactions. The complete absence of iron in the reactor chamber facilitates the reception of HCN by the reaction of NH3with gaseous hydrocarbon.

The INVENTION

The present invention relates to the apparatus, the location of the catalyst, defined below as the "catalyst/the current collector, and a method for producing HCN by the reaction of ammonia and a lower alkane in the gas phase in the presence of a catalyst based on a platinum group metal. According to the invention the catalyst/current collector comprising one or more platinum group metal in the form of a gas-permeable cylinder, performs a dual function as a current collector for induction heating, and a catalyst for the synthesis of HCN. Thus, the catalyst/the current collector is heated by induction, and the heated catalyst provides reagents to heat, necessary for the synthesis of HCN. A cylindrical catalyst/current collector may contain gas-permeable solid, such as a porous foam, or may contain many layers of filamentary gas-permeable structure. The catalyst/current collector according to the invention not only exhibits catalytic activity, but also has such characteristics as the presence of electrically conductive paths of sufficient length for induction at lower h is Utah, and at the same time has a sufficient surface area per volume of reactor. The use of induction heating of the catalyst, in contrast to the previous methods in this field, which heats the reaction vessel or part thereof and thus heat the catalyst by conduction, radiation and/or convection, provides significant advantages.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 shows embodied in this invention, the principles on which it is based induction, while particular embodiments of the present invention is shown in Fig.2-8.

Figure 2 shows a flow reactor with axial flow direction, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains layers of filamentary structure.

Figure 3 shows the flow reactor with radial flow direction, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains layers of filamentary structure.

Figure 4 shows the flow reactor with radial flow direction, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains many gas-permeable rings.

Figure 5 shows a flow reactor with axial flow direction and self-sustaining layer of gas-permeable rings.

Figure 6 depicts the flow reactor with axial flow direction, in which the catalyst/the current collector is a metal foam.

Figure 7 shows the layout of the reactor with radial flow direction, in which the catalyst/the current collector consists of two circular sections with different electrical conductivity.

On Figa depicts the layout of the reactor with axial flow direction, in which the induction coil consists of two annular parts with different step of winding.

On FIGU depicts the layout of the reactor with axial flow direction, in which the induction coil consists of two separate sections with different values of current.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

According to the present invention method and the reactor is made so as to increase the effective length of the conductive path in the object of the platinum group metal, which serves as a catalyst/current collector. The objective of the invention is also the use of this increased length effective pathway for induction heating at the lowest possible frequency induction. Further, the present invention is to minimize temperature fluctuations in the catalyst/the current collector and to minimize changes in the flow of gas in it. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method and apparatus that requires lower investment and production costs. Other objectives of the present invention are to reduce the contact time, the higher HCN outputs, reducing iiicluding by-products, including coke, N2H2O, CO and CO2. All these tasks are achieved in the present invention.

In the method of the present invention alkane containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, result in interaction with ammonia in the presence of an induction heated catalyst/current collector. It is preferable to use natural gas, enriched in methane; you can also use propane, especially in those areas where there are no natural gas. The temperature range is from 950 to 1400°C, preferably from 1000 to 1200°and most preferably from 1050 to 1150°C. Such temperatures are achieved during induction heating at frequencies from 50 Hz to 30 MHz, preferably from 50 Hz to 300 kHz, and most preferably from 50 Hz to 3 kHz. Below 1050°With the rate of formation of HCN is limited by kinetics, and at temperatures below 1000°from hydrocarbons can form coke on the catalyst surface. The reaction rate is higher at higher temperatures; however, the temperature is limited by the softening point of the catalyst/current collector and carrier. In addition, at temperatures above 1200°With ammonia may preferably be decompose into nitrogen and hydrogen, and not to react with methane. The material of the reactor, such as aluminum oxide or quartz, is chosen with consideration of thermal stability and ability to withstand large gra is ienty temperature.

In the present invention is used, the catalyst/the current collector in the form of a cylinder surrounded by an induction coil. Preferably the catalyst/current collector with an outer diameter as large as possible. Although the ratio of the outer diameter of the catalyst/current collector to the inner diameter of the induction coil may be 0.05, preferably greater than 0.5 and most preferably as close as possible to 1.0. In this way eddy current in the catalyst/the pantograph will be longer, which can be used for a reactor of this size the lowest possible induction frequency.

A deep area of solid cylindrical catalyst/current collector is subjected to induction heating is less efficient than the outer region. This decrease in the efficiency of heating caused by the following reasons: (1) a shorter path length of the current inside the cylinder and (2) the effects of shielding from the outer region of the cylinder. So for catalyst/current collector, it is preferable to form a hollow cylinder having a circular cross-section. The wall thickness of the hollow cylindrical catalyst/current collector usually does not exceed one-fourth external diameter as the inner wall of the cylinder is subjected to less efficient induction heating. Internally the s part of the cylindrical catalyst/current collector can be made from a material with a higher electrical conductivity as compared with the outside of the cylinder, in order to partially compensate the decrease in the efficiency of induction heating.

