# Method of two-phase mixture flow rate evaluation

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: flow rate of two-phase vapour-liquid-gas mixture is evaluated on the basis of mixture density and dynamic pressure. Density is evaluated by measuring static pressure difference in two mutually antithetical points of horizontally focused section of channel. Dynamic pressure is evaluated by measuring pressure difference of end and stern of integrating tube mounted normally to channel axis.

EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy of annular dispersed flow and stratified flow; ease and efficiency of implementation.

5 dwg

The invention relates to rhodomelaceae technique of vapor-gas-liquid mixtures and can be used in the determination of two-phase flow mixture in the study of emergency operation on large stands.

In the study of regimes in the bench of one of the Central problems is the determination of two-phase flow mixture in various elements of the circuit. Typically, the definition of two-phase flow mixture should be substantially non-stationary conditions, when the characteristic time of the process under investigation is not more than 0.2 C.

There is a method of determining the flow of two-phase mixtures, including the measurement of differential pressure across the diaphragm is placed normal to the axis of the channel and defining a flow of two-phase mixtures based on dependencies

Ω the orifice of the diaphragm, m^{2};

ε - the ratio of the flow;

α - coefficient of discharge;

G_{cm}- two-phase flow mixture.

(The Kremlin P.P. (Flow meters and counters number of substances. The Handbook. Ed 5-E. Rev. and additional C-P. "Publisher "Polytechnic". 2002).

The disadvantages of the method are as follows:

1. Measurement of G_{cm}using the diaphragm only possible stationary regimes of two-phase flow mixture. In unsteady flow conditions is muhtadee mixture (G_{
cm}=f(τ)) the definition of two-phase flow mixture through the aperture problematic. The latter is due to the fact that in this case it is necessary to know the number of values are difficult to estimate.

For determination of the equation (1) flow two-phase mixture, it is necessary to know the ratio of εthe polytropic exponent n and the true volume concentration phases. The most difficult task is determining the true volume concentration of the phases in the compressed section. Reliable direct measurements of these quantities no. Therefore, for calculations using any hypothesis about the structure of the flow in the compressed section after the diaphragm. The most famous is the assumption that the fluid flow through the aperture is not accelerated, w_{W1}=w_{I}in the compressed section of the stream has a homogeneous structure, the pressure in the liquid and the pair within any living section of flow of the mixture are equal. Depending on the model, the accuracy of the calculation of the concentration of the liquid, and hence the definition of G_{cm}different values (the concentration of the liquid may vary by 2-4 times).

2. The method has a limited application range. Limitations due to the fact that the motion of two-phase flow through the aperture in the narrow section quickly reached the speed of sound and is "locked" thread. In this case, the dimension R is vanishing two-phase mixture in principle not possible.

There is a method of determining the flow of two-phase mixtures, including the measurement of pressure differences on the two standard apertures arranged in series at a certain distance from each other sufficient to restore the interfacial equilibrium and mode (patterns) of course, perturbed first aperture (A.S. No. 1580171 the USSR. A method of measuring the flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture / Realities, Aaaaaa, Maariteltava. Daubenton // Opening. The invention 1990. BI No. 27).

Measurements on the two diaphragms provide a closed system the calculated ratios of two equations of the form (1) with the target flow rate and the density of the mixture.

h_{cm}the enthalpy of the mixture;

x_{1}, x_{2}- consumable mass steam quality of the stream before diaphragms;

r_{1}, r_{2}- heat of vaporization at pressure P_{1}and R_{2};

h_{1}', h_{2}' is the enthalpy of saturated liquid at pressure P_{1}and R_{2}.

The accuracy of the method depends on the accuracy of measurement of operational parameters (P_{1}, R_{2}that ΔP_{1}that ΔP_{2}) and calculated ratios.

The disadvantages of the method include the inability of its application in non-stationary regimes of two-phase flow mixture.

