Internal combustion engine

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine incorporates crankshaft, con-rod, piston pin, cylinder, intake and outlet valves, inlet and outlet manifolds, turbo-compressor, nozzle to inject water into the outlet manifold and pipeline to feed water to the aforesaid nozzle. In compliance with this invention, the aforesaid pipeline feeding water to the nozzle is furnished with the fuel combustion product heat regenerator and water is injected into the outlet manifold in overheated state.

EFFECT: increased steam formation speed in injecting water into outlet manifold and improved enthalpy of combustion products.

1 dwg


The invention relates to internal combustion engines (ice) and can be used in automobile, tractor, marine and stationary engine.

Known internal combustion engine with the continued expansion of the combustion products of the fuel and working with a supply of heat in the working cycle at constant volume, at constant pressure, with a mixture of heat supply [internal combustion Engines: the structure and operation of piston and combined engines. Vpolex and others/ edited amended Asellina, Mggrava. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1990. - 288 S.] and containing the crankshaft, connecting rod, piston pin, piston, slave cylinder, the cylinder defined therein gas valves, intake and exhaust manifold and the turbocharger. The air enters at the inlet of the turbocharger, driven from the turbine, rotating the exhaust gases with a pressure close to atmospheric. The disadvantage of this engine is not using heat of exhaust gases.

Known internal combustion engine with the continued expansion of the combustion products of the fuel and working with a supply of heat in the working cycle at constant volume, at constant pressure, with a mixture of heat supply [SU 731007, F02B 37/00, 1980, 3 S.] and containing the crankshaft, connecting rod, piston pin, piston, cylinder, inlet and exhaust valve, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocom essor, and water injection into the exhaust manifold.

The disadvantage of this engine is the low rate of evaporation when water injection.

The technical purpose of this invention is the use of heat products of combustion of fuel to increase the rate of vaporization at the water injection into the exhaust manifold, which will lead to a more rapid increase in the enthalpy of the combustion products of the fuel compared to the prototype.

The technical problem is solved in an internal combustion engine, containing the crankshaft, connecting rod, piston pin, piston, slave cylinder, the cylinder defined therein gas valves, intake and exhaust manifold, turbocharger, nozzle for water injection in the combustion products of the fuel, installed in the exhaust manifold between the exhaust valve and the turbine, the pipeline supplying water to the nozzle, equipped with a regenerator heat of products of combustion in the internal energy of the water.

The novelty of the invention lies in the fact that the water is supplied to the nozzle and is injected into the overheated state through a pipeline equipped with a regenerator heat of products of combustion in the internal energy of the water.

When the injection of the hot water evaporation intensifies due to internal heat supply, which increases the speed of vozrasta what I enthalpy of the exhaust gas, coming to the entrance of the turbine, which leads to increased charge pressure of the turbocharger.

The drawing shows a diagram of the internal combustion engine of the proposed design.

Ice contains at least the crankshaft 1, the rod 2, the piston pin 3, a piston 4, a cylinder 5, the intake valve 6, the exhaust valve 7, the inlet manifold 8, an exhaust manifold 9, the turbocharger 10, the nozzle for injection of water 11 and a pipe 12 for supplying water to the nozzle and the regenerator heat combustion products 13.

The proposed internal combustion engine with the continued expansion of the combustion products of the fuel and working with a supply of heat in the working cycle at constant volume, at constant pressure, with a mixture of heat supply as follows.

Atmospheric air is supplied to the compressor of the turbocharger 10 and injected them into the inlet pipe 8, where through the inlet valve 6 enters the cylinder 5 during movement of the piston 4 from the top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead center (BDC). Further, when closed intake and exhaust valves 6 and 7 should the compression stroke when the piston 4 from BDC to TDC, and then the quantum expansion movement of the piston from TDC to BDC and the discharge stroke of the combustion products of the fuel when the piston from BDC to TDC when you open the exhaust valve 7. When the movement of products of combustion in the exhaust manifold 9 through the nozzle 11 modulated the scarfing water, summarized by pipeline 12 and pre-high temperature in the regenerator heat combustion products 13, which evaporates due to the excess of its internal energy by supplying heat from the exhaust gases and hot surfaces of the exhaust manifold. On the turbine wheel of the turbocharger gas-vapor mixture is doing work, thus lowering the pressure to atmospheric.

