Method of additional information transmission at fractal coding of images

FIELD: physics, image processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method of reduction of redundancy of transmitted information. Invention actually consists in creation of method for additional information transmission at fractal coding of images. Transmission of additional information is carried out in the following manner: whenever initial image is compressed with the help of fractal compression method, in indices of domain units orientation binary sequence of three digits is recorded, which represents additional information, then based on this additional information processed domain is turned and brightness coefficients - o and contrast coefficients - s are searched for by method of least squares, which correspond to optimal values, at which the following expression is minimised: where {dij} and {rij} accordingly are values of pixels in domain and range areas, as a result of which optimal domain is found with account of inbuilt additional information for coding of range unit, after that indices of domains, coefficients of brightness and contrast, additional information are sent through communication channel. On receiving side additional information is separated and initial image is restored.

EFFECT: creation of method for additional information transmission with fractal coding of images.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to telecommunications, and in particular to the field associated with the reduction of the redundancy of the transmitted information. The reason for this is essentially that, with the help of modern technology coding and data compression can significantly reduce the frequency range required for transmission of images.

The transmission of additional information is performed as follows. When encoding an image using fractal compression method in the index of orientation of the domains is inserted additional information. In the result, find the best domain based on the embedded additional information. After embedding additional information these data, together with information about the indices of the domain blocks of the original image, the coefficients of brightness and contrast are transmitted over the communication channel. At the receiving side there is a selection of additional information and restore the original image.

In digital video technology to increase the transmitted amount of information has already been proposed to replace the digital signal scan data contained in the interval blanking additional information, for example, digital audio signals and to transmit additional information (See. Ulrich Schmidt, Digital video equipment, Izdat the construction Franzis Verlag, Feldkirchen, 1996) [1].

The closest in technical essence to the claimed method for the transmission of additional information in fractal image coding is the method described in patent No. 2292662, IPC804N 7/08 from 27.01.2007, [2]. Prototype method for encoding an image using fractal compression method the insertion of additional information provides in the low-order bits of the index domain blocks. The remaining bits of the index domain of the original image is the procedure in the trial of inversion. After embedding additional information and optimizing indexes, domains, these data, together with information about the indexes orientation domains, brightness and contrast are transmitted over the communication channel. The disadvantage of the prototype method is that the result of such insertion decreased the space of possible domains to display the ranking unit that reduces the quality of the reconstructed image.

The technical result, which is aimed invention is an insignificant decline in the quality of the original reconstructed image when the transmission of additional information.

To achieve this, the technical result of the insertion of additional information when the fractal compression method is carried out in the indexes orientation domain blocks, because the ku in the book. C. Welstead "Fractals and wavelets for image compression". The tutorial. - M.: Publishing house Triumph, 2003, s-100 [3] indicated that a slight sensitivity to distortions in the index transformations (indexes orientation domains) is evidence that these transformations can be generally excluded from the encoding process. This fact was also confirmed by the authors of the patent application.

Consider the basic algorithm for fractal image coding, which is performed as follows [3]:

1. The original image is divided into nonoverlapping rank blocks. Rank the blocks may be equal, but more often is an adaptive partitioning of variable size blocks. This gives the possibility to closely fill the rank blocks of the small size of the image containing fine detail.

2. Then cover the image sequence domain blocks, possibly overlapping. Domains can be different sizes.

3. The main computational step in fractal coding is a comparison of the domain and rank areas. For each rank of the block, find the domain and the corresponding transformation that best covers the ranking unit. This is usually an affine transformation:

where: siis a constant, which is what I expands or narrows the range of values of the function f (controls the contrast of the image);

abouti- a constant that increases or reduces the value of the grayscale (controls the brightness of the image);

wi- affine transform;

- spatial component of the transformation wi;

f(x,y) is the pixel value of the image with coordinates (x,y).