The method requires stabilization of the flow area between the diaphragms. Length stabilization for two-phase flows far exceeds that of single-phase flows. In this regard, the placement of the apertures in the channel is not always possible. In the non-stationary modes in the length of stabilization may change operating parameters (steam quality, pressure, speed, etc. in connection with this method in these conditions are not applicable.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the present invention is a method of determining flow rate of a two-phase mixture comprising determining the density and velocity of two-phase mixture, determined by measuring the dynamic pressure (Boltenko E.A., Choi V.R., Shvets VG Measurement of two-phase flow mixture in research emergency processes on large-scale integrated stands / thermal engineering, 2005, No. 3, p.10).

The speed of a mixture of W_{cm}based on the measurement of the dynamic pressure two-phase flow. Averaged over the cross section of the pipeline dynamic pressureis determined by measuring the force with which the stream acts on the perforated plate (drag the screen). Drag the screen is a perforated disc, covering 17% of the flow. The screen surface is perpendicular to the direction of flow. With one hand he pinned to the axis; a diametrically opposite part of his free PE elsaelsa under the action of a stream.
The offset of the screen is transmitted to the transducer of the dynamic pressure of the flow. The Converter dynamic pressure of flow is arranged so that the power flow effects on drag screen is transmitted through the lever and bearing on the sensor with variable magnetic resistance, the main element of which is a coil with a core. The moving core in the coil is limited by the spring stiffness which corresponds to the range of loads on the drag screen. The constant temperature of the sensor alternating magnetic resistance and a spring is provided by cooling water. Thus, the mechanical effect caused by the movement of the drag of the screen under the action of the stream is transformed into an electrical signal, the amplitude of which is directly proportional to this effect. Then the electric signal is converted into dynamic pressure of flow of the coolant using the results of the preliminary calibration of this measuring device at a known cost.

where F is the measured force;

But - sectional area of the stream;

S-factor, which is determined in the calibration phase flow.

Determination of the average density of the mixture ρ_{cm}carried out by the method of gamma prosvetki. The essence of the method γ-prosvetki consists of defining the parameter is in the mix to reduce the intensity γ
rays that permeate stream.

The flow of two-phase mixture is determined on the basis of the following dependencies

Where w_{cm}the average cross-sectional area of channel speed two-phase mixture;

ρ_{cm}the average cross-sectional area of channel density two-phase mixture;

A - a cross section of the channel.

It is shown that the method gives representative results in a limited range of operating parameters (she E.A., Choi V.R., Shvets VG Measurement of two-phase flow mixture in research emergency processes on large-scale integrated stands / thermal engineering, 2005, No. 3, p.10).

The latter is due to the fact that measurements using drag plate depend on the slip phase. In this regard, the method provides representative results in the case of a homogeneous two-phase mixture. In the dispersed-annular flow regime and stratified modes, error rate, and hence the flow of two-phase mixture will be significant. In addition, the application of the method is quite difficult, measuring equipment has a high cost.

The main disadvantages of the method:

1. The range of operating parameters, in which way representative, limited;

2. The complexity of the method and the high cost of the system for its implementation;

3. Large geometric dimensions and therefore Bo is greater than the metal insert, makes a significant contribution to the heat capacity, which cannot be evaluated and properly account when measuring in dynamic modes. Stored in metal heat distorts the physical picture of the flow and leads to significant errors in the determination of the characteristics of the stream.

4. Because of the design features of the insert when working in conditions of high pressures and temperatures and, in particular, under certain scenarios, experiment with the Gulf of cold water and the occurrence of water hammer in danger of disclosure of the flanges. Depressurization of the stand leads to the disruption of the start and huge costs.

We propose a method of determining flow rate of a two-phase mixture comprising determining the density of a two-phase mixture and the dynamic pressure.

The technical result, which is aimed invention is to expand the range and representativeness of data obtained by two-phase flow mixture and reducing the cost of implementation of the method that is provided by the fact that the determination of the density of two-phase mixture is carried out by measuring the static pressure in two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel, and the dynamic pressure is determined on the basis of measuring the differential pressure between the front and aft parts of the integrating tube, razmeschenno is normal to the axis of the channel, the flow of two-phase mixture is determined by dependencies

where: g - gravitational acceleration;

N - channel diameter;

F is the cross-sectional area of the channel;

α - coefficient determined during calibration;

ΔP_{D}the pressure difference between the front and aft parts of the integrating tube;

ΔP_{article}- the difference between the static pressures in the two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel.

