Choice plotter for objects under observation from orbital spacecraft

FIELD: physics; cosmonautics.

SUBSTANCE: choice plotter of objects under observation from orbital spacecraft (SC) includes translucent plate with image of SC orbit pass curve, flexible belt located under the plate and containing two applied copies of planet surface map with aligned equator end point of the first copy of map and equator start point of the second copy of map, and map belt shift device along the plate from two spaced and parallel interconnected shafts on which closed belt radially moving along the map equator lines is mounted. In addition there are introduced flexible translucent belt with object image of two copies of stellar map, including ecliptic line with aligned equator end point of the first copy of map with equator start point of the second copy of map, and stellar map object image belt shift device along the plate from at least two spaced and parallel interconnected shafts on which newly introduced belt moving along map equator line. Along the axes perpendicular to map equators, stellar map scale and belt width with stellar maps coincides respectively with terrestrial map scale and belt width with terrestrial map. Along equatorial axes, stellar and terrestrial surface map scales are executed in ratio 1:K. Stellar map object image belt shift device is executed in the form of two spaced and parallel interconnected shafts. The radius of shafts of stellar map object image belt shift device is more or equal to radius of shafts of terrestrial surface map belt shift device. Distance between shaft axes of stellar map object image belt shift device exceeds total distance between shaft axes of terrestrial surface map belt shift device and radiuses of all four shafts of both belt shift devices Width of plate with orbit line image and width of belts are provided in relation equal or more than relation of orbit dip angle to 90°.

EFFECT: provided simultaneous display of spacecraft passage over land objects and coelosphere objects.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used to identify and select objects on Board an orbiting SPACECRAFT), moving in a near-circular orbit.

Known maps of the earth's surface [1], communalisation map of the mission control Center (MCC) and maps of the sky [2], which can be used to identify and select geophysical and astronomical objects for observations performed with the AC. The lack of maps is that they do not have graphical information about the orbit of the SPACECRAFT.

The closest analogues adopted for the prototype, is a tablet for the identification and selection of objects geophysical observations aboard orbital space stations [3], which contains two copies of a map of the earth surface caused on the basis of (a flexible tape, a translucent plate with the image of a curve of the track loop orbit, installed above the ribbon with the card, and the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the orbit.

The shape of the curve lines round the orbit of the SPACECRAFT is determined by the inclination and height of the orbit and associated circulation period of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth. While the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the orbit is made of d is wow posted and bonded in parallel between the shafts, with maps printed on the tape with the combined end point of the equator the first instance of the map with the starting point of the equator of the second copy of the card and tape the card is made of a closed and tight on the shaft with a circular movement along the line of the equator cards.

Tablet [3] is presented in figure 1. This tablet is used in RSC Energia and the Russian MCC for planning geophysical observations from orbiting space stations.

Working with the tablet as follows.

With the help of the device providing movement of the tape with the card along the plate with the image of the orbit connecting point of the equator of the map corresponding to the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits the orbit, with the point of ascending node of orbit round, depicted on the plate. This is depicted on the translucent plate curve line of the track loop orbit shows on a map the location of the tracks of this loop that allows you to define and select a point of the surface for observation at this stage orbit.

Tablet, taken as the prototype, has a major drawback - it is not possible to identify and select objects on the earth's surface simultaneously take into account the conditions and restrictions associated with objects on the celestial sphere (the starry sky) - the Sun, Moon, planet and, astronomical objects.

Task offered by the device - providing a selection of objects with the AC superimposed on observation of the conditions and restrictions associated simultaneously with the objects of the earth and the starry sky due to the simultaneous display of passing KA above ground objects, and objects of the celestial sphere.

