Object resistant to ballistic effects
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposal is given of a sheet with at least, two monolayers, each of which contains unidirectional oriented fibres, binding substance and parting film with porosity of 40-90% on both outer surfaces. The unidirectional oriented fibres in the monolayer have breaking stress of approximately 1.2GPa, and Young's modulus of at least 40 GPa. The direction of fibres in each monolayer is opposite the direction of fibres in the adjacent monolayer. The invention also pertains to assembling of at least, two such sheets and a flexible object, resistant to ballistic effects, with such a structure.
EFFECT: increased ballistic stability.
11 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
The present invention relates to pre-formed sheet to the Assembly at least two of the sheets and flexible product containing such an Assembly. Pre-molded sheet contains at least two monolayer, each of which contains one-directional oriented fibers having a tensile strength of at least 1.2 GPA and a modulus of tensile elasticity of at least 40 GPA, and a binder, with the fibre direction in each monolayer is rotated relative to the fibre direction in an adjacent monolayer, and a separating film on both surfaces.
This pre-formed sheet is known from EP 0907504 A1. This document disclosed a composite layer (or pre-molded sheet), which is obtained by overlaying 4 monolayers with transverse intersection and applying a separating film made of linear low density polyethylene, and the subsequent consolidation of the stack at an elevated temperature under pressure. Monolayers containing unidirectionally oriented fibers were obtained from fibers of aramid yarn having a linear density of 1680 decitex, through their transmission from the coil through the comb and wetting water dispersion of the block copolymer is a polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene as a binder or matrix material. Of n is associated stack of several such composite layers made of flexible fittings, resistant to ballistic impact, while the stack is stabilized by the stitching at the corners.
The disadvantage of the prior art pre-formed sheet is that the relationship between the energy absorption containing such lists products that are resistant to ballistic impact, which is a measure of the level of ballistic protection, and weight of the product, resistant to ballistic impact is adverse. This ratio is usually referred to as the specific absorption of energy (the Department for industrial environment), i.e. the absorption of energy per mass unit area (usually called specific gravity UE). This means that to achieve a certain desired level of protection requires a relatively heavy product, resistant to ballistic impact. If, on the other hand, the product is resistant to ballistic impact, has a low weight, this product creates a relatively low level of protection against ballistic impacts. For a large number of tasks in the least possible weight, resistant to ballistic impact, in combination with certain minimum level of protection is of great importance. This applies, for example, means of individual protection, such as protective clothing and body armor, such as bulletproof vests, as well as for use in, for example, t is unsporty tools.
Thus, the industry has a constant need for pre-formed sheets to make products that are resistant to ballistic impact, providing a higher level of protection at a certain weight.
According to the present invention this is achieved by pre-molded sheet, where the separating film has a porosity of 40-90%.
Thanks to the pre-molded sheet of the present invention can be obtained significantly higher level of protection at a weight Assembly of sheets or articles that are resistant to ballistic impact, containing the Assembly sheet of the present invention. Another advantage of the pre-molded sheet of the present invention is that in addition to the favorable relationship between the protection level and density per unit area of the product is resistant to ballistic impact, comprising the Assembly of pre-formed sheets, has great flexibility, which extends the scope of applicability of such products, resistant to ballistic impact. This makes this product particularly suitable for areas where it is especially desirable to achieve high flexibility and comfort in use, for example, in bullet-proof vests. Such sheets, in addition, better prigodin is to print in different ways, which is an advantage from the point of view of production, as well as the quality and traceability of products.
Under products, resistant to ballistic impact, understood fittings containing an Assembly of at least two pre-formed sheets of the present invention, which can be used, such as protective clothing or for booking vehicles, and which provide protection against ballistic impacts, such as bullets and shrapnel.
The Assembly of the present invention contains a stack of pre-formed sheets, not related to each other, i.e. the sheets are not bonded or not bonded with each other on a substantial portion of their adjacent surfaces. However, contact with the stack of pre-formed sheets, which are not bonded to each other, it is difficult, because the stack has no connectivity (coherence), necessary for further processing. To achieve some level of coherence product, resistant to ballistic impact can be, for example, to sew. This binding, however, should be minimized, for example, in the corners or around the edges, to allow some movement of the sheets relative to each other. Thus, the pre-formed sheets in the Assembly or in the product, sustainable ballisticheskom impact can move relative to each other, then as the Assembly or the product has coherence and has good flexibility.
