# Choice device of astronomical objects under observation from orbital spacecraft

FIELD: physics; cosmonautics.

SUBSTANCE: choice device of astronomical objects under observation from orbital spacecraft (SC) includes stellar globe, ring embracing the globe with aligned ring and globe centres and fixed over globe poles and rotating round globe rotation axis, the second ring embracing the globe with aligned second ring and globe centres and fixed on the first ring in crosspoints of the first ring and globe equator plane and rotating to position of the angle between second ring and globe equator plane equal to the angle of SC orbit dip angle. Additionally there are two elements with contour projection to globe surface forming circles and globe centre direction forming straight line passing through globe centre and perpendicular to the second ring plane, the angle equal 90° minus one-half angle of planet disk visible from SC round which SC moving in semi-circular orbit turns. Elements are fixed over globe surface from its opposite sides with one or more arches connecting introduced elements with the second ring. In addition each newly introduced element is designed in the form of translucent spherical segment one-half angle of which angle is equal 90° minus one-half angle of planet disk visible from SC, with slot provided from spherical segment edge to its centre arch length of which is equal or more then one-half angle of spherical segment minus SC orbit dip angle. Spherical segments centres lay on straight line passing through globe centre and perpendicular to the second ring plane with aligned centre of sphere forming spherical segments and globe centre. Slots in spherical segments are opposite to different globe poles. In addition each newly introduced element is constructed as ring placed on ruptured element contour. Ring segments opposite different globe are removed within ring rupture points.

EFFECT: provided display on stellar globe of regions observable from spacecraft during the whole orbit pass.

3 cl, 5 dwg.

The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used for the identification and selection of astronomical objects for observations from orbiting SPACECRAFT), moving in a near-circular orbit. This solution can also be used as a textbook on navigation and celestial mechanics.

Known the globe (see [1], pp.93-97), which can be used, in particular, to identify and select objects observations performed with the AC. The disadvantage of this device is the lack of elements that can display information about the orbit of the SPACECRAFT. Also known training device for navigation [2], includes a base, a rack, a model of the planet, which is made in the globe, the model orbit, made in the form of a ring mounted on the bearing stand. Using this device, it is possible, in particular, to simulate the position of the orbit above the globe is a model of the planet - and to select objects on the surface of the globe accessible to observation SPACECRAFT.

The closest analogues adopted for the prototype, is the device [3], including star globe with covering its two rings set with fusion centers rings with the center of the globe. The first ring is fixed on the points of the poles of the globe can be rotated around the axis of rotation is placed globe passing through the poles of the globe, and a second ring mounted for exhibition ring at any specified angle to the equator of the globe.

The appearance of the device [3] is presented in figure 1.

Working with the device is as follows.

The globe rotates relative to the ring, allowing the exhibition of the ring relative to the globe at any specified angle to the equator of the globe, in a position in which the ring is the equator of the globe angle equal to the inclination angle of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT.

Further rotation of the globe about the axis of its rotation set the globe in a position in which the ring crosses the equator of the globe at the point of the equator with longitude equal to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit. Thus the projection of this ring on the surface of the globe will show a line of a projection plane of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT on the surface of the globe at the time of passage of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit. As possible objects of observation SPACECRAFT selected objects on the map of the starry sky painted on the surface of the globe, modeled along the lines of the projection plane of the orbit - the line formed by the traces of the radius-vectors of the SPACECRAFT on the celestial sphere during the revolution of the orbital movement of the SPACECRAFT.

Observation SPACECRAFT will be available astronomer who ical objects (objects of the celestial sphere or the starry sky), located in the footprint of the radius-vector of the SPACECRAFT on the celestial sphere at the current time. This astronomical objects located on the opposite side of the celestial sphere, will be inaccessible to observation SPACECRAFT, because at this time they are closed for observation SPACECRAFT planet, around which turns the AC. The identification of the availability and unavailability of observation SPACECRAFT astronomical objects located between opposite points on the surface of the globe, is performed on the coordinates of the object data and the orbital parameters of the considered orbits orbit involving calculations on the computer. Some astronomical objects will shade the planet during the round orbit, and some may be available observation SPACECRAFT within just round the orbit. The last case is particularly interesting, in particular because it allows us as long as possible (whole round) to perform such observation of astronomical objects.

