Device of contact burn detection in commutation equipment

FIELD: physics, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns device of contact burn detection in switch contacts of electric commutation device. Contact burn is detected on at least one opening and closing switch contact couple in commutation device. Device includes light guide and detector, where light emitted by at least one light source is fed to light guide and directed over light guide to detector. Light guide is positioned against at least one couple of switch contacts in such pattern that intensity of light fed to light guide and measured by detector decreases at the growth of contact burn particles number, appearing due to contact burn in electric commutation device.

EFFECT: extended equipment inventory for contact-free control of contact burn by optic electronic devices without removal of commutation equipment from its operation place.

11 cl, 6 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a device for determining the burning of the contacts in the switching devices. In particular, the present invention relates to a device for determining the burning of the contacts on the switching contacts of the electrical switching device according to the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims.

In an electric switching device of opening and closing the switch contacts when switching currents cause switching of electric arcs between the switching contacts. These switching electric arc lead to greater burning of the contacts on the switching contacts and thus to wear the switching contacts. As this wear affects switching capacity switching apparatus, the burning of the contacts of the switching contacts must be monitored.

From application EP 1022904 A1 known to use the camera for graphical monitoring of wear of the switching contacts. Another famous application EP 1022904 A1 a device for monitoring wear is digitally controlled using a counter cycles or digital control based on the summation of the currents off.

From the application DE 10109952 A1 is known a device which can detect emergency electric arc in elektricheska distribution device through the light guide. This coming from emerging emergency electric arc light radially injected into the optical fiber and directed to the detector. Then in the schema definition emergency electric arc introduced and detektirovanie light will learn that there is a new emergency electrical arc.

The present invention is to specify a different device for monitoring wear of the switching contacts in electrical switching devices.

This problem is solved by a device with the features of the main claim, and the burning of the contacts is invoked on at least one pair of opening and closing the switching contacts in the switching device, and the device comprises at least one optical fiber and at least one detector, and leaving at least one light source light is introduced into at least one light guide and directed by the light guide to at least one detector, and at least one light guide relative to the at least one pair of switching contacts is positioned so that the measured at least one detector the intensity of the light, entered in at least one optical fiber, decreases with increasing number of particles of burning of the contacts that have arisen due to the burning of contacts in electrical switching apparatus is ATA.

With the increase in the number of switching cycles and thus increase the number of duplicate arcs, due to the resulting burning of the contacts on the switching contacts is an increasing accumulation of particles of burning of the contacts and thereby increasing the degree of pollution in an electric switching device. According to the basic principle of the present invention that increasing the degree of contamination attract as measures to assess the burning of the contacts and thereby to control the wear of the switching contacts of the electrical switching apparatus. According to the present invention that the degree of contamination is determined using at least one waveguide and at least one detector. This means that one or more of the optical fibers relative to the at least one subject to the control of the switching contact is positioned so that the exiting from the light source and entering one of the fiber optic light with increasing number of particles of burning of the contacts and thereby increase the degree of pollution is increasingly attenuated. Received in one or more optical fibers, the light is directed by the light guide to one or more detectors. This light guide may direct the received light precisely to one or more of the detective the frames. On the other hand, received several optical fibers, which together are assigned to at least one switching contact, the light may then be directed only to a single detector. In all these cases the intensity of the light introduced into at least one optical fiber, is measured by at least one detector. On the basis of the measured intensity received by the light guide light in a given state of a switching device, that is, for example, in the case of a new switching device can then, by re-measuring and assessing the intensity received in the at least one light guide light to control the burning of the contacts and thereby the wear of at least one given in accordance switching contact. Corresponding to the invention the device thus allows to produce a non-contact optoelectronic control means. In addition, corresponding to the invention, the device allows the determination of burning of the contacts without having to remove the switching device from its own exploitation. The necessary calibration of the measured intensity on the state of the switching contacts and thereby on the degree of wear depends on the proper discharge switching device and can osnovyvat is, for example, empirically determined values.

The preferred image as a light source appropriate for the invention of devices involved itself caused by opening and closing the switching contacts of the electric arc. In order to use different intensities of light of different electric arcs, as appropriate should be computing the normalization. In this regulation should be included, in particular, possible changes in the intensity of light of the electric arc, which may appear with increasing burning of the contacts. Due to this regulation when the assessment can proceed from the fact that the intensity coming from the electric arc light is approximately constant. Thus on the basis of measurements of the intensity of the light emanating from the electric arc, weakened increasingly particles of burning of the contacts and put at least one waveguide, it is possible to conclude about the burning of the contacts and thereby about the wear of the switching contacts.