The use of cylindrical catalyst/current collector in the present invention provides operation at the lowest possible induction frequency and high catalytic activity of the reactor volume and high efficiency power consumption. The configuration of the reactor and method of the present invention improve the efficiency of production of any scale both large and small. Therefore, you can use the lowest possible frequency induction, and the path length of the eddy current in the catalyst/the current collector should be as big as possible. In this regard, according to this invention uses a catalyst/pantograph large compared with the size of the reactor. The external size of the catalyst/current collector to the inner size of the reactor should be as large as possible.

The structure of the cylindrical catalyst/current collector of the present invention can be of several types. A cylindrical catalyst/current collector may include a solid material which is permeable to gas, for example, porous foam, or may contain many layers of filamentary gas-permeable structure. Filamentary structure may be braided, woven, to remind knitted fabric (for example, mesh or cloth is th on the reel. Multiple gas-permeable layers may be in the form of rings stacked one upon the other, concentric cylinders, or the form of a large number of layers of catalyst/current collector wound one around the other. Multiple wound layers must have good interlayer conductivity, leading to efficient induction heating. Thus, the cylindrical catalyst/current collector has a path for eddy current, comparable in size with the length of the circumference of the reactor.

Placed in the induction field of a cylindrical catalyst/current collector directly heated, and its temperature is easily controlled by varying the intensity of the induction field. By regulating the temperature of the catalyst/current collector can selectively promote the final chemical reaction and to suppress undesirable side reactions. A cylindrical catalyst/the current collector contains a platinum group metal, e.g itself platinum or a platinum alloy such as platinum/rhodium or platinum/iridium. The catalytic Converter temperature/current collector can be precisely controlled by varying the intensity of the induction field and the flow rate of reactive gases. Thus, it is possible to achieve high outputs HCN, avoiding problems that occurred in the previously proposed methods, such as coke formation on the catalyst, spontaneous RA is the situation of ammonia or the formation of undesirable products, which must then be separated.

In the chemical method of the present invention of interest, important requirements for the power level. Typical plant medium scale production of 10 million pounds HCN per year would require a source of induction with a power level of at least 3.0 MW (MW). At this power level cheap and available in the industry only the low-frequency system from 3 kHz or lower.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 shows schematically the principle of the present invention. Essentially cylindrical catalyst/current collector 1 is located inside the walls of the reactor 2, which does not have significant electrical conductivity. A cylindrical catalyst/current collector 1 is permeable to gas and has electrical properties (bulk conductivity and the way continuous conduction around the circumference of the cylinder)required to induce eddy currents that may flow through circular paths around and inside the annular catalyst/current collector. The induction coil 3 (usually with liquid cooling) surrounds the catalyst/current collector 1 and the wall of the reactor 2. Alternating current Icin the coil 3 induces an alternating magnetic field which in turn induces eddy current Iein the catalyst/the current collector 1 in a plane parallel to the alternating current Ic . The induced current Iecauses heating; stronger eddy currents generate more heat. With increase in the radius of the catalyst/current collector 1 are generated more intense eddy currents. As the external diameter of the ring catalyst/current collector 1 is approaching the diameter of the reactor 2, for efficient heating rings catalyst/current collector you can use a lower frequency.

Figure 2 gas-permeable catalyst/current collector 1 is wound on the coil wire, knitted wire mesh, woven wire mesh, spiral winding in the form of a sock or sleeve or braided wire. The wire contains a platinum group metal or alloy, such as platinum, or an alloy of platinum/rhodium. The catalyst/the current collector 1 is located between the annular gas-permeable, not conductive of electricity, resistant to high temperature cylinders 4 and 5, for example, quartz or ceramic. The 4 cylinder is open at both ends, and the cylinder 5 from the top is closed. Cylinders 4 and 5 are located and interact in such a way as to direct gas flows 6 to pass through the catalyst/the current collector 1. The alternating magnetic field induced by a water-cooled induction coil 3 induces an electric current in the catalyst/the current collector 1, and thus the m it heats. Reagents 6 is fixed in the upper part of the housing 7 and pass between the cylinders 4 and 5 in the axial direction, contacting the heated catalyst/current collector 1, and when this occurs, the desired reaction. The product stream 8 containing HCN and hydrogen released from the housing 7. Because the cylinder walls 4 and 5 does not conduct electricity, the induction field heats the catalyst/the current collector 1, and not the walls.

Figure 3 shows another embodiment of the invention. The catalyst/current collector 1 gas-permeable and contains wound on the coil wire, knitted wire mesh, woven wire mesh, spiral winding in the form of a sock or sleeve or braided wire. The catalyst/the current collector 1 is placed between the gas cylinder 9 and the gas-permeable cylinder 10. Gas-tight cylinder 9 from the top is open and connected with a gas-tight annular ledge 11. The cylinder 10 is closed tight top cover 12. The outer diameter of the catalyst/current collector 1 is smaller than the internal diameter of the cylinder 9, the result is the annular gap 13. Reagents 6 is fixed in the space 13 and are held in the radial direction through the gas-permeable catalyst/current collector 1, the heated induction. After that, the products HCN and the hydrogen 8 is discharged through the gas-permeable wall of the cylinder 10 into the Central passage 14. The properties of the gas-permeable Qili the DRA 10 is chosen so that in order to make uniform the flow of the reactants through the catalyst/the current collector 1.