The device adopted for the prototype, has a major drawback - it is not possible without bringing the computer to determine the area of the celestial sphere and, accordingly, astronomical objects, observable with the AC on during the entire revolution of the orbit.

Task proposed is to expand the functionality of the device by providing a display on the celestial globe areas available observations with SPACECRAFT throughout the loop orbit.

The technical result is achieved in that in a device for selection of astronomical objects observations from orbiting spacecraft, including the globe coated with a map of the sky, the ring, covering the globe with a combination of the center of the ring with the center of the globe and fixed over the points of the poles of the globe with the possibility of rotation of the ring around the axis of rotation of the globe, the second ring, covering the globe with a combination of a center of the second ring from the center of the globe and is secured to the first ring at the point of intersection of the first ring with the plane of the equator of the globe, with the possibility of rotation of the second ring to the position in which the plane of the second ring makes with the plane of the equator of the globe angle equal to the angle of inclination of the orbit of the spacecraft, additionally introduced two elements, the projection of the contours on the surface of the globe forms the circumference direction from the center of the globe at point of which is a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, the angle is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, around which turns moving in a near-circular orbit of the spacecraft, while the input elements mounted on p is the surface of the globe with its opposite sides by one or more arcs, connecting the input elements with the second ring.

When this task is solved in that each of the elements, the projection of the contours on the surface of the globe forms the circumference direction from the center of the globe at point of which is a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, the angle is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, made in the form of a translucent spherical segment, the angle polarstar which is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, with a cutout made from the edge of the spherical segment to its centre, arc length, which is equal to or more than the angle of polarstar spherical segment minus the inclination angle of the orbit of the spacecraft, while the centers of the spherical segments are located on a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, with the combination of the center of the sphere, forming a spherical segment, and the center of the globe, and the slot in the spherical segments are made across different poles of the globe.

In addition, the problem is solved in that each of the elements, the projection of the contours on the surface of the globe forms the circumference direction from the center of the globe on a point which is s constitute direct, passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, the angle is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, made in the form of a ring placed around the perimeter of the element, with a gap, with the discontinuities of the rings removed segments of the rings, located across the different poles of the globe.

Thus, in the proposed device, unlike the prototype, introduced additional elements made in the form of a translucent spherical segments with a slot and/or rings with a gap, while the input elements are made of the proposed dimensions, the calculated values of the inclination angle of the orbit of SPACECRAFT and angle polarstar visible with the AC drive of the planet, and introduced elements inserted in the device proposed.

The device illustrated in figure 1-5. Given: figure 1 - device-prototype; figure 2 - view of the proposed device, in which the newly introduced elements made in the form of a translucent spherical segments with slot (2 formulas); figure 3 - view of the proposed device, in which the newly introduced elements are in the form of rings with a gap (according to claim 3 of the formula); figure 4 is a diagram illustrating the calculation of the dimensions introduced elements; figure 5 is a diagram illustrating the selection of the size of the slot in the spherical segment is.

Figure 2 introduced the notation:

1 - globe coated with a map of the sky;

2, 3 - first and second rings, respectively;

4 - the newly introduced elements made in the form of a translucent spherical segments with a cutout;

5 - slot in the spherical segment (4);

6 - arc connecting elements (4) with ring (3);

7 - line of the equator of the globe;

8 - line of the Meridian passing through the point of the ascending node of the orbit;

9 - line projection of the ring (3) on the surface of the globe (1);

10 - line projection of the contour of the spherical segment (4) on the surface of the globe (1);

11 - element stand globe, which is a continuation of the axis of rotation of the globe;

12 - stand base globe;

And the pole of the globe;

AB is the axis of rotation of the globe;

From the point of intersection of the first and second rings;

D is the point on the equator, corresponding to the ascending node of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT;

V is the Central point of the spherical segment (4).