The following form of execution, in particular, as a light source provides a light-emitting diode, which together with at least one light guide forms a photoelectric relay. While photovoltaic relay relative to at least the e of one pair of switching contacts is located so as that coming from a light-emitting diode and put in at least one optical fiber, the light is attenuated by the particles of burning of the contacts located in the space between the light-emitting diode and the light guide. If the preferred way is usually accepted in the trade of photovoltaic relays that contain exactly one fiber and one light-emitting diode, the wear can be controlled by simple means.

In a further form of execution as the source of light provides additional light guide. Because the fiber itself is a passive element, of course, first you need to enter appropriate in this additional light guide light from the means of illumination, such as light-emitting diode. If this extra fiber light guide so that the light goes on one of its face sides, this end side may be provided corresponding to the invention of the device as a light source and to form together with the first optical fiber photoelectric relay. Due to this, it is possible to arrange everything you need for the appropriate electrical components of the invention as a means of illumination or detectors outside the actual switching device.

In an alternative form of the light from functioning as the East is of cnica light of additional fiber guide so, he goes radially along its length. Consequently, the DC output of the light remaining in the fiber intensity with increasing length, i.e. with increasing distance from the means of illumination, constantly decreases. Due to this, with increasing distance from the funds glow progressively reduces the intensity of the emergent light. Through a suitable arrangement of the additional optical fiber relative to the subject to control a pair of switching contacts thereby there is a possibility to enter a local weighting when determining the burning of contacts.

In a further form of execution between the light source and at least one light guide plate provided, which has a transmittance for light coming from the light source, and which relative to the switching contacts arranged so that the plate can be deposited particles of burning of the contacts. With increasing burning of the contacts, then the plate will be delayed more and more particles of burning of the contacts and thereby the transmittance for passing through the plate light is more and more reduced. Based on the resulting decrease the intensity introduced into the light guide of the light can then make a conclusion about the degree of burning of the contacts and thereby about the wear commutation the s contacts.

Corresponding to the invention, the device allows to control at least one pair of switching contacts, i.e. one or more pairs of switching contacts control joint location of at least one optical fiber and at least one detector. This is a joint arrangement then allows you to make a blanket statement regarding the burning of contacts on at least one pair of switching contacts. The following form of execution, in particular, for each pair of multi-pole switching contacts of a switching device may be provided in at least one optical fiber. Thus it is possible to control separately the degree of burning and thereby the wear of individual pairs of switching contacts.

If the signal corresponding to the measured at least one detector of the intensity of light transmitted to the actuator unit for an electrical switching apparatus, the switching apparatus can be controlled this starting block. If the measured light intensity due to the increasing number of particles of burning of the contacts deviates below a certain value, the actuator unit determines that reaches a critical degree of wear and will prevent the further inclusion of an electric switching device./p>

If the measured at least one detector, the light intensity by appropriate means, for example wireless transmit for further assessment, evaluation, and thereby control the switching device can also be remote from the switching device. In particular, it is possible to make remote the alarm about the state of the switching contacts during operation of the power switch. Thereby, it is possible to recognize in advance the deterioration of the switching contact, and thereby to make possible preventive maintenance.

The preferred image corresponding to the invention the device is used to determine the burning of contacts in case of low voltage circuit breakers or contactors.

The invention and the preferred forms of execution described in the following in more detail by the following drawings. When this show:

figure 1 is a schematic depiction of a first form of execution with light-emitting diode as a light source,

figure 2 - the second form of execution with additional fiber as a light source,

figure 3 is a schematic depiction of a third form of execution with an electric arc as the source of light,

4 is a schematic depiction of a fourth form of the plate between the source is light and fiber,

figure 5 - location of optical fibers for multiple pairs of switching contacts.

6 - positions of the three optical fibers for the three pairs of switching contacts.

Shown in figure 1-4 examples for a more simple description of the present invention always contain exactly only one light source Q, one optical fiber LWL to enter outgoing from the light source and one detector D for one pair of switching contacts. In more complex devices, instead of showing a single optical fiber LWL can be provided by at least one light guide and instead of a single detector D at least one detector corresponding to the invention of the device.

1 to 4 show various forms of electrical switching apparatus S. the Switching unit S contains the first Q1 and the second K1' switching contacts. When one of the switching contacts is suitably movable so that when the respective control contacts can be moved towards each other or away from each other. Consisting of the switching contacts K1 and K1' pair of switching contacts can then switching the respective switching currents. When opening and closing the pairs of switching contacts K1, K1' when switching large currents, which typically switched into the low-voltage circuit breakers and is in the contactors, between the switching contacts K1, K1' an electric arc. This electric arc leads when increasing the number of switching cycles by increasing the burning of the switching contacts K1 and K1' and thereby to increased wear of the contacts of a switching device S. If the damage is too large, the switching unit S is no longer able to reliably switch to be switching currents and must be replaced.