The internal combustion engine, containing the crankshaft, connecting rod, piston pin, piston, cylinder, intake and exhaust valves, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocharger, nozzle for water injection into the exhaust manifold and the pipe supplying water to the nozzle, wherein the water supply pipeline is equipped with a regenerator heat of the combustion products of the fuel and water injection into the exhaust manifold is in the overheated state.


Same patents:

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: external combustion Stirling engine and electric generator are fitted on one shaft with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every ICE cylinder is provided with a magnetic field source arranged in the upper part of the former and made in the form of an annular electromagnet built in the cylinder wall, or as several radial electromagnets. The Stirling engine working cylinder is enclosed in a housing with its inner space communicating with the ICE exhaust system, the electric generator being wired to the magnetic field source.

EFFECT: lower toxicity of exhaust and fuller combustion of fuel.

5 dwg

Power plant // 2326257

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat supply systems, particularly, to heat-generating plants. Power plant consists of heat engine, for instance, internal combustion engine, with, at least, one mechanic energy shaft, heat-exchangers of engine cooling, heat-exchanger of heat removal from gas exhaust, all heat-connected via the coolant circulation circuit, with, at least, one heat energy consumer, in which shaft of heat engine is kinematically connected with the drive shaft of cavitating-vortex heat-generator, which - at least, via inlet and outlet hydraulic channels - is connected to the mentioned circulation loop of coolant, for example, water. To provide self-purification of heat-exchangers, cavitating-vortex heat-generator is installed directly before the inlet to heat exchanger of heat removal from engine gas exhaust. Installation provides possibility to control power of the cavitating-vortex heat-generator at stabilised (set) rotations of engine drive shaft and possibility to control a ratio between power values removed from the engine to generate heat and electric energy.

EFFECT: enhancement of operational characteristics; expansion of functional abilities.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: domestic facilities.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined heat and power supply plant for household use. Proposed domestic combined heat and power plant contains Stirling engine and water heater. Stirling engine is installed for heating by first burner supplied with fuel gas. Plant contains additionally intake gas duct passing from Stirling engine in contact with fuel gas intake in first burner preliminary heating of fuel gas delivered into first burner and then heating of water which is subsequently heated by water heater. Water heater is provided with second burner. Plant is designed so that outlet gas and gas from second burner form combined flow immediately after heating of water, and combined flow for heating of water is located higher from outlet gas relative to flow. Plant contains additionally cooler of Stirling engine arranged for heating water higher than outlet gas relative to direction of flow.

EFFECT: provision of effective heating of water, reduced cost of heating and provision of compact device.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering, possibly electric energy generating plants on base of liquid low-potential power source.

SUBSTANCE: electric energy generating plant includes converter of neat energy of low-potential water to kinetic energy applied to electric energy generator. Plant is mounted on draining pipeline and it has linear-structure electric energy generator. Said converter is made material with shape memory effect having transition point between temperature of low-potential water and environment and it is kinematically coupled with armature of linear- structure generator. Converter is jointly mounted with possibility of moving from low-potential water to environment and from environment to low-potential water. Environment may be in the form of water pool to which low-potential water is discharged.

EFFECT: possibility of using heat of low-potential waters with temperature 30 - 50°C discharged every day from cooling systems of waters of nuclear and heat electric power stations.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cogeneration plants with Stirling engines designed for simultaneous production of electric energy and heat. Proposed cogeneration plant includes Stirling engine with electric generator fitted on one shaft, Stirling engine cooling system including pump an heat exchange-cooler through which air feed main line passes, external heat supply system with heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases and heat exchanger of preliminary heating through which external heat supply system is coupled with cooling system of Stirling engine, and exhaust gas main line. Plant is furnished additionally with gas generator providing production of generator gas from different types tires of locally available fuel, generator gas main line connecting gas generator with combustion chamber of Stirling engine, main line for partial return of exhaust gases into combustion chamber of stirling engine, pump in external heat supply system providing flow of heat carrier in succession through preliminary heating heat exchanger and heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases. Wood, peat and oil shale can be used as locally available fuel.

EFFECT: possibility of operation of different locally available fuels such as wood, peat, oil shale, etc, increased service life of engine, simplified design of system to convey heat from engine to external consumers.

