Method of development of ore deposits

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground development of ore edge seams, particularly of thick and medium deposits. The method includes underground development of deposits 8 with excavation of ore in stope blocks and complete dressing of excavated ores at a concentration plant located underground, transportation and lifting of ore to a receiving hopper of the plant. Rejects of underground dressing are placed in open areas as fill, while produced concentrate is surfaced. To provide construction and operational conditions of underground concentration plant there is performed driving of mine shafts 1 for ventilation, lifting (lowering) of service personnel, of dressing equipment, materials, rejects, concentrates, transport, ventilation and auxiliary mine excavations for relocation of mineral raw material along the process stages of concentrating, for fresh air supply to work places and for withdrawal of polluted air. Process chambers 2, 3 are erected wherein dressing equipment is installed; also there are constructed storage chambers 9 for intermediate storage of current rejects. Location of the underground concentration plant is chosen from the side of the bottom layer of the deposit beyond influence area of seismic loads caused by blasting at ore excavation, along the directions of strike of deposit, transversely the strike and on specified depth after detailed geo-mechanic prospecting and considering minimum of costs. Depending on the output, rejects of concentration are placed in open areas in form of fills, the rest part is lifted to the surface. In order to significantly reduce volumes of the storage chambers, treatment of stope blocks is performed in layers with stowing of each processed layer with concentration rejects. The rational sphere of this invention implementation is underground development of ore deposits, particularly in mountainous areas, in densely populated areas, in regions with adverse climate, and also for deposits occurring at a considerable depth.

EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of underground development of edge seam thick and medium ore deposits and safe operation of underground concentration plant within long period.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and is intended for underground mining steeply dipping ore, mostly powerful, and medium-power fields.

There is a method of mining of ore deposits, including underground development and ore processing at the processing plant, located in the underground workings (see New technology development of ore deposits. Nsirimovu, Vframes, Viewsnov and other Gorn - No. 10 - 1985 - p.36).

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is that the underground enrichment plant is not complete, but preliminary enrichment of ore with delivery on the rough surface of a concentrate containing a large number of species, resulting in a significant increase in costs for its ascent to the surface.

The prototype of the invention is a method of mining mineral deposits on the basis of a fundamentally new technology of joint extraction and processing of ores underground. General technological scheme includes ore extraction systems with the mined-out space, enrichment of ores underground concentrator located between the work horizons, issue concentrates and trademark gravel on the surface, the use of tailings as backfill material (with the. Waste mining and concentrating production on the basis of underground complexes. Schwartz UD, Semigin R.I., Zitser I.S., Kutuzov DS. // Mining magazine - №5 - 1992 - p.42).

One of the major shortcomings of the prototype is that the concentrator is located between the working levels of the mine, which increases the risk of its operation, as it is in this case is the sphere of influence of seismic effects on the ore array from blasting during mining.

Another significant disadvantage of the prototype is not sufficiently high efficiency of underground mining steeply dipping powerful and the average thickness of the ore deposits.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the efficiency of underground mining steeply dipping powerful and the average thickness of the ore deposits and safe operation of the concentrator in the underground space for a long period of time.

The essence of the invention is that the method of mining steeply dipping ore powerful and medium-power fields, including the sinking of the complex opening, preparation and rifled underground mining, blasting and ore shipment, the management of mountain pressure, with the development of treatment blocks is performed using the camera system-storey R is trabocchi or sublevel drifts, or other chamber systems with subsequent mined-out space of exhaust chambers tails formed during underground enrichment, transportation, rise to the horizon rhodopirellula hopper and the full enrichment of ore mined using underground enrichment plant, which are sinking shafts, transport, ventilation and auxiliary openings, the construction of the technological cameras installed in them processing equipment, including devices for crushing, grinding, classification of ore screening after each process of ore concentration, magnetic separation or gravity or flotation or other methods of enrichment, depending on the type of enriched ore, dewatering, disposal and drying of the concentrate and the issuance of final concentrate on the earth's surface, characterized in that the location of the concentrator set outside of the ore mass in the rocks lying flank outside the sphere of influence of seismic effects of blasting in mining ore after a detailed geomechanical intelligence, including work to establish long-term strength, stability, and the ability of rocks to prevent large areas of horizontal and vertical outcrops and conditions of minimum cost in the directions of stretch IU the prospect, transverse to the extension and the depth from the surface provide intermediate storage of the current tailings storage chambers, constructed in the immediate vicinity of the process chamber in which by gravity, flotation, magnetic separation or other processes for the production of concentrates with simultaneous formation of the tails with the aim of reducing cumulative cameras, testing, treatment blocks carry out the layers from the bottom up with the mined-out space of each layer, but when the tails over 60% of the remaining part of the mix on the surface.