To determine the wear is already known various methods and devices. Using some examples of how to perform needs to be described now corresponding to the invention a device for controlling, i.e. to determine the burning of contacts. For this purpose, as shown in figure 1, provided by the optical fiber LWL and the light source Q. the Preferred image of the light source Q is a light emitting diode, which together with the optical fiber LWL normal forms adopted in the trade of photovoltaic relay LS. Outgoing from the light source Q light has a certain intensity depending on the type of light source and its control. Accordingly, the position of the light source Q and the optical fiber LWL certain part of the light introduced into the optical fiber LWL and sent them to the detector D. In the new switching device S is measured by the detector D intensity is introduced into the light guide LW light has a certain value, that is, the preset value. With increasing burning of the contacts on the switching contacts K1, K1' the number of particles of burning of the contacts in the housing G of the switching device S will increase. If these particles of burning contacts now fall in the region between the light source Q and the optical fiber LWL, the outgoing from the light source Q and entering the optical fiber LWL light is attenuated by these particles of burning of the contacts. This means that the larger particles of burning of the contacts has inside G, and thus in the region between the light source Q and the optical fiber LWL, the less will be measured by the detector D intensity is introduced into the optical fiber LWL light. If the relationship between the burning of contacts and number switching device S of the particles of burning of the contacts once installed, use caused by the number of particles of burning of the contacts reduce the intensity introduced into the optical fiber LWL light you can control the wear of the switching contacts K1 and K1' and thereby the wear of the switching device S.

Figure 2 shows in more detail another form of the electrical switching device S with two switching contacts K1 and K1'. Due to the one shown here form the switching contacts K1 and K1' just in the marked area will receive increased damage to the of Tachov and thereby increased pollution. If it is locally increased pollution should be taken into account when determining the burning of contacts, it is preferable further development of the relevant invention device. Shown in figure 2, the form of execution corresponding to the invention the device comprises a single optical fiber LWL for the introduction of light and additional light guide LWLQ, which is made as a light source. Shown here is the form of the light from the glow of Q on both ends of the additional fiber LWLQ enter into this acting as a light source of additional fiber. Additional fiber LWLQ when this is done in such a way that sent it out along its length radially. Due to this constant output light intensity extending radially from the additional fiber LWLQ light with increasing distance from the means of illumination Q reduced more and more. This means that in the case shown in figure 2 locations in the marked area of the additional fiber LWLQ will come out light with very low intensity. Because this limited dashed line region, however, is also the region with the high level of pollution, radially extending from the additional fiber LWLQ with already reduced intensity, the light is attenuated more strongly than in other areas. Those with the most then also included in the set, for example, in parallel to the additional fiber LWLQ the optical fiber LWL light in the marked area always has less intensity than the light that is injected into the optical fiber LWL in other areas. As introduced in the optical fiber LWL and directed to the detector D of the light intensity is determined by all spatial introduced components of light received from the marked area the light will enter into the determination of the intensity and thus in the assessment of burning contact with a different weighting than the light entered in other fields. Along with shown in figure 2 location of the fiber LWL and additional fiber LWLQ you can imagine many of the locations covered by the invention. So possible is also the location at which the optical fiber LWL and LWLQ are not made in the form of a meander, but only in the form of a simple loop. Further, one can imagine that both fiber LWL and LWLQ positioned between the optical fiber LWL and additional fiber LWLQ is a pair of switching contacts K1, K1'. Further, as already described before, instead of a single optical fiber LWL and a single detector D can be provided also in the form of the multiple optical fibers or detectors to control a pair of switching contacts.

In the schematically presented in figure 3 third form of execution with the this by opening and closing the switching contacts K1, K1' electric arc itself is the source of light Q. Then additionally required are only one waveguide LWL and one detector D to determine the relevant invention device, the burning of the contacts and thereby to control the wear of the switching device S. With increasing burning of the contacts between the electric arc Q and waveguide LWL number created as a result of burning of the contacts of the particles of burning of contacts will increase and thereby coming from electric arc Q light before entering the light guide weakened more and more. Thus, again by the intensity introduced into the waveguide LWL and directed to the detector D of the light can be controlled indirectly wear a switching device. Possibly changing during operation, i.e. with the increase of the amount of the switching device of the switching cycles, the intensity coming from the electric arc Q light must be determined empirically and be counted in the control with the appropriate normalization.

