Method for electric energy production and device for its realisation
SUBSTANCE: method for electric energy production using contacts system of nanostructured conducting surfaces with thin water layer and device for its realisation - hydroelectric generator on the base of nanostructured materials as source of electric energy are intended for obtaining electric energy using renewable energy sources. The invention is based on the fact that contacts system of nanostructured conducting surfaces with thin water layer of several nanometers to fractions of millimeter in thickness under certain conditions becomes the source of electromotive force (EMF). The invention provides electric energy production and can find wide application in various fields of science and engineering.
EFFECT: creation of effective method for electric energy production.
2 cl, 8 tbl, 3 dwg
The claimed group of inventions includes a method of obtaining electrical energy from the system contacts nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer and a hydroelectric generator as a source of electrical energy. The group of inventions relates to methods and devices for generating electrical energy using renewable energy sources. In the claimed group of inventions used is not known so far, the principles of building energy systems, which in the future will be able to find wide application in various fields of science and technology.
The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the system contacts nanostructured conductive plates with a thin water layer under certain conditions, become a source of electromotive force (EMF). To create these conditions it is necessary that, first, the layer of water from two opposite sides was surrounded by plates of conductive material. Moreover, to avoid the possibility of changing the chemical composition of the water, the conductive plates must be made of a material inert with respect to water (metals, metalloids, and their salts, alloys, semiconductors). Secondly, the surface of the conductive plate in contact with the layer of water that must be nanostructured, i.e. they must have nanoscale structural is odnorodnosti in the form of projections and/or depressions and/or nano-parametric heterogeneity (heterogeneity of conductivity, dielectric permittivity and others). Between the conductive plates of this system, i.e. a system consisting of a first conductive plate, the aqueous layer and the second conductive plate, there is an electric potential difference. The occurrence of a potential difference due to the process of structuring the aquatic environment that is initiated by the inhomogeneous electric field existing near nanoscale structural and/or parametric heterogeneity conductive surfaces of the plates in contact with water molecules. The number of such conductive plates may be in the General case of arbitrary (more than two).
Thus, close contact nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer creates conditions for structuring the aquatic environment, which in turn leads to separation and transfer of oppositely charged components of the aquatic environment of the opposite conductive surfaces of the plates surrounding aqueous layer.
This effect was first experimentally discovered by the authors of the claimed invention and it may be conventionally designated as hydroelectric. If the conductive layers of the system to connect the electrical load, then flowing in the load current leads to the release of electrical energy.
Thus, the system is EMA contacts nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer thickness from a few nanometers or more when the above conditions becomes a source of EMF from which you can get electrical energy.
It is established that the hydroelectric effect is extremely small value occurs even in the case when a thin layer of pure water enclosed between the surfaces of the conductive plates, almost devoid of pronounced inhomogeneities, for example, due to an extremely thorough treatment of these surfaces. The mentioned phenomenon is due to the fact that on these surfaces always fundamentally there are both structural and parametric nanodiagnostic that contribute to weak, negligible structuring a thin water layer.
Plates bounding the layer of water can be made not only of conductive material, but also of a dielectric or semiconductor. In this case, to achieve a hydroelectric effect enough to have their surfaces in contact with aqueous layer (one or both)had conductive inclusions - parametric heterogeneity. In turn, the surface of these conductive inclusions in contact with the aqueous layer must be nano-sized and/or to have nanoscale heterogeneity. To obtain an electric energy these conductive included in each plate must have electrical contact with corresponding contacts to which data is to be loaded. The required structural and/or parametric heterogeneity were obtained by a special surface treatment of conductive plates in contact with boosterism layer, and/or by artificial deposition of the material on the surface of conductive plates or conductive inclusions. As the material applied to the surface of the conductive plates, including can be used carbon nanotubes, diamond powder, etc.
Thus, the inventive method of generating electrical energy has fundamental differences from all known electrochemical, Electromechanical, electrokinetic and hydrodynamic methods of obtaining electrical energy. These fundamental differences are that in the process of generation of electric energy is not material consumption operating device in the absence of friction or otherwise adjacent surfaces of parts and components.
The General case system, to implement a hydroelectric effect displayed in figure 1 in the form of cells, including aqueous layer, which is limited by the plates, made of inert with respect to water conductive material, which surface is in contact with the aqueous layer and has a nanoscale structural and/or steam is metric heterogeneity. In the case when these plates consist of a dielectric or a semiconductor, they must contain nanosized conductive inclusions which must be connected to the corresponding electrical contacts.
