Building wall and method of building wall erection

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to low-rise and cottage construction with application of multi-layer construction blocks that meet the highest requirements to decorative outside lining of buildings, heat and sound insulation of premises, for instance, prefabricated residential buildings, cottages and other structures. Building wall assembled from set of different construction blocks that consists of row, angular and intermediate blocks that are installed in rows, joined to each other in a certain manner and fixed between each other. Every block consists of decorative layer, bearing layer and heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. Angular blocks are provided of two types, at that the first type is arranged with L-shaped location of decorative and heat insulating layers that project with their one end to the side facet of the block, and with its other end - to the back facet of the block, at that bearing layer is made as shortened with one end that projects to side facet of the block, and the other end that joins to short shelf of heat insulating layer, and length of front layer of angular block short shelf is selected as equal to block thickness. The second type of angular unit is arranged with L-shaped location of bearing and heat insulating layers that project with their one end to the side facet of the block, and with its other end - to the front facet of the block, at that decorative layer is shortened with one end that projects to the side facet of the block, and the other end that joins to the short shelf of heat insulating layer, and length of bearing layer of the angular block short shelf is selected as equal to the block thickness. Intermediate blocks are installed in the zone of window and door openings of the wall and are provided of three types, at that the first type of intermediate blocks is arranged with stepped side facet formed with projecting decorative layer, and side link that connects bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them in stepped side facet, and the second type of intermediate blocks is arranged as shortened in length that is multiple to half of block length from the side of its front facet, and the third type of intermediate blocks is arranged with stepped side facets that are formed by projecting decorative layer, and side links that connect bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on both stepped side facets. Method is also described for erection of building wall.

EFFECT: simplification of construction blocks design in set and technology of wall erection with observance of all required technical and technological parameters, optimisation of number of blocks in set, increase of masonry strength characteristics and reduction of construction cost.

2 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to low-rise and cottage construction using multi-layer building blocks that meet the highest requirements for decorative exterior cladding, heat and sound insulation of premises, such as prefabricated houses, cottages and other buildings.

Known building block and wall, built of such blocks, corner joints, upper and lower piping, and the method of erecting a wall of a building that is implemented in this technical solution (see patent RU No. 2029832, CL. AS 1/00, 1998). In this technical solution, the block has a T-shaped profile with multiple sizes, allowing you to attach the blocks to each other in different combinations. The disadvantage of the block is the lack of insulation and external cladding, requiring additional costs for external and internal decoration of the building. In addition, the patent does not disclose the important task: docking blocks in the field of window and door openings, which requires the use of units other form.

Known building block containing the face layer of the concrete inner layer, insulating layer and concrete inner supporting layer, whose internal concrete and concrete inner bearing layers are connected fiberglass rods penetrating the insulating layer (see patent RU No. 2208101, CL. ES /40, 2001). Known block has good thermal insulation and does not require exterior of the building after its construction, but this patent does not solved the problem of docking blocks in the collection of the corners of the building, as well as window and door openings.

Known set of multi-layer building blocks, requiring no additional exterior finish, consisting of 11 different forms of design units, including ordinary and angular blocks of different configurations (see patent RU industrial sample # 52392, IPCI 25-01, 2001). This kit is designed to solve problems of docking blocks in the construction of the buildings, however, due to their complexity and low unification, is very complicated in the wall Assembly.

The closest technical solution to the claimed invention is a wall of a building, built from a set of different building blocks, consisting of ordinary, corner and intermediate blocks, laid in rows adjacent to each other in a certain way and fastened together, and the method of construction of the building wall, implemented in this solution (see PCT patent no WO 2004063475, CL. 02D 5/56, 2003). In the known patent provides for the construction of a wall of a building using the different blocks of the set depending on its location. For this purpose, the set is made of a large number monitorowania blocks, each of which is dedicated to superior quality products is sufficient for use in a specific place of the wall. The blocks are complicated mounting and require additional treatment walls after construction to enhance its decorative and insulating properties.

The present invention is directed to the solution of the technical problem simplify the design of building blocks in the set and technology of wall construction in accordance with all relevant technical and technological parameters, optimization of the number of varieties of blocks in the set, increase the strength characteristics of masonry and the cost of construction.

The solution of a technical problem is achieved in that in the wall of a building, built from a set of different building blocks, consisting of ordinary, corner and intermediate blocks, laid in rows adjacent to each other in a certain way and bonded together, each block consists of a decorative layer, base layer and located between the insulating layer, bonded polymer rods, with corner blocks are made in two types, the first type is made with G-shaped arrangement of decorative and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and at the other end to the back face block, while the supporting layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end premikudu the short shelf insulating layer, and the length of the front layer short shelf corner unit is selected equal to the thickness of the block, and the second type of corner block is made with G-shaped arrangement of the bearing and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and the other end on the front face of the block, while the decorative layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf insulating layer, and the length of the base layer short shelf corner unit is selected equal to the thickness of the block, and the intermediate blocks are located in the area of window and door openings and walls are made of three types while the first type of intermediate blocks made with stepped side face formed by the outermost decorative layer, and a lateral crosspiece connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on the stepped side face and the second type of intermediate blocks are made shorter in length, multiple of half the length of the block from its front face, and a third intermediate blocks made with stepped side faces formed protruding decorative layer, and side crosspieces connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them both stepped side faces.

