Device for anchoring floating structure

FIELD: mechanics.

SUBSTANCE: device for anchoring floating structures incorporates mooring bar with ends furnished with the appliance to turn the aforesaid rod about its axis of rotation. At that the rod free end is provided with a sleeve letting the chains or cable to pass there through. The anchor chain passed through one of the aforesaid sleeves is fastened at one end faces of the said floating structure. Besides that, to up the structure stability, the proposed device can be furnished with links connecting the free ends of both mooring rods to the structure in question.

EFFECT: anchoring system causing no floating structure trim difference and providing for stable positioning with minor drift, reduced distance between anchor and floating structure.

11 cl, 15 dwg

 

The present invention relates to systems for anchoring floating structures. In particular, the invention relates to a self-regulating device intended for stable anchoring of floating structures, which are securely mounted, while in the water with a predictable direction of water flow, for example, tidal currents or river. The present invention therefore may be used for anchoring, for example, tidal power.

One example of a floating power plant designed to generate electrical energy by using the energy of water flow (current low rate), described in U.S. patent No. 4864152. This plant is adapted for free rotation relative to the mooring bollard, which is attached to the seabed.

Another example of a floating power plant disclosed in the international patent application filed by the applicant of the present invention (application PCT/NO 02/00249, 08.07.2002 date of filing published 23.01.2003 under number WO 03/006825 A1). This plant contains the platform is equipped with a large number of floating elements preferably one in each corner of the platform. It provides a combination of desired stability in lateral and longitudinal directions, the minimum is the relocation of the platform. From the platform, with each of its sides, leaves a large number of supporting consoles, each of which supports the generator housing. Supports console in place of their connection to the platform is equipped with hinges.

The described embodiment of the device provides a known and appropriate technical requirements consolidation platform using anchors (not shown) and chain on both sides. One or two anchors on each side, or one anchor on each side keep the two platforms. This means that the platform can be anchored with the orientation in the longitudinal direction at the desired distance from each other and in such proximity to turbines were installed with gaps between them. If the anchor is set several power plants side by side, in this case by means of chains can also be used to provide adjustable/fixed distance between these power plants across the stream.

For chain tension relative to the anchor in each of the areas of use of force, which is caused by the turbines. The slack in the chain on the opposite side from the placement of loaded anchors eliminate using the winch, and when the water flow turns, the same thing happens with the other hand. The result can be achieved guaranteed and sustainable Polo is a group of buildings, when a thread runs in the one, then in other directions.

During the operation of the floating tidal power plant floating structure is exposed to significant forces and moments acting by turbines. Particularly significant may be the differentiating point.

Technical conditions issued by organizations on the classification, require that the length of anchor chain (from the anchor to the floating structure) was such that the circuit could not be raised from the bottom near the anchor. In a typical floating power plant net force powers (force caused by the operation of the turbines, the initial tension acting in the same direction, and resistance) can create tension force up to 200 tons produced during electric power of about 1.5 MW in the stream of water flowing with a speed of 6 knots.

For the calculation of operating points and to keep the floating structure in a desirable position requires the active use of anchor winches plant. However, as was established by practice, these moments of force and the resulting displacement is very difficult to calculate, which is a clear limitation of the famous floating power plants.

In U.S. patent No. 5061131 disclosed "self-leveling" system for anchoring a floating platform. In this Pat is ntdom document describes the platform, secured by means of anchor chains, leading to the corresponding anchors on the seabed. Each anchor chain is equipped with a cargo, which in normal position is above the seabed. Under the action of external forces (for example, for water, wind), the platform will move. The load on the anchor chain, being to leeward, going down towards the bottom. In accordance with the description to the specified patent, if the load is resting on the bottom, this leads to a significant and immediate increase efforts to return the platform to its original position.

There is therefore a need in such a system, anchoring, which does not cause significant pitch (or longitudinal oscillations) floating platform, and also provides a stable positioning with a small drift and reduces the distance between the anchor and the floating structure.

The present invention solves these problems because it provides the receiving system anchoring, in which the action of the torques (for example, generated during operation of the turbine) is compensated by means of limitations, mooring rod and tensile forces acting on the anchor chain.