Figure 4 shows schematically a fourth form of execution, in which again the light source Q is the electric arc Q. Here, between the electric arc Q and fiber LWL provided by the plate P, which can accumulate particles of burning of the contacts. This oznacza is t, with the increase of burning of the contacts on the plate P is delayed more and more particles of burning of the contacts, whereby the transmittance for passing from the electric arc to the light guide of the light becomes smaller, that is, light is increasingly attenuated. Thus on the basis of intensity introduced into the optical fiber LWL and directed to the detector D of the light can indirectly control the wear of the switching device. Shown in figure 4 the plate P can be used without problems in combination with one of the forms of execution shown in figure 1 or 2. Herself plate P can also be a window in the housing, and the light from the electric arc is passed through the plate P to the outside of the housing of the optical fiber LWL and injected into him. Along with described so far forms, you can imagine many other forms of execution or combinations of devices that correspond to the invention while performing a basic principle of the present invention, namely indirect control of burning of the contacts of the switching contacts K1, K1', with particles of burning of the contacts and thereby deterioration of the electrical switching device S.

So far the present invention has been described only in relation to electrical switching apparatus S with one pair of switching contacts K1, K1'. Figure 5 shows the et as an example of a possible arrangement of the optical fiber LWL for multi-pole switching device with three pairs of switching contacts. The light guide has three loops, each of the loops given in accordance with one pair of switching contacts of a switching device. Not shown here are the light sources. They can be, however, as explained in the above examples, or the electric arc or an additional source of light, in particular light-emitting diode or additional fiber. The most for each of the pairs of switching contacts can measure the intensity of light coming from the corresponding light source Q and introduced into the optical fiber LWL and directed it to the detector D, and then transfer to the starting block A. This starting block And depending on the measured light intensity to control the electrical switching apparatus. If due to an increasing number of particles of burning contacts the measured light intensity deviates below a certain value for only one of the pairs of switching contacts, the actuator unit And detects that at least for this pair of switching contacts reaches a critical degree of wear and stops further switching all pairs of switching contacts multipole electrical switching device S. If a pair of multi-pole switching contacts of the switching apparatus is ATA must be controlled separately, as shown in Fig.6, for each pair of switching contacts you can provide your own fiber LWL1, LWL2 and LWL3, and related detector D1, D2 and D3. If a separate pair of switching contacts switching offset time and this information is available to the detector, the three detectors D1, D2 and D3, as shown in Fig.6, the dashed line, may be replaced by a single detector D. Measured by detectors D1, D2 and D3 or detector D intensity can then be transferred to the starting block, and he can react accordingly, as described above.

1. A device for determining the burning of the contacts on the switching contacts (K1, K1') electric switching device (S), and the burning of the contacts is invoked on at least one pair of opening and closing the switching contacts (K1, K1') in the switching device (S), with at least one optical fiber (LWL) and at least one detector (D), and leaving at least one light source (Q) light is introduced into at least one optical fiber (LWL) and guided by the fiber (LWL) to at least one detector (D), characterized in that at least one optical fiber (LWL) is located relative to the at least one pair of switching contacts (K1, K1') so that the measured what about the at least one detector (D) the intensity of the light, entered in at least one optical fiber (LWL), decreases with increasing number of particles of burning of the contacts that have arisen due to the burning of contacts in an electrical switching device (S).

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the light source (Q) is generated by a pair of opening and closing the switching contacts (K1, K1') electric arc.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least one light source (Q) is a light-emitting diode, which together with the at least one optical fiber (LWL) forms a photoelectric relay (LS).

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least one light source (Q) is the additional fiber (LWLQ).

5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the light from the additional light guide (LWLQ) acts on one of its end sides, and this end face with at least one optical fiber (LWL) forms a photoelectric relay (LS).

6. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that the light from the additional light guide (LWLQ) is radially along its length.

7. Device according to any one of the preceding claims 1 to 6, characterized in that between the light source (Q) and at least one light guide (LWL1, LWL2, LWL3) is a plate (P), which has a transmittance for outgoing from the light source (Q) light, and which races alogena relative to the at least one pair of switching contacts (K1, K1') so that the particles of burning of the contacts are deposited on the plate (P), and the transmittance decreases with increasing number of particles of burning of the contacts.

8. Device according to any one of the preceding claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the pair of switching contacts multipole switching device (S) assigned to the light guide (LWL1, LWL2, LWL3), and fiber (LWL1, LWL2, LWL3) is located relative to the assigned pair of switching contacts so that measured by the detector (D) the intensity of the light introduced through the light guide (LWL1, LWL2, LWL3), is a measure of burning of the contacts assigned to a pair of switching contacts.

9. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the detector (D) transmits a signal corresponding to the measured intensity at the starting block (A) and the starting block (A) depending on the signal controls the switching device (S).

10. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that measured by the detector (D) the intensity transmitted through a communication means for further evaluation.

11. Electrical switching apparatus with a device according to any one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the electric switching device (S) is a low-voltage circuit breaker or contactor.



 

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