This object is achieved in that the device for selecting objects from an orbiting spacecraft, including a translucent plate with the image of a curve round the orbit of the spacecraft below the plate, a flexible tape, which is applied to two copies of the map of the planet's surface with the combined end point of the equator the first instance of the map with the starting point of the equator of the second copy of the card, and the device providing movement of the tape with the cards along the plates of the two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between a shaft on which the tape is made closed, is placed with its circular movement along the line of equatoral cards, additionally introduced flexible translucent strip depicting two copies of maps of the starry sky, including the line of the Ecliptic, with the combined end point of the equator the first instance of the map with the starting point of the equator second specimens of the cards, and the device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky along the plates of at least two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between a shaft on which the newly introduced tape placed, with the possibility of moving along the line of equatoral cards, with axes perpendicular to equatoral maps, scale maps of the sky and the width of the tape with the sky maps of the same in accordance with the scale of the map the earth's surface and width of the tape with maps of the earth's surface, and Equatorial axes scale maps of the sky and the earth surface is made in the ratio of 1:K, where K is the coefficient of compliance scale Equatorial scales, defined by the formula:

K=1-Tω/(2π+Δ Ω),

where T is the period of circulation of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth,

ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space,

Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system.

In addition, the tablet to select objects from an orbiting spacecraft, the device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky along the plates are made in the form of two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, while the radius of the shaft of the device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features star n the BA more than or equal to the radius of the shaft of the device provide moving tape with maps of the earth's surface, the distance between the axes of the shafts device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky more than the sum of the distance between the axes of the shafts devices provide moving tape with maps of the earth's surface and radii of all four shafts of both devices provide moving tape, and the width of the plate with the image of the line of the orbit and the width of the tapes made in respect of equal or more value relationship of the inclination angle of the orbit to the 90°.

The tablet is illustrated in figure 1-3. Given: figure 1 - tablet-prototype; figure 2 - design of the proposed tablet; figure 3 is a diagram illustrating the selection of the proposed dimensions of the elements of the tablet.

In figure 2, which presents the design of the proposed tablet according to claim 2 of the formula, introduced the notation:

1 - flexible tape with maps of the earth's surface;

2 - shaft devices provide moving tape (1);

3 - axis shaft (2);

4 - structural elements, fastening the axis of the shafts (2);

5 - flexible translucent tape with the image of the map features a starry sky;

6 - shafts device providing movement of the tape (5);

7 - axis shaft (6);

8 - elements of construction, fastening the axis of the shafts (2) and (6);

9 is a semi - transparent plate with the image of a curve round the orbit of the SPACECRAFT;

10 - structural elements, fixed the respective plate (9) with respect to structural elements (4), (8);

11 - line image loop orbit;

12, 13 - line equatoral cards, respectively, of the earth and of starry heaven;

14 - projection line equatoral cards on the plate (9);

15 - point ascending node of the orbit to the line (11).

In the proposed tablet device providing movement of the tape (5) along the plate (9) is made of at least two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between a shaft (6) and elements of design(4), (8), (10), that bond the axis of the shafts (6) and fix the position of the plate (9) on shaft (6)on which is placed the tape (5).

In the tablet according to claim 2 used two shafts (6). The radius of the shaft (6) more than or equal to the radius of the shaft (2). The distance between the axes of the shafts (6) more than the sum of the distance between the axes of the shafts (2) and radii of all four shafts (2) and (6). The width of the plate (9) and the width of the strips (1) and (5) is made in respect of equal or more value relationship of the inclination angle of the orbit to the 90°.

Explain the choice of the scaling factor Equatorial axes of cards. During the revolution plane of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT will rotate relative to the celestial sphere at angle Δ Ω, which is the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system, defined by the formula ([4], str):

where Re- Equatorial radius of the Earth;

R - focal parameter of the orbit is;

i - inclination orbit;

I2=-1082,2·10-6- the ratio of the potential of the gravitational field of the Earth.

When the orbital inclinations of less than 90° (corresponding to all research orbital KA) is Δ Ω negative (orbit precessive in the direction opposite to the rotation of the Earth). For example, for the orbits orbital space stations (Salyut, Mir, international space station) Δ Ω is the value of the order of 0.3°.

Relative to the Earth during orbits the orbit plane rotates through the angle Δλ, which is the inter-track distance associated with the Earth coordinate system defined by the formula:

where T is the average period of treatment SPACECRAFT around the Earth,

ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space.