Pre-molded sheet contains at least two monolayer from unilaterally oriented fibers, with the fiber direction in each monolayer is rotated relative to the fiber direction in an adjacent monolayer, and at least two monolayer or related to each other or attached to each other. The angle at which deployed fiber in layers relative to each other, means the smallest angle between the fibers in the adjacent monolayers and ranges from 0about90about. Preferably this angle is between 45about90about. Most preferably, this angle is between 80about90about.Products that are resistant to ballistic impact, in which the fibers in adjacent layers are at an angle, have the best Sam characteristics. The term "monolayer" refers to a layer unilaterally oriented fibers and a binder, which basically holds the fibers together.
The term "fiber" includes not only the monofilament, but in addition and yarns are monofilaments or a flat belt. The term "unilaterally oriented fibers" refers to fibers that are in the same plane is oriented essentially p is parallel.
Fiber in a pre-molded sheet of the present invention have a tensile strength of at least 1.2 GPA and a modulus of tensile elasticity of at least 40 GPA. The fibers may be inorganic or organic fibers, such as fiberglass, carbon fibers, and ceramic fibers. Suitable organic fibers having a high tensile strength are, for example, aramid fibers, liquid crystal polymer fibers and fibers, for example, polylefin, polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylonitrile, which have a high degree of orientation that can be achieved, for example, the spinning process of the gel. These fibers preferably have a tensile strength of at least approx. 2 GPA, at least a 2.5 GPA or even 3 HPa. Preferred are polyolefin fibers with a high degree of orientation. The advantage of these fibers is that they possess high tensile strength and low specific gravity, so they, in particular, are especially well suited for use in lightweight products that are resistant to ballistic impact.
Suitable polyolefins, in particular, are the homopolymers and copolymers of ethylene and propylene, which may also contain small amounts of one or some of the other polymers, specifically, the other alkene-1-polymers.
Good results are obtained when the polyolefin to choose linear polyethylene (PE). Linear polyethylene is understood here as polyethylene with less than 1 side chain per 100 carbon atoms and preferably less than 1 side chain per 300 carbon atoms. Side chain or branch usually contains at least 10 carbon atoms. Linear polyethylene may additionally contain up to 5 mol.% one or more other alkenes, which can copolymerizate, for example propylene, butylene, Panten, 4-methylpentene, octene.
Preferably linear polyethylene has a high molecular weight at a characteristic viscosity (HV, the solution in decaline at 135°C)component of at least 4 DL/g; more preferably at least 8 DL/g Such polyethylene is also called polyethylene with ultra-high molar mass (UITE). Characteristic viscosity is a measure of the molecular weight (also called molecular weight), which is easier to determine than the parameters of the real molecular weight, such as Mnand Mw. There are several empirical relationships between XB and Mwbut such relationships to a large extent depend on the distribution of molecular weight. On the basis of equality Mw=lower than the 5.37×104[XB]1,37(see EP 0504954 A1), XB at 4 and 8 DL/g is equivalent to Mwapprox. 360 or 930 kg/mol, respectively.
Preferably used polyethylene fiber with high performance (NRRA), consisting of filaments of polyethylene obtained by the method of spinning the gel described, for example, in GB 2042414 or WO 01/73173. The spinning method of the gel essentially consists of preparation of a solution of linear polyethylene with a high characteristic viscosity, spinning filaments from a solution at a temperature higher than the temperature of dissolution, cooling the filaments to a temperature below the gelation temperature to form gel, and extruding the filaments before, during, and after removal of solvent.
The term "binder" refers to a material that binds or holds the fibers together and can surround the fiber completely or partially, so as to preserve the structure of the monolayer during the transportation and manufacture of pre-formed sheets. The binder material may be in various forms and in various ways, for example, as a film, as the transverse connecting strip or cross-fiber (transverse relative to the unidirectional fibers), or by impregnation of the fibers by the matrix material or the introduction of fibers in such a material, for example, by using a melt or polymer solution or dispersion of the polymer material in the liquid. Site is preferably the matrix material is homogeneous distributed over the entire surface of the monolayer, while the binding strip or binder fibers can be applied locally. Suitable binders are described in EP 0191396 B1, EP 1170925 A1, EP 0683374 B1 and EP 1144740 A1.