The location of the concentrator outside the ore mass in the rocks lying flank would eliminate seismic impacts from blasting during mining. At the same time rock masses in separate parts may have a tectonic disturbance, species can be unstable, not strong enough, not to allow the required areas of horizontal and vertical outcrops at the underground construction technology and cumulative cameras. In these rocks it is impossible to ensure safe conditions for the construction and long-term operation of the underground factory. Establishing a solid, stable, undisturbed rocks is only possible result of a detailed geomechanical intelligence containing powder is side lying flank of the ore deposits in the directions of stretch, transverse to the extension and the depth from the surface. The dimensions of the rock mass (part of the array) can be significant, allowing the final location of the factory for minimum cost. When enrichment is formed a significant number of current tailings that before placing in the developed spaces require intermediate storage, which is carried out in a cumulative chambers, constructed in the immediate vicinity of the process chamber production of concentrates and tailings. Steeply dipping powerful and the average thickness of the ore deposits develop treatment chambers within treatment units, using a camera system-storey development, or sublevel drifts, or other chamber systems, with treatment chambers have volumes of tens of thousands of m3that requires for subsequent laying-out spaces of the respective volumes of the cumulative cameras. The decrease in cumulative cameras is achieved by testing treatment blocks the layers that have volumes in the tens of times smaller than the volume of the treatment chambers. When complete the processing of ores of non-ferrous metals tails depending on their output and loosened state produces more than it can accommodate a goaf. The technical solution is to size the distribution of "excess" part of the earth's surface in the tailings, having, however, small.

Application of the proposed technical solution will improve the efficiency of underground mining steeply dipping powerful and the average thickness of the ore deposits and the safe operation of the concentrator in the underground space for a long period of time.

The drawing shows a General schematic diagram of underground mining steeply dipping ore deposits with the location of the concentrator in the underground space outside the field side lying flank. On this scheme provides three-dimensional coordinate system ZOXY, 1 main and ventilation trunks concentrator, 2 - technological and auxiliary production factory, 3 - technological camera factory, 4 - horizon rhodopirellula bunker factory, 5 - main and ventilation shafts, 6 - crosscuts, 7 - transport drifts, 8 - steeply dipping ore field, 9 - cumulative camera.

The method of mining ore deposits is as follows.

After a detailed geomechanical intelligence, as well as on the conditions of minimum cost set the location of the concentrator outside the ore mass in firm, undisturbed rocks lying flank, allowing large square is square in horizontal and vertical outcrops in the direction of stretch of the field (X coordinate) in the direction transverse to its stretch (the Y coordinate) and the depth from the surface (the Z coordinate). Construct trunks factory 1, process chamber 3 for the installation of processing equipment and storage chamber 9 for staging the current tailings and transport, ventilation and auxiliary generation 3, 4 to move mineral raw materials on the production line enrichment supply of fresh air to jobs and removal of contaminated, movement of people, materials and equipment, transportation of ore from the mine to the hopper factories, transportation of tailings from the accumulation chambers to fill complex. Simultaneously with the construction and installation of an underground enrichment plant are sinking shafts 5 and crosscut 6 mine, the driving of preparation 7 and threaded openings for ore mining, carry out other ancillary works in such a way as to ensure the simultaneous extraction and complete ore processing. The extracted ore is transported and carried her rise to the horizon rhodopirellula bunker underground concentrator. The finished concentrate issue on the earth's surface, the current tailings from the process chamber receiving tailings and concentrates goes to the storage chamber, from which are stated in filling complex then, in the composition of the filling mixture is transported into the prepared to the mined-out space of the treatment blocks. In order to reduce the volume of cumulative cameras sewage units not work treatment chambers, them included, and the layers from the bottom up with the mined-out space of each layer. "Excess" tails with the aim of warehousing and storage issue to the surface in a small volume of tailings.

The proposed method for the development of steeply powerful and the average thickness of ore deposits will increase the efficiency of underground mining steeply dipping powerful and the average thickness of the ore deposits and the safe operation of the concentrator in the underground space for a long period of time.