And the fact that the method of construction of the building wall, vkluchaya the layer-by-layer stacking of a set of building blocks in a checkerboard pattern with the formation of corners through the use of corner blocks and the formation of the racks through the use of intermediate blocks, the construction of the wall using the set of blocks containing a decorative layer, base layer and located between the insulating layer, bonded polymer rods, and all the blocks are placed so that the vertical and horizontal they had joined the same layers for the construction of the external corners of the building wall using the blocks with G-shaped arrangement of decorative and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and at the other end to the back face of the block, while the supporting layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf insulating layer, and for the construction of the interior angles of a wall of a building use units with G-shaped arrangement of the bearing and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and the other end on the front face of the block, while the decorative layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf insulating layer, and during the construction of each odd row angular unit rotates 180° on the horizontal axis and 90° relative to the vertical axis for the education of window and door preemo is in each even-numbered row use intermediate blocks, made with stepped side face formed by the outermost decorative layer, and a lateral crosspiece connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on the stepped side face turning blocks stepped side face toward the window opening, and in each odd row use intermediate blocks are made shorter in length, multiples of half the length of the block from its front face, turning blocks stepped side face toward the window opening, and for the formation of paired window openings use intermediate blocks made with stepped side faces formed protruding decorative layer, and side crosspieces connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them both stepped side faces.

The invention is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 shows the external angle of a wall of a building, an even number, cut horizontally in figure 2 is the same, an odd number, figure 3 depicts the inner corner of the wall of the building, an even number, cut horizontally in figure 4 is the same, an odd number, figure 5 - site of the window opening, an even number, cut horizontally at 6 is the same, an odd number, 7 - node paired window opening, an even number, cut horizontally on Fig the same, an odd number, figure 9 - also, the vertical section.

The wall of the building which I built from a set of different building blocks, consisting of member 1, corner 2 and 3 and intermediate 4, 5, and 6 blocks, laid in rows. Each block consists of a decorative layer 7, the insulating layer 8 made of polystyrene foam or similar material and the base layer 9, bonded polymer rods (not shown). The decorative layer 7 is external and is made with natural stone, so after the construction of the wall does not require plaster and other finishes. All blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are placed in series so that the vertically and horizontally they were joined same layers: the base layer 9 of one block join with bearing layer 9 adjacent blocks, insulating layer 8 with the insulating layer 8, 7 decorative layer with the same layer 7 and all other blocks adjacent top, bottom and sides. Such stacking blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 provides a tight closure of all layers 7, 8, 9 between themselves, forming along the wall horizontally and at its height in terms of three continuous layer. For the decorative layer 7 it is important to preserve its elegant appearance, the insulating layer 8 are securely insulated from the external and internal environment, preventing in this layer not only precipitation, cold, and insects, mice, etc. Closing and laying on the solution of the base layer 9 provides a durable wall construction.

For who is edenia the outside corners of the wall 10 of the building using blocks 2 with G-shaped arrangement of decorative 7 and 8 layers of insulation, facing one end face on the side face 11 of the block 2, and the other end to the back face 12 of the block 2, while the supporting layer 9 is made shorter with one end facing the side face 11 of the block 2, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf 13 of the insulating layer 8. Additionally, the length L of the front layer short shelf corner unit selected is equal to the thickness of the blocks. It provides secure stacking blocks and their ligation in a checkerboard pattern in the construction of walls in height.

For the construction of the corners 14 of the wall inside the building when the building project is provided by the Bay Windows, overhangs, vertical drops, columns, etc. use the blocks 3 with G-shaped arrangement of the bearing 9 and the insulation 8 layers facing one end face on the side face 11 of the block 3 and the other end on the front face 15 of the block 3. The decorative layer 7 of block 3 is made shorter with one end facing the side face 11 of the block 3, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf 16 of the insulating layer 8. This embodiment of the decorative layer 7 allows for docking units 3 to ensure a tight fit of the layer 7 of block 3 to layer 7 blocks 1 from both sides, this ensures a flawless appearance angular dock decorative face layer during the formation of the corner joint, the formation of a clear internal angle 14 and reliable insulation. PR is the construction of each odd row (2 and 4) corner blocks 2 and 3 rotate 180° about the horizontal axis a-a and a turn in the horizontal plane at 90° relative to the vertical axis B-B. This allows for the stacking of ordinary blocks 1 in a checkerboard pattern, while each odd row remains distance to angle equal to half the width of the block 1, to use the same type of corner block of 2 or 3 depending on the type constructed of angle. Such execution units 2 and 3 significantly unifies a number of standard sizes of building material, simplifies the manufacture, selection and training kit to work and the construction of the wall. In erected form 10 external and 14 internal corners of the building do not require additional work on the alignment of joints, plaster, finish, etc.