To solve this problem is proposed a device for anchoring floating structures, is within the first and second ends, moreover, the device characterized by the fact that each of the ends of the floating structure is mounted, at least one rigid mooring arm is held in the downward direction, and mooring rod that is attached to the first end of the structure, provided at its free end by means of giving directions longest mooring element that one end can be attached to the second end structures, and mooring rod that is attached to the second end of the structure, provided at its free end means for giving directions longest mooring element that one end can be connected with the first end of the structure.

Preferred embodiments of the present invention are disclosed in dependent clauses 2-11 claims.

In more detail below described embodiment of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings in which the same elements are denoted by the same numbers of items.

Figure 1 - the device according to the invention as applied to power plants generating electricity using the energy of water flow.

Figure 2 - device according to figure 1, end view.

3 - device according to figure 1, a view from the side.

4 - device according to Fig 1, top view.

5 is sartov is the second post in the future.

6 is a sleeve mounted on the free end of the rod, to increase, and the portion of the rod, indicated by the position In figure 5.

Fig.7 is an enlarged image of the area marked on the figure 5 position A, and the elements to swivel with a floating structure.

Figa diagram of the device according to the invention, from the side, in a fixed volume of water afloat.

Fig.8b device according figa, in the position that is established by flow of water from left to right in the drawing.

Figa diagram of the device according to the invention, shown at the top, without the stabilizing reinforcing ropes.

Fig.9b the device shown in figa, with a stabilizing reinforcing ropes.

Figa diagram of the device according to the invention, equipped with a telescopic mooring rods, shown with one side, floating in a fixed volume of water.

Fig.10b the device shown in figa, in the position that is established as a result of water flow is from left to right in the drawing.

Figa diagram of the device according to the invention, equipped with the constraints on the one side, in a fixed volume of water afloat.

Fig.11b the device shown in figa, in the position that is established as a result of water flow is from left to right in the drawing.

The mouth of austo according to the present invention in its basic implementation consists of the floating structure 100, made in the form of an oblong structure with first and second ends, shown in figa. Thus to each end of the floating structure attached mooring rod 120A, b. Mooring rod is preferably attached to the structure with the possibility of rotation about the respective axes 122a, b rotation. At the free end of each mooring rod guide is 124A beaches, b in the form of a sleeve through which can be skipped rope, chain or similar connection. Such rope, chain or the like communication (hereinafter referred to as mooring elements) can be anchored, for example, on the seabed. Each of the guides 124A beaches, b is executed with the ability to direct the relevant mooring elements (lines), passed through them to attach to opposite sides of the floating structure. As can be seen from these drawings, one of the mooring elements 110A passes through the means 124A beaches, b, made in the form of a sleeve, and further up to the end of the structure opposite to another end, that is attached to the mooring rod 120A. As noted, each mooring arm is preferably attached to the floating structure can be rotated about the rotation axis, but, in addition, mooring rod may contain telescopic elements (including springs and dampers)to the E. provide compression and elongation specified mooring rod instead of attaching the rod to the structure via a swivel. One such example is shown on figa and 10b.

In accordance with the foregoing power plant or structure at both ends is preferably provided with a hinge attached mooring rods, while at the free end of each ground rod installed sleeve or bushing through which can be omitted from the circuit, as shown on the drawings. Anchor chain or cable passing through one of the bushings attached to the opposite end of the plant. In addition, in order to ensure stability it is preferred that the links 126 tension, which connect the free ends of the two ground rods with power plant. On fig.8b, 10b and 11b show various examples of the invention when placing structures in the water flow, which, as provided, flows from left to right in the drawing. With both ends of the structure in the direction of flow is the main circuit (the longest sartov). As shown, these mooring elements out of the "aft end" structures and are under construction in the forward direction along the Central line through the guides 124A beaches, b, made in the form of bushings, which, in turn, as noted above, is attached to the free end of the mooring post. Mooring bar with orientation in the direction of load action" will find the change under an angle, almost equal to 45° relative position of the structure.

Mooring arm can perceive the force of the compression and preferably pivotally connected with the end of construction, and is also provided with tension cables extending from sleeves or sleeves, the bottom end of the rod to each side of the structure. The length and weight of the mooring rod selected such that the moments that cause and prevent the trim will be equally large in both directions balancing trim. Thus, at all moments acting on the structure will be achieved self-regulating equilibrium pitch".