To the same image orbit was applicable to both cards, it is necessary that the magnitude of their Equatorial axis - axis climbs maps of the sky and the axis longitude maps of the earth's surface - were made in the proportions

or

where K is the coefficient of compliance scale Equatorial scales, defined by the formula:

The scaling (3)-(5) provides synchronization from the interests of the sub-satellite point on the Earth with the Zenith point of the AC on the celestial sphere.

Explain the choice of the proposed dimensions of the elements of the tablet.

Curve the line image of the route round the orbit captures the area maps of the planet's surface in the range of latitude [-i, i], where i is the angle of inclination orbit (assume that the value of the inclination angle of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT is positive). Since the size of the cards in latitude corresponds to the interval of latitude [-90°, 90°], the width of the plate with the image of the spiral orbit must be not less than the width of the ribbons with cards, multiplied by a factor equal to the ratio of i to the 90°. Given that the excess width of the translucent plate may cause inconvenience for reading information from the card, located under the plate (especially with maps of the earth's surface beneath the translucent plate (9) and the tape (5)), then plate it is advisable to perform maximally narrow - located in the interval of latitude maps [i, i]. This condition corresponds to the execution of the width of the plate W0and the width of the ribbons with cards W (width of both bands are the same) in a ratio equal to the ratio of the angle of orbital inclination i to the 90°:

For this reason, the plate (9) it is advisable to run the length of the shortest, which displays the line loop orbit (11), is equal to the length of the projection line (11) line (14) project is the equator cards on the plate (9). Since the tablet plate (9) and sections of the tapes (1) and (5) maps directly beneath the plate, parallel, each line equatoral(12), (13), (14) in parallel, then use one common notion of the direction of the line of the equator.

Figure 3, illustrating the selection of the proposed dimensions of the elements of the tablet, additionally indicated:

L0- the length of the projection line (11) on the equator of the cards (the minimum length of the plate (9));

L1- the distance between the axes of the shafts (2);

L2- the distance between the axes of the shafts (6);

R1is the radius of the shaft (2);

R2is the radius of the shaft (6).

In order for the tape (5) cover tape (1), it is necessary that the shaft (2) is located between the shafts (6), which corresponds to the condition (see figure 3):

In order for the tape (5) cover tape (1) without mutual friction tape requires that the radius of the shaft (6) was not less than the radius of the shaft (2):

The length of each strip Sj(j=1,2), computed for values of Lj, Rjaccording to the formula:

is not less than twice the length of the equator Ejone instance of the appropriate cards (each instance of the cards has a range of Equatorial scale 2π):

Thus, the length of the equator Ej(j=12) one instance of each kind deposited on the tape map is determined from the relationship:

Working with the tablet as follows. The rotating shaft (2) devices provide moving tape (1), combine the point of the equator (12) maps of the earth's surface corresponding to the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits an orbit point (15) - point ascending node is depicted on the plate (9) spiral orbit. Further, the rotating shaft (6) device providing movement of the tape (5), combine the point of the equator (13) maps of the sky corresponding to the value of the right ascension of the ascending node of the considered loop orbit in the inertial coordinate system, point (15).

Then a curve round the orbit of (11) will show on the maps of the earth's surface, causing the tape (1), the location of the track in question orbits orbit, and on the ribbon (5), which is applied to the image of the map features a starry sky - location of the footprint of the radius-vector of the SPACECRAFT in the sky during the revolution. Thus, this graphical representation allows to define a point of the surface and the point of the celestial sphere, observable during the revolution of the orbit.

Describe the technical effect of the invention.

The proposed device extends the functionality of the prototype due to ensure the ecene object definition surveillance SPACECRAFT under conditions and limitations, associated simultaneously with the objects of the earth and the celestial sphere. For this purpose, the proposed device, the technical problem is solved simultaneous display of passing KA above ground objects, and objects of the celestial sphere.