Figure 4 shows the reactor, similar in arrangement and operation of the reactor in figure 3. However, figure 4 catalyst/current collector 1 includes a gas-permeable ring 15 of the catalyst material/current collector, laid one on another. Rings can contain the same filamentary structure as described above in connection with Figure 2 and 3.

Figure 5 shows the reactor, similar in arrangement and operation of the reactor in figure 4. However, in Figure 5 there is no gas-permeable cylinder 10, so as stacked rings 15 form a stable structure.

Figure 6 shows a reactor, similar in arrangement and operation of the reactor, figure 3-5. However, figure 6 catalyst/current collector is a gas-permeable foam metal of the platinum group 16.

7 shows a flow reactor with radial flow direction, similar in arrangement and operation of the reactor in figure 3, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains a foreign region 1A and the inner region 1B. The inner region 1B has a higher conductivity compared to area 1A. In one embodiment this is achieved by making the cylindrical mesh layers in the inner region 1B with higher density (i.e. more wire per unit area is and), than the layers in the outer region 1A. In another embodiment this is achieved by making layers in the inner region 1B of the more dense wire mesh.

On Figa and 8B shows a flow reactor with axial flow direction, similar in arrangement and operation of the reactor in figure 2, in which the induction coil 3 is divided into the first area 3A, adjacent to the entrance to the reactor, and the second area 3B adjacent to the exit of the reactor. This arrangement creates inductive field that emit more dense heat flux at the entrance to the reactor to compensate for the cooling effect from the gas reagents, and thus allows you to maintain a more uniform temperature in the catalyst/the current collector. In the first embodiment, as seen on Figa, there is one induction coil 3 and the coils of the coil in area 3A are located closer to each other than the coils of the coil in the field of 3V. In the second embodiment, as seen on FIGU, uses two separate induction coil 3A' and 3B'. Each coil is powered separately, and as a result the coil 3A' passes more current and thus generates more heat in the catalyst/the current collector in the field, which is located closer to the inlet of the reactor.

In the reactor, are presented in figure 2-6, the outer parts of the catalyst/pantograph, i.e. region 1, 15 and 16, are preferred and ductionary heat compared to inland areas near the Central part of the cylindrical catalyst/current collector. The successful performance of the reactor with induction heated catalyst/current collector assumes that the catalyst inlet to the reactor was hot enough to conduct catalysis and minimize coke formation reactions occurring upon contact with the cold reagents. 7 and 8 shows the layout, which makes it easier to regulate the temperature uniformity of the catalyst/current collector by modifying parameters of the catalyst/current collector (7) or the induction coil (Fig).

In the case of the composition of the reactor with radial flow of reactants presented on Figure 3-7 in order to further increase the efficiency of the chemical reaction in the reactor internal volume of the hollow cylindrical catalyst/current collector 1 can, if possible, to fill the gas-permeable substance of the catalyst, which may not be electrically conductive.

The following examples illustrate, but not limit, the proposed invention.

Example 1

Example of uniform heating of the catalyst/current collector of the present invention with high efficiency by induction heating at a low frequency induction. As shown in figure 2, the cylindrical catalyst/current collector was manufactured by winding strips of mesh of platinum alloy thirty-six (36) times around the kV is Rawai tube. The platinum alloy contains 90% platinum and 10% rhodium. The grid consisted of tissue with cells 80 mesh width of 40.6 cm (16 inches), made of wire with a diameter of 0.076 mm (0.003 to inches). Volume resistivity of the platinum mesh was 85×10-6Ohm·see Therefore the maximum efficiency of induction heating was obtained at a frequency of 425 Hz, i.e. one of the lowest frequencies used in the practice of induction heating. Quartz tube had an external diameter of 30.5 cm (12"). The prepared catalyst/current collector had an inner radius of 15.24 cm and a thickness of about 0.6, see the Catalyst/current collector was placed in a water-cooled induction coil, containing seventeen (17) of turns of copper tube with a diameter of 1.9 cm (0.75 inches) and a height of 55.9 cm (22"). The induction coil connected to a power source, Model VIP Power Trak firm Inductotherm Corporation, Rancocas, NJ (maximum power of 170 kW), operating at a frequency of 3 kHz at a power level thirty-five kilowatt (35 kW). The efficiency of induction heating has reached 89%. The calculation of the so-called "reference depth" (the distance from the outer surface of the cylinder to a depth at which the induced eddy current is reduced by 37% from its value at the surface) shows that in this example, this value is 2.1 cm, which is significantly more than the total thickness of 0.6 are Shown in the examples which shows what induction heating throughout the thickness of the ring is uniform. Thus, heating of the inner surface of the cylindrical catalyst/pantograph only 11% less heating of the outer surface.