The method of mining ore deposits, including the sinking of the complex opening, preparation and rifled underground mining, blasting and ore shipment, the management of mountain pressure, with the development of treatment blocks is performed using the camera system-storey development, or sublevel drifts, or other chamber systems with subsequent mined-out space of exhaust chambers tails formed during underground enrichment, transportation, climb up the horizon of rodop the roadways to the hopper and the full enrichment of ore mined using underground concentrator, what are sinking shafts, transport, ventilation and auxiliary openings, the construction of the technological cameras installed in them processing equipment, including devices for crushing, grinding, classification of ore screening after each process of ore concentration, magnetic separation or gravity or flotation or other methods of enrichment, depending on the type of enriched ore, dehydration, neutralization and drying of the concentrate and the issuance of final concentrate on the earth's surface, characterized in that the location of the concentrator set outside of the ore mass in the rocks lying flank outside the sphere of influence of seismic effects of blasting during the ore after a detailed geomechanical intelligence, including work to establish long-term strength, stability, and the ability of rocks to prevent large areas of horizontal and vertical outcrops and conditions of minimum cost in the directions of stretch of the field, transverse to the extension and the depth from the surface provide intermediate storage of the current tailings storage chambers, constructed in the immediate vicinity of the process chamber in which by gravity, flotation, magnetic separation elainie processes produce concentrates with simultaneous formation of tails in order to reduce the cumulative volumes of the chambers, the development of treatment blocks provide layers with the mined-out space of each layer, but when the tails over 60% of the remaining part is placed on the surface.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to a mining industry and can be used in development of firm minerals. The method of hydro mining operations includes hydraulic crushing of a rock bed, hydro transportation of broken off rock, supply of stowing material in a worked out room using a pipe line. Loose rock is enriched and dehydrated, and the waste received at beneficiating of loose rock is blended with a pulp received at dehydration of loose rock. The obtained mixture is used for filling the waste area. Sacciform resilient perforated shell is put in the waste area. Further on, it is connected with the filling material pipe and filled with filling material under heavy pressure. The flowing fluid obtained by perforation is collected and sent for treatment and recirculation.

EFFECT: better filling reliability of the waste area and safety of mining operations, lower expenses for filling, improved ecological situation on mine and in its neighborhoods due to fluid recirculation in the technological process.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: consumption of precious components, energy and materials is reduced; single-purpose rock recovery for mixture preparation is avoided and mixture solidification is accelerated.

6 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: siallite double component wet cement consists of a "male component" and a "female component", both of which are made, stored and transported separately and are mixed just before use. The "female component" and the "male component" have a specific surface area of 2800-7500 cm2/g, and mainly consist of inorganic cement materials and water, are in the form of a liquid solution, paste or wet powder, which stays wet for the whole production, storage, transportation and usage period.

EFFECT: recycling of industrial slag; lower pollution of the environment and the level of production noise during production of the cement; simplified production; increased strength of the cement.

31 cl, 16 tbl, 32 ex, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly mineral mining with goaf stowing.

SUBSTANCE: stowing mix includes cement, namely 300 cement, milled granular slag and water. The filler is technological iodine modified sulfur and ash from thermoelectric power station. The iodine modified sulfur and the ash are fused with each other and milled in ball mill. Above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): 300 cement - 4.2-7.0, sulfur - 19.4-29.26, ash - 10.1-15.24, granular slag - 26.7-39.6, iodine - 0.0038-0.0058, remainder is water.

EFFECT: increased stowing mixture strength, homogeneity, manufacturability and pouring convenience without strength reduction, possibility to substitute expensive natural component for artificial ones obtained from industrial ore mining and smelting waste, improved environmental situation and decreased area of industrial waste storage.

1 tbl

FIELD: mining industry, possible use during underground processing of mineral resource deposits with hydraulic backfilling of extracted space.

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EFFECT: less drilling required, 1,3-1,5 times decreased consumption of explosives.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for liquidation of vertical courses of coal mines both at active and closed industries.

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1 ex, 1 dwg

Fill mix // 2282724

FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.

SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.

2 tbl

FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.