Figure 3 additionally introduced the notation:

13 - the newly introduced elements made in the form of rings with a gap;

14 - the gap in the ring (13).

Note that the elements (4) and (13) connected to the ring (3) is identical arcs (6), and the projection lines of the contours of the elements (4) and (13) on the surface of the globe (1) identical lines (10).

Round orbit, moving in a near-circular orbit around a planet, Sadie is camping right in the Cartesian coordinate system OXYZ with the center in the center of the planet and the OZ axis, directed along the axis of rotation of the planet, the coordinates calculated by the formula (see [4], p.18):

where- inclination orbit;

R_{0}is the radius of the orbit;

Ω - the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system;

u - the current value of the argument of latitude is the parameter that takes on orbit orbit values from 0° 360°.

During the revolution of the orbit is Ω varies from values Ω_{0}equal to the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit at the beginning of the considered orbit (u=0°), to the value Ω_{0}+Δ Ωequal to the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit at the end of the considered orbit (u=360°), where Δ Ω - the winding precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system - turn-to-turn distance, measured on the Equatorial scale. For example, the value of Δ Ω when the movement of the SPACECRAFT around the Earth is determined by the formula (see [5], str):

where R_{e}- Equatorial radius of the Earth;

R - focal parameter of the orbit;

I_{2}=-1082,2 10^{-6}- the ratio of the potential of the gravitational field of the Earth.

Taking into account the effect of the precession of the orbit in the inertial coordinate system projection plane of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT on the surface of the globe is continuously rotated as the rotary motion is to be placed KA along the loop orbit.
A bit value of I_{2}included in the formula (2)shows that this effect is negligible. For example, for type SC international space station moving in a near-circular orbit with altitude of about 400 km, the precession of the orbit is of the order of 0.3°/revolution, which is a small value and, as a rule, is not taken into account when planning for astronomical observations in the interval of one revolution of the orbit.

In this case, the taking, that during the whole round

and formula (1) take the form, which is the description of a circle, tilted to the plane of the equator at an angleand crossing the equator at longitude Ω_{0}. Instead of Ω_{0}(3) you can also use the average Ω during this revolution Ω_{0} ^{*}= Ω_{0}+Δ Ω/2.

In figure 4, illustrating the calculation of the sizes of items entered entered legend:

S - the celestial sphere;

P - surface of the sphere approximating the surface of the planet, around which turns the AC;

O_{p}- the center of the planet;

About_{1}About_{2}position the SPACECRAFT in the opposite points of the loop orbit;

O_{1}O_{2}- the plane of the orbit;

N_{1}N_{2}- trail points on the celestial sphere to the line passing through the center of the planet and perpendicular to ploskostopie KA;

M_{1}, M_{2}- trail points on the celestial sphere of directions from the apparent KA with KA horizon of the planet of the provisions KA O_{1};

M_{3}, M_{4}- trail points on the celestial sphere of directions from the apparent KA with KA horizon of the planet of the SPACECRAFT location ABOUT_{2};

E, E_{1}points visible from the AC horizon of the planet of the provisions KA O_{1};

HER_{1}- the disk of the planet visible from KA O_{1};

Q - angle polarstar visible with the AC drive of the planet;

δ - the angle between the direction perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, and directions from the apparent KA with KA horizon of the planet.

For the considered case of a circular orbit angle δ is constant and equal to (see figure 4):

The angle Q is calculated according to the formula (see figure 4):

where R_{p}=O_{p}E - the radius of the planet;

R_{0}=O_{p}About_{1}is the radius of the orbit.

The celestial sphere is conceived as a sphere of large radius, in comparison with which the distance between the points O_{1}O_{2}About_{p}negligible, therefore, applied to the star globe these points combined in one point O which is the center of the celestial sphere and globe. In this part of the celestial sphere that is inside the spherical segments M_{1}N_{1}M_{3}and M_{
N2M4with the angle polarstar 8 and the centers of which are points of N1and N2accessible to observation SPACECRAFT within just round the orbit. The rest of the celestial sphere for some time round will be closed from the observer on the SPACECRAFT, planet.}

In cases where the elements (4) and (13) are located in the vicinity of the poles of the globe, these elements cover the point of the corresponding pole. Given that the points of the poles of the fixed structural elements of the globe, which is a continuation of the axis of rotation of the globe at the poles of the globe, in the process turning ring (3) items (4) and (13) will cross these structural elements. Moreover, the elements (4) and (13) cover only one different pole.