In the experiments, which gave the opportunity to realize hydroelectric effect in specific devices, plates, surrounding aqueous layer were made from materials which are inert with respect to the water - carbon, silicon, glass carbon, dioxide, vanadium, gold, chrome and some other materials containing nanoscale inhomogeneity in the form of protrusions or depressions, or parametric heterogeneity on the surface of the wafer in contact with water. In most of the performed experiments as slurry was used to coat bidistillate water with a thickness of about 100 microns, and the contact surface of the conductive layer with water was approximately 1 cm2. External load such cell currents obtained from units nanoampere to units of micro-amps at a voltage of about 10-300 millivolts. Found that nanoscale inhomogeneity in the form of protrusions or depressions or parametric heterogeneity on a conductive surface of the wafer in contact with the aqueous layer may be made of non-conductive water-insoluble material. In this case, techeilet place the structuring of the aqueous layer dielectric nanoscale structural inhomogeneities, leading to hydroelectric effect. However, the probability of a non-uniform electric field in a homogeneous aqueous medium, leading to the structuring of the aqueous layer, is significantly less than in the presence of conductive nano-structural inhomogeneities. As a consequence, the magnitude of the effect of the generation of electric energy aqueous layer is significantly reduced. An example of such a non-conductive nanostructural and microstructural inhomogeneities, used in the experiment are diamond powders, powders crushed glass, corundum powders, powders of coral calcium "Alka-mine", which are evenly distributed on the surface of one of the plates.
It was established experimentally that the phenomenon of generation of electric energy occurs when a layer of water contain chemical and/or mechanical impurities, including water-soluble salts. The effect is qualitatively unchanged at concentrations up to 1%.
It was established experimentally that the magnitude of the received EMF and internal resistance of the water layer depends on the material from which made contact with the water plate, and the nature of the inhomogeneities that occur on their surfaces, and can be different for two or four orders of magnitude.
It was also established that with increase the thickness of the water layer, in contact with the same materials, from a few nanometers to 50 microns voltage value obtained EMF) and the current decreases.
The studies were observed absolute repeatability of the experimental results under the conditions of the experiment.
The temperature limits of existence of the effect is determined by the conditions of existence of the liquid phase.
Developed and tested the device, which is a source of electrical energy, consisting of a layer of pure water enclosed between the plates, made of conductive inert with respect to water materials containing nanoscale heterogeneity on the surface in contact with the layer of water. When the output voltage from 7-15 mV to 500 mV they provide in an electrical load current from 5-10 at up to 6000. These results were obtained in the temperature range 12-30°in layers bidistilled water to a thickness of 100-300 microns and having a surface area from 1 to 2 cm2. In the experiments used water-insoluble materials - polished monocrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon with mikroheranhvatho surface, the porous silicon monocrystalline with nanopores, polished glass carbon and glass carbon with microinhomogeneities, carbon nanotu the key, deoxyguanylate nanostructures.
The design of conventional (unshielded) aqueous membranes are presented in figure 2. The lower electrode membrane (11) is connected with an external electric circuit via a segment of copper wire sew-0.05 (7), the ends of which are sealed tin tin noses. The upper electrode (10), limiting the aqueous layer (12), is a thin conductive plate made of material inhomogeneities. It is separated from the bottom electrode (11) the support of the fiberglass strands (14). The upper electrode (10) is in contact with a plate of copper foil (13)having electrical connection diffuse-compression type with a length of copper wire sew-0,05 (7)through which you are connected to an external electrical circuit. In a similar way with an external circuit is connected to the lower electrode.
Shielded hydroelectric cell (Figure 3) is an all-metal sealed container of cylindrical shape (1), sealed for the duration of the experiment lid from a sheet of brass (2) thickness of 0.3 mm, and is soldered to the side wall cut thin (with an inner diameter of 3.0 mm) copper tube (9)through which the skipped two-wire line (6)intended for connection to the measuring system.
For measuring currents and voltages of the small quantities of nano - and microportal - requires a high degree of noise immunity, which entailed the use in the experiment all-metal shielding structures.