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EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to mining in particular, to underground mining of steep mineral deposits. The method includes penetrating of development workings and temporary workings, working off in limits of mine section of a mineral stocks from primordial chambers and chamberlets using drilling-and-blasting technique, infilling of the fulfilled room of primordial chambers and chamberlets with lagging. Breakage of stocks of 4 primordial and 3 secondary chambers is performed using general series of hole fans. Breakage of stocks of 4 primordial chambers is performed using a method of holes undercharge with water soluble gel tamping. Then partial discharge of ore from 4 primordial chambers in the conduit is performed followed by lagging of 4 primordial chambers with a hardening mixture. After reaching standard hardness by lagging, washover of the remained holes and/or their parts with water is performed followed by discharge of the remained ore from the conduit of discharge 5, and chambers 3 of the second sequential queue are worked off. Width b of primary 4 chambers is defined from the formula: b = hva2×ρd ×sinα/1800×σt, where hbl - vertical altitude of the block, m; ρd - density of the filling material of primordial chamber, kg/m3; σt - tension strength of the filling material of the primordial chamber, MPa; a - degree of dip of an ore body, grades.

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6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and can be used in mining ore bodies under protection of flexible covering. The method involves creating niches in the ore body, making down holes at the level of ore occurrence up to the lowest mark of a block, placing guideways and lag ropes, fastening them in the upper part. The method further involves boring a fan in the top wall of the ore body, in a parallel plane to occurrence of an ore body. On one charged fan of holes located in the centre against other fans, two single fans After loading the holes with explosive and detonations release of muck pile is performed. Further on, winches are mounted in the top niches, attaching lag cables, then the directing cables in the conduit are pull and used together with lag cables for stretching flexible cover in an upward direction. After stretching the covering is fixed in the top part of the block performing workout of stocks of the block.

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5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to the field mining using thermal fragmentation for the extraction of ore from narrow veins. The method of ore extraction from a vein with opposite side walls involves drilling of pilot holes in the vein directly, with certain pitch along the vein, reaming of the pilot holes by thermal fragmentation until the vein is fragmented, and removal of fragmented ore along the vein. The pitch is determined by the vein width. Along a part of the vein, the pilot holes are reamed gradually according to the given configuration, each second pilot hole is reamed in a greater degree, for its connection to the opposite adjacent pilot holes reamed earlier. The pilot holes are drilled and reamed in a given sequence, starting from drilling of the first group of three pilot holes, the first and third holes from the first group are reamed before reaming the second hole from this group. After the first group of holes, a group of two holes is drilled, the second hole from the second group being reamed before reaming the first hole from the second group. Fragmented ore is removed by suction.

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7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes the subterranean development of field with use of the chamber systems with the solid stowing and following refinement of the ore mass at the ore mill in the following stages. At the beginning, the ore recovering from the first-stage chamber (4) is performed. The ore pickings from the first-stage chamber (4) are processed to concentrate and final tailings. The tailings are processed to pellets. From the pellets, two workflows are formed, the first pellet flow is exposed to the heap leaching, and the second pellet flow is conditioned until the required mechanical characteristics. On completion of the leaching process, the pellets of the first workflow are mixed with binding agent and water, to receive the fill mixture, the fill mixture is sent to the first-stage chambers (4) until filling; after the fill mixture is solidified, the ore recovering from the second-stage chamber (5) is performed, the chamber's bottom is strengthened and prepared with the solidifying mixture which is prepared using the waste from the heap leaching; pellets of the second workflow are sent to the chamber with their following subterranean leaching.

EFFECT: comprehensive and complex development of minerals and ecologic-economic effects are provided.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining engineering.

SUBSTANCE: working method includes drifting of preparatory breakoffs, slicing of stope inclined strips, inclined according to sloping angle of ore body, beginning with hanging layer directed to bottom wall, ore breaking with explosive holes. Breakage, transportation and formation releasing from rocky bands in ore body are carried out separately through the flanking debris chute. Previous slice after corresponding preparation is filled with weak solid stowing, which provides hardiness of its walls, at that interblock pillars are eliminated with leaving of free technological space between ore mining face roof and horizontal surface of previous slice filling mass. At first one excavates low layer of the block with entry ways at whole its length, fills worked entry ways with hard solidifying mixture in particular order with preliminary armature setting up, so that after the complete excavation of the layer in-situ concrete slab is appeared. It performs the functions of ceiling while debugging of underlying block reservoir.

EFFECT: effectiveness improvement of ore excavation and safety of stopes working.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said method implies development and temporary drifting, horizon reserves hole drilling down to pillar bottom, hole 13 charging and blasting, loading of dumped ore from the block through loading workings 5. After loading workings drifting, stables 2 are worked out in the block corners, cutting across thickness of the ore body, fanned ring is drilled in the ore body hanger in parallel to the ore body bed. Per single charged fan, which is central as regards to other fans, four empty fans are drilled, after charging and blowing dumped ore is loaded, and then canopy 12 is created in the ore body hanger by stowing the resulting space with consolidating stowing material. After consolidation, block reserves are processed under canopy 12 protection, thickness h of the canopy being determined according to formula: h = L2ρ"P"/2000σ"R")sinα, where L - block slip, m; ρ"P" - canopy material density, kg/m3; σ"R"- canopy material tensile strength, MPa; α - ore body slope angle, degrees.