To enable such movement and positioning items (4) and (13) in the spherical segments (4) are made slits (5)and ring (13) is made breaks (14).

Figure 5, illustrating the calculation of the necessary length of the slot in the spherical segments (4), in addition to the notation of figure 2-4 shows:

About the center of the globe;

the inclination angle of the orbit of the SPACECRAFT;

γ_{min}- minimum arc length of the slot, measured in angular units from the center of the globe;

V_{1}V_{2}centers of the spherical segment (4);

V_{1}V_{2}- direct, rhodesa through the centers of the spherical segments (4) and the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the ring (3).

The minimum required length of the arc of the slot (5) γ_{min}is determined from the condition (see figure 5)

or (taking into account (4)):

When this slot is required if the value of γ_{min}positively, that is, when the inclination of the orbitsmaller values δ:

The maximum arc length of the slot thus equal to the angle δ (i.e. the slot is to the center of the segment, as shown in figure 2).

To enable reading data from areas of the globe, under spherical segments (4), the data segments must perform translucent. In this case, the surface segments can be applied additional graphical information - for example, the line that indicates the values of the elevation angles of astronomical objects over the visible with the AC horizon of the planet, implemented during round observation.

In another embodiment of the device the newly introduced elements are made "hollow" - in the form of rings with a gap. The gap (14) in each ring (13) is performed by removing from the ring segment ring located opposite to the corresponding pole of the globe.

Working with the device is as follows.

Ring (3) rotate relatively to LCA (2) in position, in which the ring (3) makes with the plane of the equator of the globe (7) angle equal to the inclination angle of the orbit. In the case when you are not on the condition (8), items (4) and (13) do not cover the poles of the globe. In the case when the condition (8), items (4) and (13) cover the poles of the globe and in the process turning ring (3) structural elements of the globe, which is a continuation of the axis of rotation of the globe at the poles of the globe that is fixed in the slot (5) of the segments (4) and gaps (14) rings (13).

Then turn the globe (1) around its axis of rotation set the globe in a position in which the point of intersection of the rings (2) and (3) is located above the point D of the equator with longitude equal to the value of the longitude of the ascending node of the considered orbits orbit Ω_{0}(or Ω_{0} ^{*}).

After that, items (4) and (13) will cover on the globe's surface area accessible to observation SPACECRAFT within just round the orbit. This area of the globe surface is limited by the lines (10). Astronomical objects on the rest of the surface of the globe, for some time round will be closed from the observer on the SPACECRAFT, planet.

Describe the technical effect of the invention.

The proposed device extends the functionality of the device by ensuring that the Oia display on the celestial globe areas available observations with SPACECRAFT throughout the loop orbit. The technical result is achieved by introducing into the device additional elements made in the form of a translucent spherical segments with a slot and/or rings with gaps, with the input elements are made of the proposed dimensions, the calculated values of the inclination angle of the orbit of SPACECRAFT and angle polarstar visible with the AC drive of the planet, and introduced elements inserted in the device proposed.

LITERATURE

1. Handsome B. I. Nautical astronomy. M.: Transport, 1986.

2. Application for invention No. 93045113/12 from 1993.09.14.

3. Star globe ZG-AM.

4. Byabenin GG, Skrebowski BS, G.A. Sokolov of the flight management System of the spacecraft. // M.: Mashinostroenie, 1978.