Inside the housing (1) (3) is the water-containing membrane (3)which is fixed on the surface of the solid dielectric, such as polikor (5), with metallized upper and lower surfaces (4)are electrically interconnected and all-metal housing of the cell. Besides, the contact of the upper plate of the membrane (10) lying on her plate of copper foil is electroplated. In turn, the lower surface of the plate membrane (11) is fixed on the upper surface of the metallized paligorova plate (5). Membrane photoelectrically cell is connected to the input of a shielded two-wire line through the choke (7) and bushing capacitors (8)forming the filter of low frequencies. Upper and lower planar electrodes of the membrane in contact with water, have a deviation from parallelism relative to each other, not exceeding about 0.1-0.3 μm to 2 cm2. Distance was maintained with the help of fiberglass strands calibrated diameter (14).
Shielded photoelectrically cell (Figure 3) as an electric generator works as follows. Aqueous membrane (Figure 2), located inside the metal housing is a (1) shielded photoelectrically cells (Figure 3), generates the voltage which, through the choke (7) and bushing capacitors (8) is fed to the input two-wire shielded lines. If the output line to connect the load, then after it starts leaking electric current.
As the experiments showed, the electrical shielded hydroelectric cells remain virtually unchanged for a long time (up to tens of hours). Changes in the electrical parameters of the cells begin almost by evaporation appreciable quantities of water from the water-containing membrane. The authors have not taken any special constructive measures for sealing the cells, preventing the evaporation of water from them during operation. This question is not crucial. It is well known that existing at present technologies allow to easily manufacture the device, providing a complete seal slurry layers in a similar established authors devices excluding evaporation and leakage of water from the water layer.
The cell as an electric generator works as follows. Hydrocodoneusa cell produces a voltage, which, through chokes and feedthrough capacitors to the input two-wire shielded lines. If the output line to connect the load, then through it will start FR the Katia electric current. Several hydrocodoneusa cells can be interconnected in parallel or in a serial manner. In the first case, this leads to an increase of the operating current, the second is to increase the operating voltage.
For the manufacture of boundary electrodes hydrocodoneusa membranes were used the following materials:
- plate single-crystal of silicon with its own conductivity and purity 999,999999% with surface polished 14 class;
- silicon wafer, coated with carbon nanotubes with a diameter of from 30 to 250 angstroms, is grown in the form of thin films with thickness of 0.1-0.2 microns;
plates nanoporous silicon of the same purity n-type and p-type;
plates of polished glass carbon;
plates of glass carbon with nanoscale surface heterogeneity;
plates of glass carbon with nanostring inhomogeneities, coated with a thin film of carbon nanotubes;
- silicon wafer, coated with a thin film of vanadium dioxide nanostructures with a size of nanograins 100-120 nm in height and 80-100 nanometers in width, located close to each other on the surface of the substrate;
- plate polished chrome; chromium plate nanosilicate;
- gold plate polished and nanosilicate; plate polished tantalum and nanosegregated the E.
To prepare hydrocodoneusa cells were used:
the bidistillate water; powders of diamond №5, №14, №28; corundum powders №10, №28, №40; powder coral calcium Alka-mine of natural origin; powder coral calcium Alka-mine of artificial origin; dust glass (crushed glass with a particle size of 5-10 microns).
The experimental results showed that the introduction of pure water soluble contaminants (acids, alcohols, saline) even in extremely small concentrations (less than 1%), yet do not cause a noticeable increase in conductivity of the water (less than 10%) and the possible formation of concentration cells leads to increased hydroelectric effect.
It should be emphasized that in order to ensure the purity of the water layers, the reproducibility of the experimental results and improve the accuracy of measurements in all experiments as plates, enclosing between them a thin aqueous layer, was used fully monolithic conductive plate. And only these plates on surfaces in contact with the water layer was in turn nanoscale structural or parametric heterogeneity. It is particularly important that in this case there is no need for technologically difficult to merge conductive enabled, the on the surface of the wafer, containing between an aqueous layer, the common power bus, because the use of monolithic conductive layer automatically solves this problem.
The results of experimental studies of the sources of electricity on the basis of a system of contacts nanostructured conductive surfaces with a thin water layer.
Below in tables 1-7 shows the results of experiments.
In tables S - area of the plate. In column tables "Time" the last digit corresponds to the termination of change of voltage and current.
1. The way to obtain electrical energy, which consists in the fact that a water layer of thickness from a few nanometers to a fraction of a mm is placed between the plates, which are made of conductive inert with respect to water materials with obtaining hydroelectric EF the project, connected to the conductive plates of external electrical load and shoot with these conductive plates electrical energy, provided that the surface of the conductive plate in contact with the layer of water that are nanostructured.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the surfaces of the conductive plates in contact with the layer of water, perform nanoscale structural heterogeneity in the form of projections and/or depressions and/or nano-parametric heterogeneity.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least one of the plates is made of a dielectric with conductive inclusions, and the inclusions are combined into one electrical bus.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the layer of water injected chemical and/or mechanical impurities at concentrations less than 1%.