EFFECT: said invention provides for less labour intensity and improved output of stoping.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly underground thick ore body mining with chamber excavation system with goaf filling at large depths in the case of elevated rock pressure.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting unloading slot (slot raise) along ore body strike and before chamber stock excavation initiation in massifs of chambers of the first, the second and the third stages; filling the unloading slot with shrinkage ore; connecting unloading slot ends with cleavage cracks in different stages, wherein the cleavage cracks are formed by drilling wells of 100-112 mm diameters spaced apart 1-1,2 m apart along stage boundaries between sublevels so that each second well is blasted. As lying wall and hanging wall converge ore massifs of the first, the second and the third stages are shifted and slide one relatively another along with partial pillar breakage in unloading slots. To block filling material penetration through slot raise excavations passing through pillars, concrete bridges are erected in the slots. After than chambers of the first stage are cut and filled. After drilled cross-drift cutting the second and the third stage massifs are broken on previously driven slot raises.

EFFECT: increased mining safety and filler, improved stability of the first, the second and the third stage ore massifs, as well as contact massifs of lying and hanging walls.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly underground deposit mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves separating mining level into chambers arranged in staggered order, wherein chambers of each lower level are shifted with respect to ones of upper level for half of chamber width; preparing each mining level and sublevel by lateral drift excavation; forming inclines and cross-drifts to hanging wall of deposit; developing rises from cross-drifts of mining level, which are converted into slot raises; cutting chamber stock to open face. Mining levels are separated into chambers without safety pillar leaving. The chambers are shaped as hexahedrons. Ceilings are fully removed from mining level cross-drifts and are filled with filler. To cut chamber stocks ore level and sublevel drifts are created at lying walls. Inclines are cut from ore sublevel drift so that inclines extend between chambers. Fan-like wells are drilled from ore drifts and mining level stocks are blasted. Ore is drawn from each chamber to slot raise through incline ends in mining level and sublevel.

EFFECT: increased ore deposit thickness, decreased stock preparation and cutting time, as well as reduced mining costs.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: method for ore body having low and medium thickness development by mine sections involves preparing, cutting and drilling wells from drilling rooms; charging wells with explosive and blasting thereof; drawing ore from blocks and supporting goof. As mine section stock is excavated breakage heading line is advanced in several sections along ore body propagation line. Drilling rooms extend along maximal ore body shape variation line. Ore in section is cut in several layers transversal to longitudinal drilling room axis. Said layers have constant dimensions measured in direction of maximal ore body shape variation line. Layer dimensions in direction of maximal ore body shape variation line are divisible by line of least resistance. Layers have variable dimensions in direction of minimal ore body shape variation line and are determined to provide completeness of curvilinear ore body area cutting with linear stopping zone section.

EFFECT: increased labor productivity and mechanization degree due to improved self-moving or monorail drilling rig usage.

5 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly underground thick deposit development by room-and-pillar method, namely for uprise forming.

SUBSTANCE: method involves making uprise; forming horizontal entry in ore pass; isolating ore pass from goaf and filling goaf with dry filler. Uprise is made from ready entry of layer to be cut for 2-3 m height. Ore pass isolation is performed by removable metal form installation. After that entry space up to form is filled with rubble concrete.

EFFECT: decreased costs for ore production due to decreased ore making costs and lining thereof during goaf filling along with increased strength of ore pass entry.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes conditional separation of levels on chambers, which are made in form of stretched upwards hexahedron and placed in staggered order, at each lower level with displacement for half of chamber width in comparison to upper one. Preparation of each lower level is performed by driving field drift of main level, from which entries to ore deposit and orts to hanging side of deposit are driven, from orts ascending drifts are made and cut with cutting slits. For extraction of field resources a field sub-level drift is driven, entries and ore sub-level drift near lying side, from where orts are driven, from drift well fans are drilled and main resources of level are exploded through cutting slit. Outlet of ore from each chamber is performed through ends of outlet mines in main and intermediate levels. After removing main resources inter-level block is destroyed and ore from it is removed through entries of main level.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

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