The achievement of the technical result consists in increasing the representativeness of the data and extending the range of applicability of the method is ensured by the fact that the density of the mixture is determined by measuring the static pressure in two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel.

It is experimentally shown that the determination of the density of the mixture by measuring the static pressure in two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel eliminates the dependence of the readings from the flow mode.

The achievement of the technical result consists in reducing the cost of implementation of the method is ensured by the fact that the density of the mixture is determined by measuring the static pressure in two mutually opposite points of horizontally orientirovannosti channel, and the dynamic pressure is determined on the basis of measuring the differential pressure between the front and aft parts of the integrating tube, placed normal to the axis of the channel.

Reducing the cost of the method is achieved by using standard differential pressure sensors, which are much cheaper than the elements used in the known method.

The method for determining the flow rate of a two-phase mixture is carried out as follows.

The density of the mixture is determined by measuring the static pressure at two points of the channel, the measurement of the difference of these pressures and the definition of ρ_{cm}from the equality

where g is the acceleration of free fall;

N - channel diameter;

ΔP_{cm}- friction loss when driving a two-phase mixture;

ΔP_{article}- the difference between the static pressures in the two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel.

Figure 1 shows a plot of the channel, where the determination of the density of the mixture. Dimension ρ_{cm}held horizontally oriented sections of the circuit. In this case, ΔP_{cm}=0, then

Hydrostatic method to determine the density of the mixture in horizontal sections of the circuit under all flow conditions.

Dynamic the static pressure based on the measurement of differential pressure in the pressure chambers of the integrating tube. The design integrates the tube shown in figure 2. Integrating the handset is a muted one side of the tube 10×1, divided by a longitudinal partition into two chambers, which had been the selection pressure on the differential pressure sensor. In the frontal and stern tube forming drilled five holes. The tube is placed in the pipe vertically, covering the entire diameter. The pressure difference between the chambers is proportional to the dynamic pressure of the stream:

where: α - coefficient, which is determined during calibration.

The use of an integrating tube allows you to avoid the influence of non-uniformity of the velocity profile along the diameter, as in the cells creates a pressure corresponding to the average dynamic pressure of flow. Thus, through integrating the pressure tube can determine the average cross-section of the dynamic pressure of the flow in vertical channels for homogeneous and horizontal channels for homogeneous and stratified flow conditions. The measured pressure drop ΔP_{D}is determined by the average over the cross section of the dynamic pressure of flow

or

For two-phase flow:

where w_{cm}- speed mixture;

η_{cm}the dynamic viscosity of the mixture.

Currently there is no reliable formula for determining η_{cm}. Following (Labuntsov D.A., Yahweh CENTURIES Mechanics of two-phase systems // MPEI Publishing house, 2000), we assume that the dynamic viscosity of the mixture is equal to the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (η_{cm}=η_{in}). Thus, G_{cm}is determined by the following dependencies:

As an example use of the method consider a study of the emergency mode on the install PSB VVER. Figure 3 shows an example of defining a ρ_{cm}hydrostatic method in one of the emergency operation, based on the installation of PSB VVER-1000. The criterion of correctness of definition is satisfactory coincidence ρ_{cm}and ρ_{in}single-phase flow. As can be seen from figure 3, in the field of single-phase flow the measured coincidence ρ_{cm}and density, determined by the temperature and pressure of the water is satisfactory. Figure 4 shows an example of the determination of the dynamic pressure of flow through the integrating tube. Figure 5 shows an example of determining the flow of two-phase flow.

The method for determining the flow rate of a two-phase mixture comprising measuring the density of a two-phase mixture and the dynamic pressure, characterized in that the determination of the density of two-phase mixture is carried out by measuring the static pressure in two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel, and the dynamic pressure is determined on the basis of measuring the differential pressure between the front and aft parts of the integrating tube, placed normal to the axis of the channel, the flow is two-phase mixture is determined by dependencies

where g is the acceleration of free fall;

N - channel diameter;

F is the cross-sectional area of the channel;

α - coefficient determined during calibration;

ΔP_{D}the pressure difference between the front and aft parts of the integrating tube;

ΔP_{article}- the difference between the static pressures in the two mutually opposite points horizontally oriented section of the channel.

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