Mooring rod is made with a possibility of free rotation about its axis a, b rotation preferably together with side ties 126 tension and acts like a "ghoul" at anchor chains (cargo, which pulls no vertical passing the anchor chain). Such an operation rod is particularly advantageous on the side of the structure opposite to the action of the basic tension, and provides optimal steady design. In the case of changing the direction of flow of water mooring rod will automatically perform the specified function. It also assumes the implementation of the method, according to which, as soon as establish exactly where the location is to legalise floating object, determine the place of installation involved armature considering the depth and topography of the bottom. Then, place the anchor using auxiliary vessels, and put the anchor chain in the direction of arrangement of the floating object. Before removing the end of the chain to hold the anchor and release the anchor chain, the end of which was connected to the buoyancy element (for lifting). The same procedure is repeated for the armature 2. When it is necessary to bring the plant in action, located in water mooring elements are passed through the sleeve, mounted on a mooring rod 120A, b, and sent to the floating structure. The circuit is first hauled on hydraulic chain stopper 130A, b and then selecting circuit uses hydraulic lifting equipment. In that case, when the water flow is strong enough, the final lifting and fixing anchors can be performed by using a turbine power plant.

Figure 1 presents an embodiment of the invention in which the support structure 620 is equipped with location 600 for remote control and supports console 615 are connected to the generators 752 for the generation of electric energy is carried out at low water velocity. Supports console 615 is connected to the supporting structure 620 possibility is Vorota relative to the axis of rotation, as noted in the previously filed by the applicant in the application PCT/NO/02/00239 (link above). According to figure 1 structure 620 is equipped with pairs of floating elements 610, preferably on the first and second end sections of the structure. In addition, figure 1 shows the locations 630a, b accession and regulating hydraulic equipment, which is necessary for choosing mooring elements and management. As noted above, mooring rod a, b are from buildings sloping down, and figure 1 illustrates an embodiment in which the rod is attached to the structure with the possibility of rotation about the respective axes a, b rotation. Each of the free ends of the mooring rods provided with guides a, b, made in the form of sleeves or sleeves that are connected with ground rods preferably with the possibility of rotation about the axis of rotation. The resultant stability of the building is achieved through links 660 tension, made in the form of wire rope tension, stretched from the free ends of the mooring rods up to each of the floating elements 610, as shown in figure 1.

2, showing the same device as in figure 1, but from one end, shows that communication 660 tension in practice can be made in the form of chains.

Figure 3 presents the location 630a, b compounds and sartov the s elements a, b, which pass through the upper surface of the structure shown in the drawing envelopes outside its ends. In addition, the drawing shows that the floating elements 610 are mounted to the support structure 620 in the normal position not in contact with water, however, the present invention is of such construction is not limited. It should be noted that in figure 1-4 shows an embodiment of the present invention, placed in a water volume, but the volume of immobile water, i.e. the structure is not exposed to movements in either direction.

Figure 5 presents an embodiment mooring rod a, b, and revealed details of the construction end sections mooring rod.

Figure 6 presents a guide in the form of a sleeve 654, made with the possibility of joining the mooring arm can be rotated about the rotation axis.

7 shows the accession of the ground rod to the axis of rotation a, b, which are provided to the design.

On figa - fig.11b shows another embodiment of the device according to the invention. As already noted, figa displays the main floating structure 100 with two mooring rods 120A, b, each of which acts as a guide for mooring elements (i.e. chains or cables). On figa shows a device according to the invention, to ascertain the Noah in a fixed volume of water, where mooring elements 110A, b are to each side and is securely attached to anchors that are installed on the seabed. Fig.8b displays the device shown in figa, positioned under the influence of the water flow is directed to the drawing from left to right. Mooring rod 120b rises for a short distance up the tension mooring element 110b, while the rod 120A force pointing down. Both mooring rods 120A, b are rotated about the respective axis a, b rotation.

Figa illustrates mooring rods 120A, b. Mooring rod can be a large hard elements, but in practice (as also shown in the above drawings) mooring rods 120A, b carry out so as to fig.9b, and it is preferable that they be provided with links or elements 126 tension, as shown in fig.9b.

On figa and 10b shows an embodiment of a device corresponding to the invention, in which the mooring rod 120'a, b are made telescopic. To a person skilled in the art it is obvious that such mooring rod can be rigidly attached to the structure 100 or attached thereto can be rotated about an axis of rotation, as indicated above. Like the previously discussed drawings, fig.10b otepaeae the device according figa in this position, which is set under the action of currents of water flowing on the specified fig.10b from left to right.

