Method for electric energy production and device for its realisation

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method for electric energy production using contacts system of nanostructured conducting surfaces with thin water layer and device for its realisation - hydroelectric generator on the base of nanostructured materials as source of electric energy are intended for obtaining electric energy using renewable energy sources. The invention is based on the fact that contacts system of nanostructured conducting surfaces with thin water layer of several nanometers to fractions of millimeter in thickness under certain conditions becomes the source of electromotive force (EMF). The invention provides electric energy production and can find wide application in various fields of science and engineering.

EFFECT: creation of effective method for electric energy production.

2 cl, 8 tbl, 3 dwg

 

The claimed group of inventions includes a method of obtaining electrical energy from the system contacts nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer and a hydroelectric generator as a source of electrical energy. The group of inventions relates to methods and devices for generating electrical energy using renewable energy sources. In the claimed group of inventions used is not known so far, the principles of building energy systems, which in the future will be able to find wide application in various fields of science and technology.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the system contacts nanostructured conductive plates with a thin water layer under certain conditions, become a source of electromotive force (EMF). To create these conditions it is necessary that, first, the layer of water from two opposite sides was surrounded by plates of conductive material. Moreover, to avoid the possibility of changing the chemical composition of the water, the conductive plates must be made of a material inert with respect to water (metals, metalloids, and their salts, alloys, semiconductors). Secondly, the surface of the conductive plate in contact with the layer of water that must be nanostructured, i.e. they must have nanoscale structural is odnorodnosti in the form of projections and/or depressions and/or nano-parametric heterogeneity (heterogeneity of conductivity, dielectric permittivity and others). Between the conductive plates of this system, i.e. a system consisting of a first conductive plate, the aqueous layer and the second conductive plate, there is an electric potential difference. The occurrence of a potential difference due to the process of structuring the aquatic environment that is initiated by the inhomogeneous electric field existing near nanoscale structural and/or parametric heterogeneity conductive surfaces of the plates in contact with water molecules. The number of such conductive plates may be in the General case of arbitrary (more than two).

Thus, close contact nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer creates conditions for structuring the aquatic environment, which in turn leads to separation and transfer of oppositely charged components of the aquatic environment of the opposite conductive surfaces of the plates surrounding aqueous layer.

This effect was first experimentally discovered by the authors of the claimed invention and it may be conventionally designated as hydroelectric. If the conductive layers of the system to connect the electrical load, then flowing in the load current leads to the release of electrical energy.

Thus, the system is EMA contacts nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer thickness from a few nanometers or more when the above conditions becomes a source of EMF from which you can get electrical energy.

It is established that the hydroelectric effect is extremely small value occurs even in the case when a thin layer of pure water enclosed between the surfaces of the conductive plates, almost devoid of pronounced inhomogeneities, for example, due to an extremely thorough treatment of these surfaces. The mentioned phenomenon is due to the fact that on these surfaces always fundamentally there are both structural and parametric nanodiagnostic that contribute to weak, negligible structuring a thin water layer.

Plates bounding the layer of water can be made not only of conductive material, but also of a dielectric or semiconductor. In this case, to achieve a hydroelectric effect enough to have their surfaces in contact with aqueous layer (one or both)had conductive inclusions - parametric heterogeneity. In turn, the surface of these conductive inclusions in contact with the aqueous layer must be nano-sized and/or to have nanoscale heterogeneity. To obtain an electric energy these conductive included in each plate must have electrical contact with corresponding contacts to which data is to be loaded. The required structural and/or parametric heterogeneity were obtained by a special surface treatment of conductive plates in contact with boosterism layer, and/or by artificial deposition of the material on the surface of conductive plates or conductive inclusions. As the material applied to the surface of the conductive plates, including can be used carbon nanotubes, diamond powder, etc.

Thus, the inventive method of generating electrical energy has fundamental differences from all known electrochemical, Electromechanical, electrokinetic and hydrodynamic methods of obtaining electrical energy. These fundamental differences are that in the process of generation of electric energy is not material consumption operating device in the absence of friction or otherwise adjacent surfaces of parts and components.

The General case system, to implement a hydroelectric effect displayed in figure 1 in the form of cells, including aqueous layer, which is limited by the plates, made of inert with respect to water conductive material, which surface is in contact with the aqueous layer and has a nanoscale structural and/or steam is metric heterogeneity. In the case when these plates consist of a dielectric or a semiconductor, they must contain nanosized conductive inclusions which must be connected to the corresponding electrical contacts.