Examples 2-8

HCN was obtained by the reaction of ammonia, taken in a small molar excess of methane in the induction heated continuous reactor with a fixed bed radial flow of reactants, as shown in Figure 3. Used in the experiment, the catalyst/current collector consisted of a single cylinder of wire Pt/Rh 90/10 diameter of 0.003 inch, mesh 80 mesh. The cylinder had an outside diameter of 1.25 inches and a height of 1.5 inches. In the manufacture of cylinder 23 mesh layers of Pt/Rh was wound on a perforated quartz tube with a diameter of 1 inch (gas-permeable tube 10 figure 3), in which about forty percent (40%) is occupied by holes. The total thickness of the winding in the catalyst/the current collector was 0.12 to 0.13 inches. Cylinder catalyst/current collector was installed concentrically within a larger cylinder induction coil. The reagents were applied to the catalyst/the current collector in the radial direction, and gaseous products out through the perforated center of the quartz tube. The temperature was regulated by monitoring the temperature of the leaving gas volume in the center of the perforated quartz tube and changing the capacity of the Indus the information source to maintain the desired temperature. Induction heating is carried out at a constant frequency 97 kHz. Reaction conditions, the conversion and yield are shown in table 1.

Table 1
Number exampleSubmission of NH3(STD. cm3)Filing CH4(STD. cm3)Contact time (sec)The pace. T°)Conversion of CH4, %Conversion of NH3, %The release of HCN, % (NH3)
25244760,701100959686
310489520,351100949584
4157114290,231100859374
55244760,701150959786
610489520,351150969786
7165014290,231150839369
8 214018600,171150799266

Examples 9-16

Examples 9-16 illustrate the work flow layout of the reactor with axial flow of reagents through one cylinder of the catalyst/current collector. HCN was obtained by the reaction of ammonia, taken in a small molar excess of methane in the induction heated by a continuous flow reactor with a fixed bed, shown in figure 2. Used in the experiment, the catalyst/current collector consisted of a single cylinder of wire Pt/Rh 90/10 with an outer diameter of 0.75 inches, an inner diameter of 0.50 inches and a height of 1.50 inches. In the manufacture of cylinder 23 mesh layers of Pt/Rh was wound on a solid quartz tube with a diameter of 1.3 cm (0.50 inch). A cylindrical catalyst/current collector with the cross-sectional area 0,245 inch2then was inserted into a quartz tube reactor with an inner diameter of 0.75 inches to a sliding landing. The tube reactor was placed in a larger cylinder induction coil. The reagents were applied to the catalyst in the axial direction, and gaseous products out through the ring formed by two concentric quartz tubes. The temperature was regulated by monitoring the temperature of the leaving gas volume in the center of the quartz tube with a diameter of 0.50 inches and powerfully changing the th induction generator to maintain the desired temperature. Induction heating is carried out at a constant frequency of 90 kHz. Reaction conditions, the conversion and yield are shown in table 2.

Table 2
Number exampleSubmission of NH3(stands3)Filing CH4(stands3)Contact time (sec)The pace. T°)Conversion of CH4, %Conversion of NH3, %The release of HCN, % (NH3)
910489520,181050989190
10157114290,121050919187
11209519050,091052678160
1210489520,181100999291
13157114290,121100949488
14209519050,091102647954
1510489520,181150999892
16209519050,091152657956

Examples 17-26

HCN was obtained by the reaction of ammonia with methane in an induction heated by a continuous flow reactor with a fixed layer, similar to the reactor shown in Figure 3. The reactor outer quartz cylinder with a diameter of 5.08 cm and a length of 60 cm with the appropriate fittings for connection with a comb to supply raw materials and the cell for removal of products (not shown). The outer cylinder of the reactor contains a bed of the catalyst/current collector 20 mesh layers of Pt-Rh 90/10, 40 mesh, having a thickness of 0.02 cm and wound on a tube of a porous foam aluminum oxide with 80 pores per inch (external diameter of 2.5 cm and a length of 7.8 cm), closed at the top. Reagents, methane, and ammonia, were included in the reactor at the top and passed radially through the cylindrical layer of catalyst/current collector. The product stream containing HCN, unreacted methane and/or ammonia and by-products, penetrated through the tube of porous aluminum oxide and out of the reactor through the space of the hollow cylinder inside the tube of porous aluminum oxide. Supply of reagents was construire is on so, to the flows of the two gases was fed into the reaction zone at a constant speed. The gas flows were measured and watched them with controllers mass flow Brooks (Brooks). The products identified and their number was determined by the method of gas chromatography. The catalyst bed was heated using a water-cooled copper induction coil. Induction heating was performed at a constant frequency 126 kHz and set the balance supplied and reflected power to obtain the necessary total output. Reaction conditions, the conversion and yield are given in table 3.

Table 3
Number exampleSubmission of NH3(stands3)Filing CH4(stands3)Contact time (sec)Total power (watts)Conversion of CH4, %Conversion of NH3, %The release of HCN, % (NH3)
17220018000,30110093,5100,078,0
18220018000,30115092,6100,077,1
19220018000,301150 100,080,7
20220018000,30115094,1100,080,5
21340028000,19122590,9100,086,9
22340028000,19122591,7100,086,1
23340028000,19122591,7100,085,3
24440036000,15140090,6100,084,9
25440036000,15140088,7100,084,7
26440036000,15140085,1100,083,2