5. The electric power source containing at least two conductive plates, placed with the ability to connect to external load and are made of inert with respect to water of the material between the plates is placed a layer of water of thickness from fractions of a millimeter to nanometer with the formation of at least one isolated hydroelectric cells, while the surface of the wafer in contact with the layer of water, nanostructured.
6. Source according to claim 5, characterized in that the surface is the surface of conductive plates, in contact with the layer of water that have nanoscale structural heterogeneity in the form of projections and/or depressions and/or nano-parametric heterogeneity.
7. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that at least one of the conductive plates made of dielectric with conductive inclusions, and the inclusions are combined into one electrical bus with the ability to connect to an external load.
8. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that at least two isolated cells are connected in series in a single circuit.
9. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that at least two isolated cells are connected in parallel in a single circuit.
10. Source according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the water layer further comprises a chemical and/or mechanical impurities at concentrations less than 1%.
11. Source according to claim 5, characterized in that it contains at least three conductive plates made of water-insoluble material, which is placed between at least two layers of water.
SUBSTANCE: method of energy generation consists in that, within some segment of space L, the saturating magnetic field is generated for magnet-viscous substance which is shifted within the specified space segment at speed V value of which is matched with time constant τ of magnet-viscous substance viscosity, e.g. by formula L/V≈2.5τ. As a result, mechanical energy is generated due to arising force, attached to magnet-viscous substance saturating magnetic field at collinear orientation to vector of speed V. The device contains constant magnet and associated magnet-viscous substance made in the form of disk of radius R connected with its rotation axis. The disk edge is placed in localised space of length L by tangent to disk of saturating magnetic field of constant magnet. Device start-up is carried out by single application of pulse moment from external source sufficient enough to provide device start-up. Time constant of magnet-viscous substance is selected from the expression τ=0.36L/ω0R, where ω0 is value of disk angular speed corresponding to maximum rotary moment.
EFFECT: generation of energy due rotation.
2 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps, physics.
SUBSTANCE: rotator comprises a housing, permanent magnets arranged in the housing and pistons with the opposing like poles, a crankshaft, a flywheel, inductors arranged on the said permanent magnets and a brush-and-commutator device. To run the crankshaft, a cyclic interaction of magnets located in the housing and pistons is used. The housing magnetic flux breakage is effected using the said brush-and-commutator device.
EFFECT: rotator higher efficiency and output.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used as a device for converting the magnetic field energy into mechanical rotary motion. The magnetoviscous rotator contains a permanent magnet with homogenous or inhomogenous magnetic field between its poles and a ferromagnetic disk (ring) with an axis of rotation, linked with each other. The ferromagnetic disk is made of ferromagnetic material with magnetic viscosity, the relaxation constant of which τ relative to the ferromagnetic disk (ring) rotation period T is selected, for example, according to the condition: τ˜TX0/4.4πR where X0 is the length of the magnetic gap between the permanent magnet poles. An edge of the ferromagnetic disk (ring) with the radius R is placed in the said magnetic gap. The magnetic field strength in the permanent magnet gap is selected as saturating for the ferromagnetic disk (ring) material.
EFFECT: power efficiency increase.
FIELD: automotive industry.
SUBSTANCE: starter-generator comprises two-phase rectifying inductive machine with electromagnetic asymmetry, transistor commutator made of the minimum number of switches. The main winding of each of two phases is connected with the power source through a transistor of the inverter. Each recuperating winding of two phases is connected with the power source through a diode of inverter.
EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced losses.
FIELD: pulse engineering; magnetic energy cumulation with magnetic flux compression by means of explosive-material shock wave.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator has composite disk-charge shell installed in each magazine and assembled of set of U-shaped fragments of current-conductive material. Return current-carrying conductor is made in the form of set of parallel strips whose quantity depends on number of fragments of deformable conductive shell set apart within magazine with corrugated film insulation in-between. In addition, proposed method for magazine manufacture includes installation of T-section disk-charge supporting member into disk-shaped mold. Then liquid explosive material is poured into mold and cooled down. In the process shell fragments are cut out of thin-sheet conductive material, bent to obtain U-shape, and positioned through their parts open in inner radius on explosive disk charge to form composite shell of charge. After that magazines separated by insulating gaskets are installed on central conductor and film insulator in the form of round sheet with central hole is placed at output end of generator on outer surfaces of magazines. Then return current-carrying conductor strips are installed and insulator folds formed in the process are entered into clearances between return current-carrying conductor strips, and shielding cover is placed onto this structure.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability, simplified design of generator, enhanced electric strength of insulation, facilitated generator manufacture and assembly, as well as reduced cost of these procedures.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics; using energy of permanent magnets to set rotor in motion.