To control the rotation angle of the rod, mooring elements 110A, b may be equipped with limit switches a, b, mounted on the outside from the respective mooring rods 120A, b. These stops are in contact with the free end of the respective mooring rods, as shown in fig.11b, where the structure 100 under the action of currents of water flowing from left to right on the figure, the force acts in the direction from left to right, resulting in an emphasis a is in contact with the rail 124A beaches, made in the form of a sleeve, and as a result of limited movement throughout the plant. The use of emphasis of this type installed on the mooring connection at a given point (which determines the angle of the mooring bar for construction)is probably the preferred solution. Due to this, will increase the moment that prevents the trim. In practice, the implementation of the method, according to which the platform is attached to the chain (i.e. from the opposite end as compared with the known method) and pass them through a sleeve mounted on the end of the ground rod, protruding forward from the current platform, leads to the fact that the construction (power plant), in General, is studiato a given point in the direction of load action. The reason is that this position of the lowest point on the mooring post (on the sleeve, through which slides the mooring element) is supported from the sides of the rod by means of two chains near the surface, which is attached articulated in the same place as the upper end of the rod. For example, if one of the mooring elements will break, all power plant will be rotated around the axis of rotation. Another positive factor is that when increasing the flow rate of the water flow pressure, which provides a flow of water at the mooring post, will also increase, and the rod under the action of the pressure goes down and counteracts the pitch at which the connection point is omitted below. The relationship between length and weight of the rod, which is filled with sand to increase its weight represents a value, which may best be established empirically. Perfect length, weight, angle bars, etc. it is difficult to estimate accurately in advance as uncertain is the amount of force acting at the work of each turbine.

Although the present invention has been disclosed with reference to power plant designed to generate electricity using the energy of the water flow rate is low, you need is tmetal, the above-described device anchoring is appropriate for any floating facility, which are subject to substantial differentiating points, due to the constructive execution of the given object. Therefore, the proposed device for anchoring should not be limited to buildings equipped with floating elements 610 in the form of pontoons and is not limited to structures with a rectangular cross-section or, mostly elongated.

1. Device for anchoring floating structures (100; 620), containing the first and second end faces, characterized in that each of these ends of the structure is mounted, at least one protruding forward and downward rigid mooring arm (120A; 120 a, b; 650a, b), with mooring rod connected with the first end of the structure, provided at the free end of the guide (124A beaches; a) for the elongate mooring element (110A; a), which one end is connected with the second end structures, and mooring rod connected with the second end of the structure, provided at its free end a guide (124b; 654b) for the elongate mooring element (110b; 617b), which one end is connected to the first end of the structure.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each ground rod (120A; 120 a, b; 650a, b) attached to floating with the equipment can be rotated about an axis (a; A) rotation.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each ground rod (120A; 120 a, b; 650a, b) contains a telescopic elements, providing a decrease and an increase in the length specified mooring rod.

4. The device according to claim 1, wherein each respective first and second elongate mooring element (110A, b; a, b) attached to the respective junctions (130b, a; 630b, and on the second and first ends of the structure.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the guides (a, b) for elongated mooring elements (a, b) is made in the form of a sleeve attached to the corresponding mooring rod can be rotated about the rotation axis.

6. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the elongate mooring element (110A, b; a, b) interconnected with these guides (124A beaches; 654b) slidable with respect to these funds.

7. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the structure (620) supported by multiple floating elements (610)installed in pairs, preferably on the first and second ends of the structure and extend beyond the structure.

8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it is provided with connections (126, 660) tension, which pairs connect the free end of the mooring arm first and second ends of the respective floating with the pursued.

9. The device according to claim 8, characterized in that the said pair of links tensioning connect the free ends of the mooring rods with the relevant floating elements (610).

10. Device according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that it contains many support consoles (615), which one end is attached to the structure with the possibility of rotation about the axis of rotation, and the other end attached to the respective generators (752), designed to generate electricity using the energy of water streams.

11. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that each mooring element is equipped with a stop (a, b)installed between the respective guides (124A beaches, b; a, b) and the points of attachment of the anchors on the bottom under construction.



 

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