An affine transformation consists of three steps. First, the selected domain is one of the eight basic rotations/reflections (four 90-degree rotation and mirror reflection in each orientation). Secondly, rotating domain region is compressed to fit the size of the rank field. And, finally, by the method of least squares is calculated contrast and brightness corresponding to the optimal values that minimize the expression:

where: {dij} and {rij} is respectively the pixel values of the domain and rank areas.

The computational overhead of the search for the required domain among so many options too great. The problem of determining the system domain is a compromise between the necessity to many domains were large enough to allow the selection of the best option, match the rank of the block and, at the same time, small enough so that the search process could be about what destlen in acceptable time. Continue this process until, until you get an acceptable match, or the size of the rank of blocks reaches a predetermined limit. In the operation of the basic algorithm, the decoder transmits a domain index, the index of orientation domain, brightness and contrast.

In the proposed method at the first stage of affine transformations taking into account the embedded additional information is recorded binary sequence of three digits (because the possible number of turns equal to eight). Further, with this combination of numbers is turning machined domain and search the coefficients of brightness and contrast. As a result of such introduction number of turns is reduced, which also leads to decrease time searching for the right domain, and the total time coding in General.

After embedding the additional information as indexes of turns, these data, together with information about the indices of the domain blocks, brightness and contrast are transmitted over the communication channel. The decoder is the allocation of additional information and restore the original image. The decoding of the image is performed by an iterative application of the affine transformation to an arbitrary initial image. In accordance with theorem on contractive mappings iterational to converge regardless of the choice of the initial image. Compressive mapping is defined as a separate transformation for each rank of the block. Each rank unit has associated with it transformation and domain. The contents of this rank of the block is calculated by applying a transform to the domain block. One iteration is completed when you are ranking the blocks.

The claimed method is illustrated by drawings:

figure 1 is an affine transformation of the domains that rank in the units;

figure 2 - dependence of decoding errors from errors in the indexes and domain indexes transformations;

figure 3 - insertion of additional information in the basic algorithm of fractal coding;

figure 4 - write procedure for more information.

Figure 1 presents an affine transform domain rank blocks, which consists in fitting the selected domain area to be treated grade using affine transformations.

Figure 2 shows the dependence of the error decoding errors in the indexes and domain indexes change. Whence we can conclude that the error in the index transformations practically does not lead to distortion of the reconstructed image.

Figure 3 shows the insertion of additional information in the basic algorithm of fractal coding. In the proposed method, the insertion of additional information is performed by fitting the Omena under the ranking unit. This insertion occurs in the bits that define the index of turns, which is presented in figure 4. Because these data are not added in addition to the original signal, and replace part of the original signal, the bandwidth of the signal does not increase by adding this information.

This way the transmission of additional information in fractal image coding can be implemented on modern processors signal processing. The method may find its application in the transmission of additional data over a slow communication channels. As additional information can be hidden information, another image or any other useful information.

Sources of information

1. Ulrich Schmidt, Digital video equipment. Publisher Franzis Verlag, Feldkirchen,1996.

2. Patent No. 2292662, IPC804N 7/08 from 27.01.2007,

3. With. Walsted. Fractals and wavelets for image compression in action. The tutorial. - M.: Publishing house Triumph, 2003 - 320 C.

Method for the transmission of additional information when encoding images with stage a) digitization of the original image, (b) compression using fractal compression method, (C) insertion of additional information, (d) decompressing the compressed image, (e) the allocation of additional information, call the clinical topics when the compression of the original image using fractal compression method in indexes orientation of domain blocks to record the binary sequence of three digits, representing additional information, further taking into account this additional information shall turn processed domain and search the coefficients brightness and contrast s by the method of least squares, corresponding to the optimal values that minimize the expression:

where {dij} and {rij} is respectively the pixel values of the domain and rank areas, resulting in finding the optimal domain based on the embedded additional information to encode the rank of the block, after which the index domain, the coefficients of brightness and contrast, additional information is transferred over the communication channel.



 

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