SUBSTANCE: proposed magnetic motor has permanent magnets and ferromagnetic rotor in the form of ring or hollow ball accommodating first permanent magnet fixed therein. Second horseshoe permanent magnet is fixed outside the rotor. Magnetic fields set up by first and second permanent magnets are relatively orthogonal in rotor location area and act upon the latter with different magnetic forces. Time constant τ of rotor ferromagnetic material polarity reversal τ ≈ 0.09/ωst, where ωst is rated steady state angular velocity of rotor. Rotor revolves due to difference in forces acting upon this rotor while it is being saturated by mentioned permanent magnets which fits torques different in value and opposite in direction applied to mentioned rotor; their difference dictates resultant torque accelerating rotor to angular velocity limited by load torque (including friction of rotation) and magnetic viscosity of rotor ferromagnetic material at preset time constant of its polarity reversal process. Mentioned difference in forces acting on rotor is caused by difference in reluctance of respective magnetic circuits and difference in angles to rotor ring radius at which these forces are acting.
EFFECT: ability of setting rotor in motion in crossed magnetic fields of permanent magnets.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics, possible use for producing rotary movement with usage of energy of magnetic field of constant magnets.
SUBSTANCE: ferro-magneto-viscous rotator consists of connected constant magnet having homogeneous or heterogeneous magnetic field between its poles and ferromagnetic disk (ring) with rotation axis. The latter is made of ferromagnetic material with magnetic viscosity, relaxation constant τ of which relatively to rotation period T of ferromagnetic disk (ring) is selected, for example, in accordance to condition: τ˜TX0/4,4πR, where X0 - length of magnetic space between poles of constant magnets, where the edge of ferromagnetic disk (ring) of radius R is positioned. Strength of magnetic field in the constant magnet space is selected to be saturating for the material of ferromagnetic disk (ring). Probability of rotation is ensured due to lagging of magnetic "gravity center" of ferromagnetic disk (ring) in dynamics of rotary movement thereof, which "gravity center" belongs to the part of ferromagnetic disk (ring) positioned in the field of constant magnet from center of attraction of constant magnet, creating force of attraction from the constant magnet side, applied to edge part of ferromagnetic disk (ring). Mechanism for drawing in ferromagnetic with heterogeneous magnetic field with magnetic sensitivity depending on saturating magnetic field, and mechanism for lagging of aforementioned value in dynamics of ferromagnetic disk (ring) rotation due to magnetic viscosity, are combined.
EFFECT: production of rotary movement of ferromagnetic disk (ring) in a field of constant magnet.
FIELD: electrical engineering; multipurpose motors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor has frame carrying incomplete-turn current-carrying winding. Capacitor plates are arranged on opposing sides of winding for turning about frame axis or separately. Mentioned plates are physically coupled with current-carrying winding and electrically isolated therefrom by means of insulation. Capacitor and current-carrying winding form oscillatory electric circuit. Movement of entire structure is ensured due to interaction between self-induction forces and electric charges across capacitor plates produced in oscillatory electric circuit.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency due to direct electrical-to-mechanical energy conversion.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electrical energy generation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator has capacitor with plates made of current conducting materials distinguished by different electronic work function; this capacitor is connected to capacitor of active load or that incorporating active component. Capacitor charge caused by contact potential difference between its plates performs useful work by means of capacitance cyclic variation device (mechanical one that functions to vary plate-to-plate distance or plate surface area, insulator displacement, or otherwise changing its properties). Generator depends for its operation on reducing energy of capacitor charged by contact potential difference of its plates by external action and for yielding electrical energy only at output.
EFFECT: facilitated electrical energy generation.
FIELD: technology for transformation of chemical energy of explosive substance to electromagnetic energy.