In a preferred embodiment, the binder is a matrix of polymer material, which may be thermosetting or thermoplastic material, or mixtures thereof. The elongation at break of the matrix material is preferably greater than the elongation of the fibers. Binder preferably has an elongation 3-500%. Suitable thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix materials are listed, for example, in WO 91/12136 A1 (p.15-21). The material of the matrix is preferably selected from the group of thermosetting polymers, vinyl esters, unsaturated polyesters, epoxy or phenolic resins. The matrix material can be selected from the group of thermoplastic polymers, polyurethanes, polivinil, high, polyolefins or thermoplastic elastomeric block copolymers such as block copolymers of polyisoprene-polyethylene-butylene-polystyrene or polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene. Preferably the binder consists essentially of a thermoplastic elastomer, which essentially covers a single thread of these fibers in the monolayer and has a modulus of tensile elasticity (as measured by ASTM D638 at 25° (C) less than approx. 40 MPa. This binder gives high flexibility the monolayer and Assembly of pre-manufactured sheets. Produced very good results, when the binder is in monolayers and pre-molded sheets was a block copolymer of styrene-isoprene-styrene.
In a special embodiment of the present invention a binder in a pre-molded sheet of the present invention in addition to the material of the polymer matrix also contains a filler in an amount of 5-80% by volume of the total volume of the binder. More preferably the amount of filler is 10-80% by volume and most preferably 20-80% by volume. It was found that the flexibility of products that are resistant to ballistic impact, increases without compromising Sam characteristics.
The filler is not involved in creating the connection between the fibers, and is used for volumetric dilution of the matrix between the fibers, resulting in a product that is resistant to ballistic impact, become more flexible and absorbs more energy. The filler preferably contains finely dispersed substance with a light weight or density. The filler may be a gas, although the gas filler is a practical problem in the processing of the matrix material. Filler among other things may also contain substances that are specially designed for the preparation of dispersions, such as emulsifiers, stabilizers, with auusie etc. or a fine powder.
It was found that if the binder contains a filler in an amount less than 80% by volume, the amount of binder sufficient to achieve adequate communication between the fibers at a constant total number of matrix material. It was also found that if the matrix contains the filler in an amount of over 5% by volume, the flexibility of the product, resistant to ballistic impact, increases.
Preferably the amount of binder in the monolayer does not exceed 30% by weight, more preferably 25, 20 or even 15% by weight, since the protection against ballistic impacts play an important role in fiber.
Pre-molded sheet of the present invention on both surfaces contains a separating film with a porosity of 40-90%. These films can be, for example, a porous film made of polyethylene, polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene, which is described, for example, in EP 0184392 A1 and EP 0504954 A1. The porosity of the film is determined by the relative volume of voids, pores or channels in the film (expressed in volume%), determined by density measurements. It's best to determine the porosity of the film before it is applied to pre-formed sheet. The porosity may decrease during lamination under pressure when applied to the pre with Ormandy sheet. During lamination or pressure treatment is chosen such conditions (temperature, pressure, time)that allow you to get a consolidated sheet is a sheet in which all layers are at least partially bonded to each other, but essentially without melting separating film, because it would decrease the porosity and the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the film.
Preferably the separating film has an initial porosity, i.e. the porosity is up to the manufacture of pre-formed sheet, at least 50%, 60% or even at least 70%.
Preferably the film is the so-called microporous films, which means that the pores and channels in a substantially continuous matrix structure have a size of 0.001-10 μm, preferably 0.01 to 5 μm.
The separating film is preferably made of polyolefin, more preferably polyethylene. There are many different types of polyethylene are ideal for the formation of thin films, including different types of copolymers of ethylene and at least one comonomer, for example alpha-olefin. In a preferred embodiment, the separating film is essentially made of polyethylene with a high molecular weight, more preferably from polyethylene with ultra-high molar mass (UITE) with XB at least 4 DL/g Such plank which typically have relatively high strength and modulus of elasticity and high abrasion resistance.
Pre-molded sheet further contains an adhesive layer between the porous film and other layers to improve adhesion between the layers and thereby the integrity and stability of the sheet.
In a particular embodiment, the present invention pre-molded sheet contains monolayers containing fibers from high quality polyethylene (high performance polyethylene, NRRE) and a polyethylene porous film, more preferably a microporous film of OITA. The advantage of this design is that between the layers have good adhesion without the use of additional adhesives that promotes weight loss. In addition, the flexibility of the Assembly containing a stack of such sheets, very high, probably due to the very low friction between the surfaces of the sheets. This greatly increases the comfort of wearing is made of protective products.