1 dwg

Gas-steam engine // 2293199

FIELD: transport and power engineering; engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed multicylinder engine has pump and power cylinders interconnected by transfer chamber, with pistons moving synchronously and rigidly connected with rods on ends of which crossmember with two pins is arranged, with connecting rods fitted on pins and rotation opposite to each other, and two synchronizing gears. One more power cylinder operating on steam is added to pump and power cylinders. Steam is formed owing to water heating in heat exchanger arranged in transfer chamber and in exhaust space of power cylinder.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of engine and reduced overall dimensions of engine.

3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed internal combustion engine contains crankshaft, connecting rod, piston, intake and exhaust valves, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocompressor and nozzle to inject water installed in intake manifold before turbine of turbocompressor.

EFFECT: improved utilization of thermal energy of exhaust gases of turbocharged internal combustion engines.

1 dwg

Power plant // 2255238

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power plants on base of diesel engines including exhaust gas heat recovery systems. Proposed power plant contains diesel engine connected with electric generator, tank for hydrocarbon material, main line to deliver hydrocarbon material, heat exchanger for fuel oil, tanks fir fuel oil and light fractions of fuel, heater and flash column, flash column is arranged inside heater housing, and heating element is arranged in space between heater housing and flash column. Heating element is connected with atomizer arranged inside flash column. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes of heater communicate with space between heater housing and flash column, and branch pipes to let out light fraction and fuel oil communicate, respectively, with upper and lower parts of inner space of flash column. Hydrocarbon material supply branch pipe communicates with inner space of heating element. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes are connected, respectively, with outlet branch pipe of diesel engine and exhaust pipe, and branch pipes to let out light fractions and fuel oil are connected, respectively, with cooling heat exchanger and with fuel oil heat exchanger. Branch pipe to supply hydrocarbon material is connected with hydrocarbon material delivery main line.

EFFECT: reduced heat losses in exhaust gas heat recovery systems designed for producing fuels from hydrocarbon raw material, improved efficiency of heat recovery.

2 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of engine development and allows to increase the efficiency of the engine without compromising its operational reliability

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used to drive various mechanisms and vehicles

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: four-stroke ICE incorporates main cylinder with piston, con-rod gear, intake branch pipe with the valve, exhaust manifold with the valve, devices to prepare and to ignite the gas mixture, device to inject water in the cylinder. At that the aforesaid engine comprises an additional cylinder with the piston, its diameter exceeding that of the main cylinder piston, an additional intake and discharge branch pipe with the valve. At that the aforesaid additional intake branch pipe communicates with the main cylinder exhaust manifold, while its exhaust branch pipe communicates with the exhaust pipe. The additional cylinder piston and exhaust valve are linked to the con-rod gear, the additional cylinder piston reciprocating in phase opposition relative to the main cylinder piston and the exhaust branch pipe valve opening with the additional cylinder piston traveling from the DBP to DTP. Note here that the water is injected into the main cylinder during the main cylinder exhaust stroke. The proposed engine comprises an even number of the main cylinders, each pair incorporating one additional cylinder.

EFFECT: higher engine efficiency.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engine production. The operation of the rotary thermal engine with tight variable-volume chambers and an actuator making a piston, includes four strokes of internal combustion engine, plus a stroke of injection in the power stroke chamber, a combustion chamber, of water. Injection of water is effected after combustion of a fuel mix before the termination of the power stroke resulted from burned fuel. The power stroke is elongated by making the actuator, the piston, travel over longer distance compared to the compression stroke. Quantity of injected water is metered out depending on temperature and pressure of gases at the moment of injection. The exhaust of waste vapor-gas mix is subjected consecutively to condensation in the condenser, cleaning of formed water in the filter and feed of the cleaned water again in the engine for injection. Injection of water is effected after its preliminary heating. The rotary thermal engine contains a stator, a rotor, mobile partitions, a combustion chamber, an atomiser for injection of water and a water feed device linked with the rotor.

EFFECT: higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust to toxicity.

7 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the internal combustion chamber fuel systems. The internal combustion chamber fuel system includes a fuel tank, a fuel filter, pipelines to feed fuel in the said chamber and to withdraw exhaust gases. The exhaust pipeline incorporates a coil in the form of the pipeline with inlet connected to a fuel tank and an outlet with system of feeding fuel into the internal combustion chamber via a mixer. The pipeline connecting the fuel tank with the mixer incorporates a device adjusting the quantity of fuel fed to the mixer. The pipeline connecting the fuel tank and the coil accommodates the device to adjust the fuel feed amount, being connected with the device adjusting the amount of fuel fed into the mixer. Both adjusting devices can be mutually adjusted.