5. Engineering Handbook of space technology. Publishing house of the USSR, M., 1969.

1. Device for selection of astronomical objects observations from orbiting spacecraft, including the globe coated with a map of the sky, the ring, covering the globe with a combination of the center of the ring with the center of the globe and fixed over the points of the poles of the globe with the possibility of rotation of the ring around the axis of rotation of the globe, the second ring, covering the globe with a combination of a center of the second ring from the center of the globe and is secured to the first ring at the points is peresechenia first ring with the plane of the equator of the globe, with the possibility of rotation of the second ring to the provisions in which the plane of the second ring makes with the plane of the equator of the globe angle equal to the inclination angle of the orbit of the spacecraft, characterized in that additionally introduced two elements, the projection of the contours on the surface of the globe forms the circumference direction from the center of the globe at point of which is a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, the angle is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, around which turns moving in a near-circular orbit of the spacecraft, while the input elements mounted on the surface of the globe with its opposite sides through one or more arcs connecting the input elements with the second ring.

2. Device for selection of astronomical objects with orbital spacecraft according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the elements, the projection of the contours on the surface of the globe forms the circumference direction from the center of the globe at point of which is a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, the angle is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, made in the form of a translucent spherical segment, the angle is of aurastar which is 90° less angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, with a cutout made from the edge of the spherical segment to its center, the length of the arc which is equal to or more than the angle of polarstar spherical segment minus the inclination angle of the orbit of the spacecraft, while the centers of the spherical segments are located on a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, with the combination of the center of the sphere, forming a spherical segment, and the center of the globe, and the slot in the spherical segments are made across different poles of the globe.

3. Device for selection of astronomical objects with orbital spacecraft according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the elements, the projection of the contours on the surface of the globe forms the circumference direction from the center of the globe at point of which is a line passing through the center of the globe and perpendicular to the plane of the second ring, the angle is 90° minus angle polarstar visible from the spacecraft disk of the planet, made in the form of a ring placed around the perimeter of the element, with a gap, with the discontinuities of the rings removed segments of the rings, located across the different poles of the globe.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

FIELD: instrument industry.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises two spheres mounted with a spaced relation one to the other. The outer sphere is made of a superconducting material, and the inner sphere is made of a magnetic material. The outer sphere is secured to the spacecraft, and the inner sphere is shifted with respect to the center of gravity and has the radiation source. The output of the radiation receiving unit is connected with the information input of the recording unit whose control input is connected with the output of the board control unit.

EFFECT: simplified structure.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used in moving objects' spatial orientation systems. Before beginning of movement of object, the coordinate system is chosen being comfortable for observer. Three stars are selected, along directions of which stars the speeds have to be measured and their angular coordinates are measured. After movement starts, current values of linear velocity are measured on the base of directions of navigating stars. Changes in linear velocity are calculated from directions of navigating stars, which are changes are caused by rotation of object, and basic components of angular speed vector are determined from directions of navigating stars.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable for determination of the Sun angular coordinates in the spacecraft coordinate system.

SUBSTANCE: the Sun attitude pickup has an optical system made in the form of a wide-angle lens including an inlet and outlet plano-convex lenses with a diaphragm placed between them, an optical element is positioned in its holes, matrix photodetector, and a unit for processing of information and computation of coordinates. The refractive indices of the optical components are selected proceeding from the relation: n_{1}≥n_{2}<n_{3}, where n_{1} - the refractive index of the inlet plano-convex lens; n_{2} - the refractive index of the optical element; n_{3} - the refractive index of the outlet plano-convex lens.

EFFECT: obtained information in a wide angular field with a high precision.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: onboard system for controlling spacecrafts for autonomous estimation of orbit and orientation of spacecraft body.

SUBSTANCE: method for autonomous navigation and orientation of spacecrafts includes computer calculation of position in three-dimensional space of ort of radius-vector of support (calculated, a priori assumed) orbit, rigid attachment of optical-electronic device on the body of spacecraft and measurement of coordinates and brightness of stars, which are in the field of view during navigational sessions, in it.

EFFECT: increased number of performed tasks, expanded capabilities of method application environment for any orbits, reduced number of measuring devices and mass and size characteristics of onboard system for controlling a spacecraft.

2 dwg

FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.

SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.

EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.

1 dwg