Examples 27-32

HCN was obtained by the reaction of ammonia, taken in a small molar excess of methane in the induction heated continuous reactor with a fixed bed. The reactor consisted of the outer quartz cylinder that covers the layer of catalyst/current collector. The catalyst layer/collector contained the pole the discs of platinum foam, each thickness of 0.3 cm and a diameter of 2.54 cm, a porosity of 40 pores per inch, placed one upon the other in a concentric cylinder carrier for catalyst. Reagents methane and ammonia were dosed out and was controlled by controllers mass flow Brooks (Brooks) and introduced into the reactor from the top speeds are given in table 4. Gases are then passed down through the induction heated cylindrical layer of catalyst/current collector, and a product stream containing HCN, unreacted methane and/or ammonia, hydrogen and other by-products leaving the reaction zone at the bottom of the quartz reactor. The layer of catalyst induction heated at a constant frequency 142 kHz. Installed supplied and reflected power so to get the required output. Reaction conditions, conversion and output, etc. are shown in table 4.

Table 4
Number exampleSubmission of NH3(stands3)Filing CH4(stands3)Contact time (sec)Total power (watts)Conversion of CH4, %Conversion of NH3, %The release of HCN, % (NH3)
2722001750was 0.1381100/td> 85,593,278,2
2822001750was 0.138120090,1a 94.279,1
2922001750was 0.138130093,898,681,9
3022001750was 0.1381400of 98.2100,0to 83.5
3122001850is 0.135145093,5the 98.981,1
32220020000,130150095,1100,085,9

1. The apparatus for carrying out gas-phase catalytic chemical reaction receipt of HCN at high temperatures, containing

reaction chamber defining a hollow cylinder containing essentially gas-tight material, non-conductive electrical shock,

a hollow cylindrical electrically conductive and gas-permeable catalyst/current collector having essentially circular cross-section, and the catalyst/current collector is placed coaxially in the reaction chamber and is surrounded elektroprovodyashchimi cylinder, while

katal is the jam/the current collector is surrounded by an induction coil, powered by a voltage source capable of feeding an alternating current, and

the catalyst/the induction current collector is heated by an alternating magnetic field generated by the induction coil to a temperature sufficient for carrying out a chemical reaction, while

the intensity of the energy release induction coil varies along the length of the cylindrical catalyst/current collector.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1, further provided with a gastight not conducting electric current cylinder that allows the gases to flow in the axial direction through the catalyst/the current collector.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1, further provided with a gas-permeable not conducting electric current cylinder that allows the gases to flow in a radial direction through the catalyst/the current collector.

4. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the induction coil has a uniform pitch over the entire length.

5. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the induction coil consists of two or more sections, through each of which passes a current of a different magnitude compared to the other one or more sections.

6. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the induction coil consists of two or more sections, and the step coil in one of the sections differs from the step in each of the remaining one or more sections.

7. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the catalysts of the/the current collector contains many continuous turns of the grid.

8. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the catalyst/the current collector consists of a foam metal catalyst.

9. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the catalyst/the current collector consists of a set of rings from the grid, laid one on another.

10. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the catalyst/the current collector consists of concentric annular layers having different bulk electrical conductivity.

11. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains one or more platinum group metals.

12. The apparatus according to claim 1, in which the catalyst/current collector has an external diameter equal to from 0.1 to 0.9 from the inner diameter of the induction coil.

13. The method of obtaining HCN, which comprises passing ammonia and gaseous hydrocarbon containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, through the catalyst device, which is essentially a cylindrical electroconductive and gas-permeable catalyst/current collector of the catalytically active platinum group metal, and a catalyst/current collector is placed coaxially in the reaction chamber defining a hollow cylinder containing essentially gas-tight material, non-conductive electric current, and the catalyst/the pantograph is hollow and surrounded by not conducting electric current cylinder, and the catalyst/the current collector has a continuous path electrics the barb on its circumference in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the circle, and is heated by the induction heating coil operating at a frequency of between 50 Hz and 30 MHz, to a temperature sufficient for reaction of the reagents, and a cylindrical catalyst/current collector has sufficient volume electric resistance, in order to obtain a sufficient efficiency of induction heating for promotion of catalytic activity, while the intensity of the energy supply from the induction coil varies along the length of the cylindrical catalyst/current collector.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the ammonia and hydrocarbon is passed axially through the catalyst/the current collector.

15. The method according to item 13, in which the ammonia and hydrocarbon is passed radially through the catalyst/the current collector.

16. The method according to item 13, in which the induction coil has a uniform pitch over the entire length.

17. The method according to item 13, in which the induction coil consists of two or more sections, and each section current flows, the value of which differs from the magnitude of the current in each of the remaining one or more sections.

18. The method according to item 13, in which the induction coil consists of two or more sections, and step into the coil in one of these sections is different from the step in each of the remaining one or more sections.

19. The method according to item 13, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains many continuous turns of the grid.

20. The method according to item 13, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains a foam catalytically active metal.

21. The method according to item 13, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains many rings mesh ring-shaped stacked one upon the other.

22. The method according to item 13, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains a concentric annular layers with different bulk electrical conductivity.

23. The method according to item 13, in which the catalyst/the current collector contains one or more platinum group metals.

24. The method according to item 13, in which the catalyst/current collector has an external diameter of from 0.1 to 0.9 from the inner diameter of the induction coil.