Preferably the separating film is a film stretched in two axes, preferably as a film which has been stretched in two axes with a factor of 10-100. Under film, stretched along two axes with a factor of 10-100, here is the film that is stretched in two perpendicular directions, so that the surface of the film is increased by 10-100 times. A method of manufacturing such stretched films described in EP 0504954 A1. The advantage of films, stretched along two axes, is that what you can achieve an even higher level of protection at a given weight. Preferably, the film is stretched in two axes with a ratio of at least 20, at least 30, or even at least 40x. More preferably, the film is stretched along two axes, made of OITA, applied to the leaves. Such films have a relatively high ultimate tensile strength and modulus of tensile elasticity, which contributes to the deformation of the pre-formed sheet upon impact. Properties tensile preferably expressed on the width of the film (e.g., in N/m), and not on the cross section (as N/m2for ease of comparison with the non-porous films. Preferably therefore the separating film has a tensile strength in the width of the film (also referred to as the strength factor) of at least 150 N/m, at least 200 or even 250 N/m In the case of films with a high elongation at break (for example, more than 20%) as an indicative characteristics preferably is taken as the yield strength and not the strength at break. The modulus of tensile elasticity in the width of the film is preferably equal to at least 3000 N/m, of at least 4000 N/m, or even at least 5000 N/m
Although the thickness or mass per unit area (which is called "areal mass" or "areal density") of the film is not critical for the performance of protection against ballistic impacts, the preferred thin the film, because they further reduce the weight and increase the flexibility of the sheets, assemblies, and products. The best results were obtained with pre-molded sheet, where the separating film had an areal density of 2-8, preferably 2-4 g/m2.
Pre-molded sheet of the present invention contains at least two monolayer containing unilaterally oriented fibers. Essentially, the pre-formed sheet contains 2, 4 or any other number that is divisible by 2, perpendicularly oriented layers unilaterally oriented fibers, combined with the film stretched in two axes. Pre-molded sheet with two monolayers unilaterally oriented fibers, coupled with the tension on the two axes of the film on both surfaces, as it turns out, provides the best protection against ballistic impact.
In a particular embodiment, the present invention pre-molded sheet contains as a separating film is a film stretched along one axis, preferably a film with a stretch factor of 10-50. These films, stretched along one axis, are placed so that the direction of stretching of the film takes place perpendicular to the fiber direction in an adjacent layer of unidirectional fibers. In this case, the sheet may contain an odd number of mo is sloev. In a special variant 3 monolayer unidirectional oriented fibers, the Central layer of which has approximately the same areal density, which are both adjacent monolayer taken together, were covered with films, stretched along one axis, while the direction of stretching was held perpendicular to the fiber direction in an adjacent layer of unidirectional fibers. The advantage of this design is that in the process of continuous production of sheet, for example, drawing on the calender stretched along one axis films on the stack of monolayers, both the separating film can be applied in one direction relative to the roll sheets.
The present invention further relates to an Assembly of at least two pre-formed sheets of the present invention, where the sheets are not related to each other. When increasing the number of pre-formed sheets of the level of protection against ballistic impact is increased, but the weight of the Assembly is increased, and the flexibility decreases. For maximum flexibility the adjacent tiles in an Assembly are not connected with each other. Depending on the threat and the required degree of protection specialist experimentally can pick up the desired number of sheets.
Other advantages of the Assembly that is resistant to ballistic effects of the present invention, or isdel what I containing such an Assembly manifest when solving problems, where in addition to weight and level of protection of such products plays an important role flexibility.
Assemblies and products that are resistant to ballistic impact, can be used continuously, and only once. Permanent tasks requiring flexibility - these are tasks in which the product is resistant to ballistic impact resulting from the use of, constantly subject to change shape, for example, in products that are resistant to ballistic impact, which are used as body armor. One-time tasks that require flexibility - these are tasks where the Assembly or product that is resistant to ballistic impact, take concrete form only once. An example is a product that is resistant to ballistic impact, which should be installed in hard-to-reach places, such as car door.
It was found that the necessary flexibility, protection and weight Assembly that is resistant to ballistic impact can be achieved when the weight of the pre-molded sheet has a specific maximum value. Preferably the weight or areal density pre-molded sheet in products that are resistant to ballistic impact for problems with constant flexibility, does not exceed 500 g/m2when the fiber content ineach monolayer of 10-150 g/m 2. More preferably, the weight of the pre-formed sheet not exceeding 300 g/m2when the content of fibers in each monolayer 10-100 g/m2.