In the experiments, which gave the opportunity to realize hydroelectric effect in specific devices, plates, surrounding aqueous layer were made from materials which are inert with respect to the water - carbon, silicon, glass carbon, dioxide, vanadium, gold, chrome and some other materials containing nanoscale inhomogeneity in the form of protrusions or depressions, or parametric heterogeneity on the surface of the wafer in contact with water. In most of the performed experiments as slurry was used to coat bidistillate water with a thickness of about 100 microns, and the contact surface of the conductive layer with water was approximately 1 cm2. External load such cell currents obtained from units nanoampere to units of micro-amps at a voltage of about 10-300 millivolts. Found that nanoscale inhomogeneity in the form of protrusions or depressions or parametric heterogeneity on a conductive surface of the wafer in contact with the aqueous layer may be made of non-conductive water-insoluble material. In this case, techeilet place the structuring of the aqueous layer dielectric nanoscale structural inhomogeneities, leading to hydroelectric effect. However, the probability of a non-uniform electric field in a homogeneous aqueous medium, leading to the structuring of the aqueous layer, is significantly less than in the presence of conductive nano-structural inhomogeneities. As a consequence, the magnitude of the effect of the generation of electric energy aqueous layer is significantly reduced. An example of such a non-conductive nanostructural and microstructural inhomogeneities, used in the experiment are diamond powders, powders crushed glass, corundum powders, powders of coral calcium "Alka-mine", which are evenly distributed on the surface of one of the plates.

It was established experimentally that the phenomenon of generation of electric energy occurs when a layer of water contain chemical and/or mechanical impurities, including water-soluble salts. The effect is qualitatively unchanged at concentrations up to 1%.

It was established experimentally that the magnitude of the received EMF and internal resistance of the water layer depends on the material from which made contact with the water plate, and the nature of the inhomogeneities that occur on their surfaces, and can be different for two or four orders of magnitude.

It was also established that with increase the thickness of the water layer, in contact with the same materials, from a few nanometers to 50 microns voltage value obtained EMF) and the current decreases.

The studies were observed absolute repeatability of the experimental results under the conditions of the experiment.

The temperature limits of existence of the effect is determined by the conditions of existence of the liquid phase.

Developed and tested the device, which is a source of electrical energy, consisting of a layer of pure water enclosed between the plates, made of conductive inert with respect to water materials containing nanoscale heterogeneity on the surface in contact with the layer of water. When the output voltage from 7-15 mV to 500 mV they provide in an electrical load current from 5-10 at up to 6000. These results were obtained in the temperature range 12-30°in layers bidistilled water to a thickness of 100-300 microns and having a surface area from 1 to 2 cm2. In the experiments used water-insoluble materials - polished monocrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon with mikroheranhvatho surface, the porous silicon monocrystalline with nanopores, polished glass carbon and glass carbon with microinhomogeneities, carbon nanotu the key, deoxyguanylate nanostructures.

The design of conventional (unshielded) aqueous membranes are presented in figure 2. The lower electrode membrane (11) is connected with an external electric circuit via a segment of copper wire sew-0.05 (7), the ends of which are sealed tin tin noses. The upper electrode (10), limiting the aqueous layer (12), is a thin conductive plate made of material inhomogeneities. It is separated from the bottom electrode (11) the support of the fiberglass strands (14). The upper electrode (10) is in contact with a plate of copper foil (13)having electrical connection diffuse-compression type with a length of copper wire sew-0,05 (7)through which you are connected to an external electrical circuit. In a similar way with an external circuit is connected to the lower electrode.

Shielded hydroelectric cell (Figure 3) is an all-metal sealed container of cylindrical shape (1), sealed for the duration of the experiment lid from a sheet of brass (2) thickness of 0.3 mm, and is soldered to the side wall cut thin (with an inner diameter of 3.0 mm) copper tube (9)through which the skipped two-wire line (6)intended for connection to the measuring system.

For measuring currents and voltages of the small quantities of nano - and microportal - requires a high degree of noise immunity, which entailed the use in the experiment all-metal shielding structures.

Inside the housing (1) (3) is the water-containing membrane (3)which is fixed on the surface of the solid dielectric, such as polikor (5), with metallized upper and lower surfaces (4)are electrically interconnected and all-metal housing of the cell. Besides, the contact of the upper plate of the membrane (10) lying on her plate of copper foil is electroplated. In turn, the lower surface of the plate membrane (11) is fixed on the upper surface of the metallized paligorova plate (5). Membrane photoelectrically cell is connected to the input of a shielded two-wire line through the choke (7) and bushing capacitors (8)forming the filter of low frequencies. Upper and lower planar electrodes of the membrane in contact with water, have a deviation from parallelism relative to each other, not exceeding about 0.1-0.3 μm to 2 cm2. Distance was maintained with the help of fiberglass strands calibrated diameter (14).

Shielded photoelectrically cell (Figure 3) as an electric generator works as follows. Aqueous membrane (Figure 2), located inside the metal housing is a (1) shielded photoelectrically cells (Figure 3), generates the voltage which, through the choke (7) and bushing capacitors (8) is fed to the input two-wire shielded lines. If the output line to connect the load, then after it starts leaking electric current.