The technical result is achieved due to the introduction of device-prototype flexible translucent tape with the image of the object maps of the sky and the device providing movement of the newly introduced tape, the proposed installation of the newly introduced elements, implementation of the proposed sizes of newly introduced items and the proposed scaling factor maps.

LITERATURE

1. Votyakov A.A. Theoretical geography - 3. Map of a flat earth. - M.: Sofia, 2002.

2. Map of the starry sky with the zodiac constellations. - M: DI EM BI, 2004.

3. Map the tablet 17-7988. RSC "Energia".

4. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Publishing house of the USSR, M., 1969.

1. The tablet to select objects observations from orbiting SPACECRAFT), including a translucent plate with the image of a curve round the orbit of the spacecraft below the plate, a flexible tape, which is applied to two copies of the map of the planet's surface with the combined end point of the equator the first instance of the map with the starting point of the equator for the second instance of the arts, and the device providing movement of the tape with the cards along the plates of the two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between a shaft on which the tape is made closed, is placed with its circular movement along the line of equatoral cards, characterized in that it further introduced a flexible translucent tape with the image of two copies of maps of the starry sky, including the line of the Ecliptic, with the combined end point of the equator the first instance of the map with the starting point of the equator of the second copy of the card, and the device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky along the plates of at least two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, which again put the tape is placed, with the possibility of moving along the line of equatoral cards, with axes perpendicular to equatoral maps, scale maps of the sky and the width of the tape with the sky maps of the same, respectively, with the scale of the map the earth's surface and width of the tape with maps of the earth's surface, and Equatorial axes scale maps of the sky and the earth surface is made in the ratio of 1:K, where K - coefficient of compliance scale Equatorial scales, defined by the formula:

K=1-Tω/(2μ+Δ Ω),

where T is the period of circulation of the SPACECRAFT around the earth,

ω - the angular velocity of the rotation of the Earth in inertial space,

Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system.

2. The tablet to select objects with orbital spacecraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky along the plates are made in the form of two spaced apart and fastened together in parallel between the shafts, while the radius of the shaft of the device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky more than or equal to the radius of the shaft of the device provide moving tape with maps of the earth's surface, and the distance between the axes of the shafts device providing movement of the tape with the image of the map features a starry sky more than the sum of the distance between the axes of the shafts devices provide moving tape with maps of the earth's surface and the radius of each four shafts of both devices provide moving tape, and the width of the plate with the image of the line of the orbit and the width of the tapes made in respect of equal or more value relationship of the inclination angle of the orbit to the 90°.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics; cosmonautics.

SUBSTANCE: choice device of astronomical objects under observation from orbital spacecraft (SC) includes stellar globe, ring embracing the globe with aligned ring and globe centres and fixed over globe poles and rotating round globe rotation axis, the second ring embracing the globe with aligned second ring and globe centres and fixed on the first ring in crosspoints of the first ring and globe equator plane and rotating to position of the angle between second ring and globe equator plane equal to the angle of SC orbit dip angle. Additionally there are two elements with contour projection to globe surface forming circles and globe centre direction forming straight line passing through globe centre and perpendicular to the second ring plane, the angle equal 90° minus one-half angle of planet disk visible from SC round which SC moving in semi-circular orbit turns. Elements are fixed over globe surface from its opposite sides with one or more arches connecting introduced elements with the second ring. In addition each newly introduced element is designed in the form of translucent spherical segment one-half angle of which angle is equal 90° minus one-half angle of planet disk visible from SC, with slot provided from spherical segment edge to its centre arch length of which is equal or more then one-half angle of spherical segment minus SC orbit dip angle. Spherical segments centres lay on straight line passing through globe centre and perpendicular to the second ring plane with aligned centre of sphere forming spherical segments and globe centre. Slots in spherical segments are opposite to different globe poles. In addition each newly introduced element is constructed as ring placed on ruptured element contour. Ring segments opposite different globe are removed within ring rupture points.

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3 cl, 5 dwg.

FIELD: physics; space.

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3 dwg

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Sun attitude pickup // 2308005

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FIELD: instrument industry.

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2 dwg

FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.

SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.

EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.

1 dwg

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