25. The method according to item 13, which represents a hydrocarbon methane.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic elements including ceramic contact of regular honeycomb structure for heterogeneous high-temperature reactions, e.g. ammonia conversion, and can be used in production of nitric acid, hydrocyanic acid, and hydroxylamine sulfate. Described is catalytic element for heterogeneous high-temperature reactions comprising two-step catalytic system consisting of ceramic contact of regular honeycomb structure made in the form of at least one bed constituted by (i) separate prisms with honeycomb canals connected by side faces with gap and (ii) platinoid grids, ratio of diameter of unit honeycomb canal to diameter of wire, from which platinoid grids are made, being below 20.

EFFECT: increased degree of conversion and degree of trapping of platinum, and prolonged lifetime of grids.

5 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: regeneration of free cyanide in waste technological solutions containing cyanides and heavy metals; non-ferrous metallurgical plants; gold mining and galvanic processes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in treatment of waste technological solutions by mineral acid under conditions excluding formation of gaseous hydrocyanic acid followed by separation of phases: solution of hydrocyanic acid and difficultly soluble compounds of elementary cyanides of metals by settling and/or filtration, leaching of clarified solution and re-use of solution of free cyanide thus obtained. Regeneration of free cyanide is carried out directly in solution being treated without conversion of hydrocyanic acid into gaseous phase.

EFFECT: repeated use of cyanide; reduced consumption of cyanide and fresh water; facilitated procedure; extraction of non-ferrous metals from solution in form of compact concentrate.

1 dwg, 2 ex

The invention relates to methods of producing hydrogen cyanide

The invention relates to a method of reducing leakage of ammonia and the corresponding reduction of ammonium sulfate and wastes derived from the unreacted ammonia in the production of Acrylonitrile direct oxidative ammonolysis of the unsaturated or saturated hydrocarbon, preferably propylene or propane, ammonia and oxygen in a reactor with a fluidized bed containing a catalyst of oxidative ammonolysis
The invention relates to the stabilization of the crude acetonitrile, in particular crude acetonitrile, obtained as a byproduct in the production of Acrylonitrile

FIELD: technological processes; mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: flow-guiding insert for reactor chamber has rectangular section, inlet at one end of the chamber and outlet at the other end of the chamber. One of reactor chamber walls consists of heat-conducting material or membrane. Insert contains multiple elements arranged in rows, at that these elements together with chamber walls create the channel for fluid medium. Channel stretches from the first side of chamber to the second side of chamber and back again to the first side, and many times so back and forth. Elements are installed so that fluid medium is forced to flow between elements in a twisting manner. Suggested invention makes it possible to obtain precise hydrodynamic control over flow conditions for reagents that have to pass through reactor chamber.

EFFECT: prevention of formation of fluid medium layers with different flow rates and stagnant zones, and obtainment of high mixing rates.

10 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of production complex polyether using tube etherification reactor. Described is method of producing complex polyether using tube reactor. Method includes etherification of initial reagents in tube reactor with addition of solubilising agent. Tube reactor contains recirculation reaction zone (RR zone) and reaction zone with piston reaction profile (PRPR zone). Suggested method ensures production of target product with conversion from 75 to 96%.

EFFECT: creation of method of complex polyether production using tube etherification reactor, in which high product conversion is ensured.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, fuel production.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes feeding of heated hydrocarbon-containing and oxygen-containing gas in reaction unit, vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbon-containing gas at 250-450°C and pressure of 2.0-10 MPa under near isothermal conditions; cooling of reaction mixture in heat exchangers, separation of gas and liquid phases of reaction mixture. separation of obtained methanol solution of formaldehyde, C2-C4-alcohols and methanol, methanol and gas phase after separation into reactors; catalytic methanol conversion on zeolite catalyst at 350-450°C and pressure of 3-8 MPa; cooling of produced reaction mixture in heat exchangers; separation of gas and liquid phases of reaction mixture; separation of aqueous fraction and synthetic diesel fuel liquid fractions, including fraction of liquid hydrocarbons, corresponding to motor gasoline having octane number of at least 92.

EFFECT: products of high quality; simplified technology; decreased energy consumption.

5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry; other industries; method of production of the alkylate by the sulfuric-acid alkylation in the multiphase reactor.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the alkylate by the sulfuric-acid alkylation in the multiphase reactor, in which the hydraulic mode is provided, which forms the pulsations for attaining the best commixing and the combined interphase mass-transfer and the heat-transfer. The method provides for feeding of the hydrocarbon component consisting of the olefin, the olefin predecessor or their mixture and isoalkane at least partially in the gaseous state into the reactor with the down flow in the presence of the liquid sulfuric acid, and with the internal static system of mixing. The liquid sulfuric acid is fed with constant speed, and the speed of feeding of the olefin, the olefin predecessor or their mixture is increasing until the pressure fall sufficient for formation of the pulsating flow. The internal static system of mixing contains the head including the structure for contacting, which has the free space exceeding 50 % of the volume. The system of the heads may consist of the materials, which are either inert, or catalytically active by their nature.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the alkylate by the sulfuric-acid alkylation in the multiphase reactor providing formation of the pulsations for attaining the best commixing and the corresponding interphase mass-transfer and the heat-transfer.