SUBSTANCE: autonomous magnetic cumulative generator consists of spiral conductor, current-conductive liner with a charge of substance and initiation system, magnetic stream compression hollow, load and a system of permanent magnets, containing at least one magnet, positioned above spiral conductor with magnetization of parallel surface of spiral conductor, system of permanent magnets contains an additional magnet, positioned above spiral conductor on the side of load with magnetization of perpendicular surface of spiral conductor, while force lines of magnetic field of a system of magnets and in the compression hollow form a closed contour.
EFFECT: decreased dissipation flows beyond limits of magnetic flow compression contour and, as a result, increased starting energy in compression contour of magnetic cumulative generator.
1 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to development of secondary chemical DC sources, particularly, to conversion of chemical power into electrical power. In compliance with this invention, the proposed method of power accumulation comprises using hydrogen as a reducer and chlorine as an oxidiser, effecting an electrolysis at a 0.56 MPa and charging-discharging the accumulator adjusted subject to the pressure value.
EFFECT: higher efficiency accumulation and conversion of chemical power, method accessibility and economy.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: power engineering; off-line electrical energy supplies.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is organization of leak-tight space with evaporation and condensation regions for liquid coolant, as well as condensate recirculation from condensation region to evaporation one by way of recirculation. Used as electrochemical generator is concentration-type functional unit incorporating two identical porous catalytically active water-repelling electrodes built around ion-penetrable membrane with electrolyte layer disposed in-between .Unit is disposed within casing whose space free of steam phase is filled with hydrogen used to form gas-to-steam interface when energy generation process goes on. Functional unit is disposed within casing both in evaporation region and in condensation one; it is also physically designed and spatially arranged so as to eliminate contact between at least part of effective surface on work medium side and steam phase. Gas volume at working pressure is chosen so as to ensure disposition of gas-steam interface primarily in middle part of heat-transfer region on side of ionized hydrogen neutralizing second electrode when installation is functioning within desired temperature gradient range.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities, simplified design of installation implementing proposed method.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering; fuel cells.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is meant for electrical energy generation in manufacture of chemical products and also for recovery of various wastes, as well as for manufacturing chemical by-products in the course of electrical energy generation. To this end use is made of double-chamber electrochemical cell provided with graphite electrodes, porous diaphragm, and electrolyte. Casing-head gas is supplied to anode chamber and air, to cathode chamber through bubbler. Auxiliary electrodes joined together by means of dielectric spindle made of shock-resistant polystyrene are placed in cathode and anode chambers. Anode is provided with blades. Electrolyte is passed from electrode space through sorbent or ion-exchange resin of ion-exchange filter. Electrical energy is generated from waste water.
EFFECT: reduced power requirement for purifying waste water, ability of producing new valuable chemical commodities.
17 cl, 1 dwg, 10 ex
FIELD: storage batteries and their charge and discharge.
SUBSTANCE: proposed storage battery has jar, electrolyte, as well as two plates in the form of carbon anode and copper cathode dipped in electrolyte; novelty is that 5-15% aqueous solution of copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used as electrolyte. Anode is made in the form of felt gasket of corrugated fibers, 0.1 to 1 μm in diameters, secured on corrugated strip or on inner surface of corrugated cylinder; cathode is made in the form of copper strip or copper cylinder. Charging process involves connection of external power supply negative terminal to corrugated plate and its positive one, to copper plate; in the process the latter is partially dissolved and its copper in the form of positive charged ions Cu2+ changes into copper sulfate aqueous solution; copper ions precipitate in the form of thin copper layer, 0.1 to 1 μm thick, on thin corrugated fibers. Battery discharge is effected by connecting external load.
EFFECT: simplified design and reduced mass.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed electrochemical cell has first working electrode 32, first counter-electrode 34, second working electrode 36, and second counter-electrode 38; electrodes are spaced apart so that reaction products from first counter-electrode 34 enter first working electrode 32 and reaction products from first and second counter-electrodes 34 and 38 do not enter second working electrode 36. Invention specification also gives method for using such electrochemical cells and for evaluating concentration of reduced or oxidized form of oxidizing-reducing material.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of concentration evaluation.
32 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mixture for production of cellular concrete, which contains cement or cement and filler, water and dry cellulating mixture. Dry cellulating mixture contains the following components, wt %: carbonic nanostructures - 0.7; caustic soda - 3.3; plastifier - 6.6; gasifier - 24; quicklime and/or slaked lime, and/or chlorinated lime, and/or chalk - 65.4. Dry cellulating mixture makes 0.35-1.5% from cement mass.
EFFECT: increase of plastic strength and concrete volume with simultaneous reduction of material density.