EFFECT: lower fuel consumption and uniform temperature distribution across the internal combustion chamber.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: method of fuel supply for an internal combustion engine includes utilization of heat for water treatment resulting in its phase change, then filling of the cylinder with a working mixture, compressing, ignition and burning the mixture with conversion of mixture burning energy into mechanical or electrical energy. Water is supplied from a tank into an evaporator wherefrom a dosed volume of water steam used to obtain hydrogen-oxygen mixture equal to a cycle charge is transported into a chamber for compression, irradiation with a laser beam and ignition of the received cycle mixture with the following conversion into a piston work. Conversion of pressure of gases received from combustion form of burning of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture is performed by means of damping the shock load onto units and parts of the engine. Ecological internal combustion engine contains tank for water, metering device, evaporator, conversion mechanism, at least one cylinder-piston assembly with an engine operation mode regulator and laser emitting device. The mechanism of piston work conversion is equipped with a shock absorber of the effect of combustive burning of the mixture while the used combustion products are let out into air via an exhaust system with silencer.

EFFECT: higher economy of ICEs is achieved due to their operation on water and exclusion of using expensive technologies and materials for their production.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: manufacture of engines; methods and devices for preparation of water-and-fuel emulsions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mixing of definite metered amount of water with fuel and keeping of mixture in continuous motion during definite period of time followed by feeding the emulsion to fuel injector of power plant. Unexpended portion of emulsion after previous emulsification cycle is not mixed with new portion of emulsion whose concentration differs from previous one. Water-and-fuel emulsion is prepared separately for each mode of operation of power plant in separate stabilizers-accumulators. Emulsion is fed to power plant till complete consumption. Empty stabilizer-accumulator is filled at new concentration of water corresponding to present state of power plant which is supplied during this period of time from another stabilizer-accumulator. Volume of water-and-fuel emulsion is so selected that time of its consumption from one stabilizer-accumulator is sufficient for homogenization of water-and-fuel emulsion in another stabilizer-accumulator which is achieved due to repeated rotation and emulsification in closed loop. Device proposed for preparation of water-and-fuel emulsion includes emulsifier and controllable metering and change-over units. Introduced additionally between emulsifier and fuel injectors of power plant are stabilizers-accumulators connected with water and fuel supply passages at inlet and with emulsifier at outlet; water-and-fuel emulsion is fed from them to power plant for combustion. Volumes "V" of stabilizers-accumulators are determined depending on filling time "t" required for homogenization of water-and-fuel emulsion at preset flow water "F" by the following formula V=tF. Stabilizers-accumulators are made in form of reservoirs connected to fuel loops; swirlers mounted at their inlets are used for rotation and acceleration of homogenization of water-and-fuel mixture.