10 cl, 4 dwg, 8 ex

Contact structures // 2318590

FIELD: petrochemical industry; other industries; production of the reaction contact structures.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the reaction contact structures used in the reactors of the paraffin alkylation in the capacity of the internal static head of the system, such as the disperser. The system for commixing contains the vertical reactor for implementation of the catalytic reactions of stirring and the disperser, which is located in the reaction zone. The disperser is made in the form of the net spliced with the multiple-core component, or in the form of the stretching or rolled out metal interlaced together with the multiple-core component. At that the multi-core thread is selected out of the inert polymers, the catalytic polymers, the catalytic metals or out of their mixtures. The wire net ensures the structural integrity of the system, and also at least 50 volumetric % of the open-space in the reactors required for motion of the vapors and fluids through the system. The disperser can be made in the form of the sheets, bundles or the packets, or to be arranged inside the frame. The present invention allows to exercise more effectively the alkylation of the paraffin at the expense of the large degree of the contact between the liquid catalyst and the reactants in the form of the fluid mediums without the mechanical stirring, thereby eliminating the necessity of sealing of the drive gears and reduction of the product cost.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the more effective alkylation of the paraffin without their mechanical stirring, elimination of the necessity of sealing of the drive gears, reduction of the product cost.

24 cl, 3 dwg, 8 ex

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical process and catalytic reactors suitable for carrying out the process. In particular, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is described involving compact block of catalytic reactor (10) forming passages wherein gas-permeable catalyst structure (16) is present, said passages extending between manifolds (18). Synthesis is performed in at least two steps since reactor block provides at least two consecutive passages (14, 14a) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process interconnected through manifold wherein gas flow velocity in the first passages is high enough to limit conversion of carbon monoxide to 65%. Gases are cooled in manifold between two steps so as to condense water steam and then passes through the second passage at flow velocity high enough to limit conversion of the rest of carbon monoxide to 65%.

EFFECT: reduced partial pressure of water steam and suppressed oxidation of catalyst.

17 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chromatography.

SUBSTANCE: toroidal tank comprises rectangular toroid provided with flat top and bottom sections. The central axis space of the toroidal housing receives the systems of distributing and collecting the fluid made of radially distributed pipelines.

EFFECT: simplified design.

5 cl, 5 dwg

Reactor // 2300418

FIELD: oil-refining industry; oil-processing devices.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the oil-refining industry, in particular, to the reactors of gas-liquid mixture. The reactor includes the body (1), the grate (2) with the located on it beads (3) and the catalytic agent (4), inlet fitting pipe (5) and outlet fitting pipe (6). Inside of the body (1) there is the mounted cone (7) with the arranged above it and forming a slit (9) with it conical ring (8). Below the slit (9) there is the mounted ring (10) with the curvilinear surface in the diametrical section, in the lower part of which there are holes (11) and the fitting pipes (12) with the impurities collectors (13). Above the ring (10) there is the ring deflector (14). The invention prevents formation on the catalytic agent surface of the surface layer of the impurities.

EFFECT: the invention ensures prevention of formation on the surface of the catalytic agent of the surface layer of the impurities.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; reactors used for treatment of the viscous medium or to realization of the chemical reactions such as polymerization.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the reactor, which is used for treatment of the viscous medium or for realization of the chemical reactions such as polymerization. The reactor contains the tank and the circuit for circulation of the heat-carrying agent in the form of the fluid medium. At that the circuit contains at least one segment of the tube torque along the spiral-shaped guide. The circuit also contains the second segment of the tube torque along the spiral-shaped guide and arranged in parallel to the first segment between the distributor and the collector. The first and second segments are oriented concerning the same geometrical axis, mainly with the same radius of bending and are inserted one into other in such a manner that together they form essentially a cylindrical bunch. The circuit may have the second bunch formed, at least, with the help of one segment of the tube torque along the spiral-shaped guide arranged between the distributor and the collector and centered concerning the axis. At that the second bunch has essentially the cylindrical form with the radius smaller than the radius of the first bunch. The method includes the phase of alternation of the spiral-shaped segments of the tube, so that to form the essentially cylindrical bunch. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the heat feeding into the reaction medium.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the heat feeding into the reaction medium.

18 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; devices for realization of the non-adiabatic reactions.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the reactor for realization of the non-adiabatic reactions. The reactor consists of the metallic ingot and contains, at least, one reactionary passage made through the ingot and designed for maintaining the catalyst for the non-adiabatic transformation of the reactants flow. The reactor contains the inlet channels for introduction of the stream of the reactants into the reactionary passage and the outlet channels for withdrawal of the reacted stream of the reactants; and also the heating-up or cooling device intended for maintaining the catalytic non-adiabatic transformation of the torrent of the reactants. The invention provides, that the mentioned inlet and outlet channels are made in the ingot and are located mainly perpendicularly to the reactionary passages and in parallel connect the reactionary passages. The technical result of the invention is the possibility to use of the reactor for the small-scale production works.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the possibility to use of the reactor for the small-scale production works.