For the formation of window and door openings in each even-numbered row use intermediate blocks of 4, made with stepped side face (figure 5). The protrusion 17 formed on a side face outermost decorative layer 7. Bearing 9 and 7 decorative layers are connected perpendicularly located with respect thereto by a lateral crosspiece 18. In the formation of window and door openings, blocks of 4 deploy the ledge 17 of the stepped side face in the direction of opening. In each odd row use intermediate blocks 5, is made shorter in length l1that are multiples of half the length l2unit 4 whether it is eve faces 19 (6). Blocks 5 also deploy stepped side face of the protrusion 17 and the bridge 18 in the direction of opening. For the formation of paired window openings (7 and 8) use the intermediate blocks of 6, made with two sides with stepped side faces of the protrusions 17 formed protruding decorative layer 7 and the lateral crosspieces 18 connecting the bearing 9 and 7 decorative layers perpendicular to them both stepped side surfaces. The box contains 20 IGU 21, mounted in the frame 22 with seal 23, the drain 24 from the outside and the window sill 25 on the inner side. The intermediate units 4, 5 and 6 with the tabs 17 and the ridges 18 on the sidewalls provide complete isolation of the seal 23 of the frame 22 from the external environment and from internal zone blocks 4, 5 and 6, where the insulating layer 8. This construction of the wall does not require additional work for insulation, window frames and doorways, and jumper 18 provides the necessary strength characteristics design and well secured binder. Using only three sizes of intermediate blocks 4, 5 and 6 provides performance window and door openings, completely ready to install Windows and doors that do not require additional work on adjustment of frames and frames. These blocks 4, 5 and 6 fully provide what teploizolyatsii in the field of window and door openings, elegant appearance, does not require additional finishing, and the necessary strength characteristics. In the construction of walls from blocks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of them have decorative layer 7 out and fix binder.

Thus, the claimed invention solves the technical problem simplify the design of building blocks in the set and technology of wall construction in accordance with all relevant technical and technological parameters, optimization of the number of varieties of blocks in the set, increase the strength characteristics of masonry and the cost of construction.

1. Wall of a building, built from a set of different building blocks, consisting of ordinary, corner and intermediate blocks, laid in rows adjacent to each other in a certain way and bonded together, wherein each block consists of a decorative layer, base layer and located between the insulating layer, bonded polymer rods, with corner blocks are made in two types, the first type is made with G-shaped arrangement of decorative and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and the other end on the rear face of the block, while the bearing layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other is to them an end face, adjacent to the short shelf insulating layer, and the length of the front layer short shelf corner unit is selected equal to the thickness of the block, and the second type of corner block is made with G-shaped arrangement of the bearing and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and the other end on the front face of the block, while the decorative layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf insulating layer, and the length of the base layer short shelf corner unit is selected equal to the thickness of the block, and the intermediate blocks are located in the area of the window and doorways and walls are made of three types, the first type of intermediate blocks made with stepped side face formed by the outermost decorative layer, and a lateral crosspiece connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on the stepped side face and the second type of intermediate blocks are made shorter in length, multiple of half the length of the block from its front face, and a third intermediate blocks made with stepped side faces formed protruding decorative layer, and side crosspieces connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them both stepped side faces.

2. With the persons erecting the walls of the building, including layer-by-layer stacking of a set of building blocks in a checkerboard pattern with the formation of corners through the use of corner blocks and the formation of the racks through the use of intermediate blocks, characterized in that the construction of the wall using the set of blocks containing a decorative layer, base layer and located between the insulating layer, bonded polymer rods, and all the blocks are placed so that the vertical and horizontal they had joined the same layers for the construction of the external corners of the building wall using the blocks with G-shaped arrangement of decorative and insulating layers facing one end face on the side the face of the block and the other end on the rear face of the block, while the supporting layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end adjacent to the short shelf insulating layer, and for the construction of the interior angles of a wall of a building use units with G-shaped arrangement of the bearing and insulating layers facing one end face on the side of the block and the other end on the front face of the block, while the decorative layer is made shorter with one end facing the side face of the block, and the other end adjacent to the short poloc the E. insulation layer, moreover, during the construction of each odd row angular unit rotates 180° on the horizontal axis and 90° on the vertical axis, while for the formation of window and door openings in each even-numbered row use intermediate blocks made with stepped side face formed by the outermost decorative layer, and a lateral crosspiece connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on the stepped side face turning blocks stepped side face toward the window opening, and in each odd row use intermediate blocks are made shorter in length, multiples of half the length of the block from its front face, turning blocks stepped side face toward the window opening, and for the formation of paired window openings use intermediate blocks made with stepped side faces formed protruding decorative layer, and side crosspieces connecting the bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them both stepped side faces.



 

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