EFFECT: enhanced operational reliability of power plant.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; control of internal combustion engine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed internal combustion engine contains at least one cylinder 1, piston 16 reciprocating in said cylinder 1, combustion chamber 15 limited by cylinder 1 and piston 16 and intake and outlet valves, 2 and 3, respectively, regulated by computer-based control system 5. Internal combustion engine contains also means 10 to inject water or steam into combustion chamber 15. Control system 5 provides control of intake and outlet valves, 2, 3 respectively, and water or steam injection means 10 so that working strokes based mainly on expansion of gaseous combustion products, alternate with working strokes based mainly on expansion of steam.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and conversion of heat at cooling of cylinder and exhaust gases into useful work.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in accumulation and compression of exhaust gases and injection of water. Part of exhaust gases is cut off from exhaust system by-passing them into accumulating space. Water preliminarily heated by thermally stressed part of engine is injected under pressure into said part of exhaust gases. Exhaust gases are expanded together with formed steam with subsequent repetition of working cycles including compression of exhaust gases together with steam, injection of water and expansion of exhaust gases and steam at working stroke. Then exhaust stroke is performed, and amount of consumed injected water is compensated. Engine is thermally insulated over entire external surface. method is implemented in internal combustion engine containing cylinder, combustion chamber, intake and exhaust valves, camshaft, crankshaft and working piston. Accumulating space is made in exhaust manifold separated from combustion chamber by exhaust valve of combustion chamber and from ambient medium by exhaust valve of accumulating space. Nozzle to inject water by plunger pump is installed in housing of accumulating space, and service reservoir is provided to keep service water.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of engine in operation.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: technology of processing hydrocarbon materials, production of synthesis-gas in particular.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is carried out in plant including multi-cylinder four-stroke or two-piston air-injection internal combustion engine working in mode of chemical compression reactor. Proposed method consists in preparation of mixture containing hydrocarbon material, water vapor and oxygen-enriched air -fuel charge at excess-air-oxidizer coefficient of 0.3-0.58 for methane followed by preheating of fuel charge and delivery of it to engine cylinders; then additional heating is performed in compression stroke followed by ignition in top dead center due to self-ignition of additives introduced into fuel charge in form of liquid or gaseous agents whose ignition temperature is below that of fuel charge; as a result, engine is started as chemical compression reactor and partial oxidation of fuel in volume of internal combustion cylinders is performed; then, products formed during reverse stroke of piston are expanded and cooled and products of this process containing synthesis-gas are discharged to bottom dead center, after which they are cooled and cleaned from soot and are subjected to final cooling and conversion into methanol or dimethyl ether. Process of partial oxidation at attaining the working mode of operation by chemical reactor is maintained due to availability of residual gases in cylinders whose amount is controlled by re-adjusting of the valve gear, additional heating due to warming-up of engine and external control of fuel charge heating temperature. Proposed plant includes multi-cylinder four-stroke or two-piston two-stroke air-injection internal combustion engine working as chemical compression reactor; engine is provided with intake and exhaust valves and system for delivery of air, hydrocarbon material and additives, as well as heating and preheating systems including air heaters, heat exchangers and mixer; engine is also provided with synthesis-gas cooling system which also consists of heat exchanger and cooler; engine is provided with reversible motor-generator set generating the electric power for multi-stage synthesis-gas compressor and high-temperature filter rigidly connected with engine and used for cleaning the synthesis-gas from soot; engine is provided with cooler and drip pan. Working of engine in mode of chemical compression reactor and composition of synthesis-gas are controlled through control of oxidizer-excess coefficient and preheating temperature in heat exchanger at steady state conditions or temperature at starting air heater outlet. Invention makes it possible to increase specified productivity by 2.5-3 times at volume ratio of H2/CO of 1.4:2.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of production of methanol and synthetic motor fuels.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods, systems and devices for preparing and delivering fuel-water emulsion into internal combustion engines equipped with injection systems. Proposed method includes standard fuel system, fuel-feed and rotor-impulse type mixer. Two flows are formed independently and supplied to cylinders: pure flow by standard fuel system and fuel-water emulsion flow by rotor-impulse mixer.

EFFECT: increased power rating improved ecological characteristics, possibility of using low-octane fuel.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.

SUBSTANCE: method of operation of water dissociator includes supply of electromagnetic from SHF generator through coupling device into cylinder of internal combustion engine, parametric amplification of oscillations in movement of piston from bottom dead center to top dead center, formation of SHF discharge when piston reaches top center and subsequent injection of water through nozzle into SHF discharge. Water is injected into SHF discharge in form of steam, and electromagnetic oscillations supplied to cylinder are modulated in amplitude. Steam is formed in nozzle. Plasma liquid disperser is used as nozzle. Electromagnetic wave type Hon is excite in cylinder by coupling device.

EFFECT: increased capacity, economy and efficiency of dissociator.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the arrangement of the circuit (C) of circulation with low-temperature circuit (LTC) of circulation for cooling supercharging air (13) fed into engine (8) of a vehicle with a supercharger. Here a two-stage compression of supercharging air (13) in first low-pressure turbo supercharger (1) and in second high-pressure turbo supercharger (2) is effected. To cool down supercharging air (13) downstream of low-pressure turbo supercharger (1) and upstream of high-pressure turbo supercharger (2), first radiator (3) is provided, while downstream of high-pressure turbo supercharger (2) and upstream of engine (8) second radiator (4) is provided. In low-temperature circuit (LTC) of circulation low-temperature radiator is arranged for low-temperature cooling medium (14) to pass the said radiator after it passed through radiator (3) being cooled by cooling medium, both radiators being used for low-pressure supercharging air.

EFFECT: improved arrangement of circulation circuit.

11 cl, 4 dwg