As the experiments showed, the electrical shielded hydroelectric cells remain virtually unchanged for a long time (up to tens of hours). Changes in the electrical parameters of the cells begin almost by evaporation appreciable quantities of water from the water-containing membrane. The authors have not taken any special constructive measures for sealing the cells, preventing the evaporation of water from them during operation. This question is not crucial. It is well known that existing at present technologies allow to easily manufacture the device, providing a complete seal slurry layers in a similar established authors devices excluding evaporation and leakage of water from the water layer.

The cell as an electric generator works as follows. Hydrocodoneusa cell produces a voltage, which, through chokes and feedthrough capacitors to the input two-wire shielded lines. If the output line to connect the load, then through it will start FR the Katia electric current. Several hydrocodoneusa cells can be interconnected in parallel or in a serial manner. In the first case, this leads to an increase of the operating current, the second is to increase the operating voltage.

For the manufacture of boundary electrodes hydrocodoneusa membranes were used the following materials:

- plate single-crystal of silicon with its own conductivity and purity 999,999999% with surface polished 14 class;

- silicon wafer, coated with carbon nanotubes with a diameter of from 30 to 250 angstroms, is grown in the form of thin films with thickness of 0.1-0.2 microns;

plates nanoporous silicon of the same purity n-type and p-type;

plates of polished glass carbon;

plates of glass carbon with nanoscale surface heterogeneity;

plates of glass carbon with nanostring inhomogeneities, coated with a thin film of carbon nanotubes;

- silicon wafer, coated with a thin film of vanadium dioxide nanostructures with a size of nanograins 100-120 nm in height and 80-100 nanometers in width, located close to each other on the surface of the substrate;

- plate polished chrome; chromium plate nanosilicate;

- gold plate polished and nanosilicate; plate polished tantalum and nanosegregated the E.

To prepare hydrocodoneusa cells were used:

the bidistillate water; powders of diamond №5, №14, №28; corundum powders №10, №28, №40; powder coral calcium Alka-mine of natural origin; powder coral calcium Alka-mine of artificial origin; dust glass (crushed glass with a particle size of 5-10 microns).

The experimental results showed that the introduction of pure water soluble contaminants (acids, alcohols, saline) even in extremely small concentrations (less than 1%), yet do not cause a noticeable increase in conductivity of the water (less than 10%) and the possible formation of concentration cells leads to increased hydroelectric effect.

It should be emphasized that in order to ensure the purity of the water layers, the reproducibility of the experimental results and improve the accuracy of measurements in all experiments as plates, enclosing between them a thin aqueous layer, was used fully monolithic conductive plate. And only these plates on surfaces in contact with the water layer was in turn nanoscale structural or parametric heterogeneity. It is particularly important that in this case there is no need for technologically difficult to merge conductive enabled, the on the surface of the wafer, containing between an aqueous layer, the common power bus, because the use of monolithic conductive layer automatically solves this problem.

The results of experimental studies of the sources of electricity on the basis of a system of contacts nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer.

Below in tables 1-7 shows the results of experiments.

In tables S - area of the plate. In column tables "Time" the last digit corresponds to the termination of change of voltage and current.

1. The way to obtain electrical energy, which consists in the fact that a water layer of thickness from a few nanometers to a fraction of a mm is placed between the plates, which are made of conductive inert with respect to water materials with obtaining hydroelectric EF the project, connected to the conductive plates of external electrical load and shoot with these conductive plates electrical energy, provided that the surface of the conductive plate in contact with the layer of water that are nanostructured.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surfaces of the conductive plates in contact with the layer of water, perform nanoscale structural heterogeneity in the form of projections and/or depressions and/or nano-parametric heterogeneity.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least one of the plates is made of a dielectric with conductive inclusions, and the inclusions are combined into one electrical bus.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the layer of water injected chemical and/or mechanical impurities at concentrations less than 1%.

5. The electric power source containing at least two conductive plates, placed with the ability to connect to external load and are made of inert with respect to water of the material between the plates is placed a layer of water of thickness from fractions of a millimeter to nanometer with the formation of at least one isolated hydroelectric cells, while the surface of the wafer in contact with the layer of water, nanostructured.

6. Source according to claim 5, characterized in that the surface is the surface of conductive plates, in contact with the layer of water that have nanoscale structural heterogeneity in the form of projections and/or depressions and/or nano-parametric heterogeneity.

7. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that at least one of the conductive plates made of dielectric with conductive inclusions, and the inclusions are combined into one electrical bus with the ability to connect to an external load.

8. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that at least two isolated cells are connected in series in a single circuit.

9. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that at least two isolated cells are connected in parallel in a single circuit.

10. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the water layer further comprises a chemical and/or mechanical impurities at concentrations less than 1%.

11. Source according to claim 5, characterized in that it contains at least three conductive plates made of water-insoluble material, which is placed between at least two layers of water.



 

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