9 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: petroleum industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technique of production of commercial oil and can be used at production enterprises of the oil processing and oil production industry for development of apparatus for super high-frequency (SHF) treatment of water-oil emulsions. The invention provides higher quality of separation of water-oil emulsion by increasing the number and intensity of contacts of water drops in the flow of water-oil emulsion under the influence of SHF energy in the intertubular zone formed in the segment of the pipeline by the surface of the guiding structure and the pipeline walls and reduction of consumption of electromagnetic SHF supplied to the inlet of the SHF energy input assembly of the open guiding structure. The method envisages formation of distribution of SHF energy losses from the source of SHF energy in the flow of water-oil emulsion, using the process of attenuation of external filed of the electromagnetic wave of the open guiding structure characterised in water-oil emulsion transported through the pipeline by selected specified distribution of the of external electromagnetic filed parallel to the guiding structure by passing the flow of water-oil emulsion in the intertubular zone through a structure of elements of the type assigned fabricated from dielectric materials and installed in the intertubular zone parallel to the open guiding structure in the direction of the flow of water-oil emulsion, and the minimal permissible duration of influence of electromagnetic energy on water-oil emulsion required is set by varying flow rate Q of water-oil emulsion in the flow through the pipeline within the range 0<Q≤Qmax=(Sp-Sl)L/tmin, where Q - flow rate of water-oil emulsion in the pipeline, Qmax - maximal flow rate of water-oil emulsion, L - length of the open distributed guiding structure in the pipeline, tmin - minimal permissible duration of influence of electromagnetic energy on water-oil emulsion, Sl - cross-section area of the open distributed guiding structure, Sp - cross-section area of the pipeline. The apparatus for micro-wave treatment of the flow of water-oil emulsion, transported through the pipeline, containing the source of SHF energy with the assembly for input of SHF energy into the pipeline made in the shape of an open guiding structure with length L in the intertubular zone parallel to the open guiding structure of length L, determined by the formula L=(tminQmax)/(Sp-Sl)) is provided with a structure of elements of the type assigned, fabricated from dielectric materials and orientated parallel to the axis of the open guiding structure, and the pipeline is fitted with a gate mounted from the side of input into the intertubular zone with cross-sectional area of the through bore Sg, varying within the limits 0<Sg<Sp.

EFFECT: higher quality of separation of water-oil emulsion, and reduction of consumption of electromagnetic SHF energy supplied to the inlet of the SHF energy input assembly of the open guiding structure.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: organic chemistry, oil.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods of high-viscosity oil treatment in fields before transportation through pipelines, specifically to methods of oil viscosity reduction. Methods of oil viscosity reduction includes cyclic delivery of liquid oil to hydrodynamic treatment zone, where oil is pressured characterized by constant axial shift component and variable cross shift component, post-treatment oil temperature measurement. To provide irreversible viscosity reduction pressure treatment of oil is performed with heat removal to stabilize oil temperature within temperature range, but not lower than temperature rise of which causes insignificant oil viscosity reduction and not higher than oil boiling point. Oil viscosity is measured after pressure treatment. Pressure treatment is finished as oil viscosity stabilizes. Technical result is provision of irreversible oil viscosity reduction.

EFFECT: provision of irreversible oil viscosity reduction.

1 dwg

FIELD: electronic industry, possible use for manufacturing hydrocarbon storage materials.

SUBSTANCE: short multi-wall carbon nanotubes are composed of concentrically positioned layers of nanotubes with average diameter ranging from 2 to 15 nanometers, median diameter ranging from 6 to 8 nanometers and natural length ranging from 100 to 500 nanometers. Nanotubes may comprise 2-15 coaxial layers of one-walled nanotubes. Each short multi-wall carbon nanotube has one semi-spherical end and on conical end, where semi-spherical end may be selectively opened by oxidizing, leaving conical end untouched. Short multi-wall carbon nanotubes in accordance to invention in form of powder sample are fit for field emission of electrons, starting at approximately 2 V/micrometer.

EFFECT: resulting short multi-wall carbon nanotubes are more homogeneous length and diameter-wise and have improved emission properties compared to known ones.

5 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: environmental protection; reactors for catalytic purification of the industrial gaseous outbursts.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection against the industrial gases release and may be used for the flameless purification of the gaseous emissions of the industrial enterprises. The reactor for catalytic purification of the industrial gaseous outbursts contains the cylindrical body, which internal surface is coated with the catalyst, the source of the infra-red source located in the body, the tubular heat exchanger, the permeable cylindrical shell ring from the catalyst, installed in the upper part of the body so, that the symmetry axes of the shell ring and the body coincide. The tubes of the heat exchanger are mounted inclined and arranged along the round perimeter of the reactor. At that the source of the infra-red emission made in the form of the cylindrical section is built in the body, where the movable bottom door is installed. The annular partition of the heat exchanger with the located on it collector of aromatization is installed before the outlet of the purified gaseous stream. The movable bottom door used for regulation of the purification degree of the gaseous outbursts is installed in the upper part of the body of the reactor. The invention allows to decrease the power input, to recover the heat and to aromatize the leaving purified gaseous stream.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the decreased power input, the recuperation of the heat, the aromatization of the leaving purified gaseous stream.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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