For tasks that require a one-time flexibility, you can use Assembly, or product that is resistant to ballistic impact with weight or areal density of not more than 800 g/m2and more preferably 300 g/m2because such tasks require a one-time flexibility, you need a certain minimum stiffness, so that the product could retain its shape. More preferably the weight of the pre-formed sheet exceeds 400 g/m2and even more preferably greater than 500 g/m2.
The Assembly is resistant to ballistic impact, in principle, can be manufactured by any known suitable means, for example by the method described in WO 95/00318, US 4623574 or US 5175040. The monolayer is created, for example, of fibers, preferably in the form of a continuous multifilament yarn, which is directed from the reel on a comb, resulting fibers take the orientation parallel to the plane. For ease of manufacturing it is possible to use a temporary support layer, for example a sheet of coated paper, which is removed from the monolayer at a later stage of production. Then apply a binder to hold the fibers together, i.e. for SOH is anemia received orientation and structure of the fibers for subsequent stages of production. If the binder is applied to the matrix material, the fibers before or after giving them parallel to the plane of orientation is preferably covered with some liquid substance containing a binder or its predecessor, which at later stages of the manufacture of products that are resistant to ballistic impact, react to form the polymer matrix material having a desired modulus of elasticity. The term "predecessor" refers to Monomeric, oligomeric or stitched polymeric composition. The liquid substance may be a solution, dispersion or melt.
A few monolayers, turning them relative to each other, preferably approx. 90aboutthat stack on one another and on both surfaces (above and below the stacked by monolayers) placed a separating film, thereby forming in the process a multi-layered sheet. It is preferable to increase the temperature and/or pressure to consolidate the layers using known methods; for example, it can be done in a periodic manner by compression of the stack in the mold, or continuously, in stages laminating and processing on the calender. If the binder is applied to the matrix material, the matrix material can be made to flow between the fibers and to stick to the fibers below and overlying monocle is in and not necessarily to the separating film. If you are applying a solution or dispersion of the matrix material, the method of forming monolayers in a multi-layered sheet also contains the stage at which evaporated the solvent or dispersant, essentially prior to the execution stages of deposition of the layers separating film and consolidation. Then such pre-formed sheets of the pile to obtain the Assembly, which in turn can be used to make the product resistant to ballistic impact, the Assembly can optionally be stabilized, for example, a local stitching or by enclosing the stack in a flexible sheath.
It was found that from the point of view of obtaining a low content of binder and particularly low content of matrix material is the advantage of using a method in which the monolayer is produced by wetting the yarn having a linear density (or titer) 500-2500 decitex with the dispersion of the matrix material and optionally a filler. Yarn with a linear density of more than 500 decitex absorbs relatively little of the material matrix of the variance. Preferably the linear density exceeds 800 decitex, more preferably more than 1000 decitex and most preferably more than 1200 decitex. Linear density preferably has a value below 2500 decitex because this yarn is easier to distribute in PL is skoti to obtain monolayer.
Preferably used aqueous dispersion of the matrix material. Aqueous dispersion has a low viscosity, which contributes to a very uniform distribution of matrix material between the fibers and the establishment of good relations between the fibers. Another advantage is that the dispersant, which is water, is not toxic and therefore can evaporate into the atmosphere. Preferably the dispersion to obtain a uniform distribution with a low content of the matrix material contains 30 to 60% by weight of the solid components (elastomeric matrix material and any present filler) of the total mass of the dispersion.
The Assembly is resistant to ballistic effects of the present invention obtained by the methods described above, shows a very good ballistic properties, expressed by the values of V50and SEA, especially at relatively low areal density. Preferably the Assembly according to the present invention has the value of the specific energy absorption (specific energy absorption, SEA) at least 300 j·m2/kg at impact bullet type FMJ Parabellum 9×19 mm (8 g). Energy absorption (EA) upon impact of a bullet or shrapnel is calculated by the kinetic energy of a bullet or shrapnel flying at a speed of V50. V50is the rate at which the probability of penetration of bullets or shrapnel through the structure is round, resistant to ballistic impact, is 50%.
The present invention more specifically relates to a flexible product that is resistant to ballistic impact, containing the Assembly of multiple sheets containing at least two monolayer consisting essentially of multifilament yarn of polyethylene high performance (NRE)having a tensile strength of at least about 1.2 GPA, and separating the porous polyethylene film, and the Assembly has the value of the areal density (AD) of at least 1.5 kg/m2and the value of the specific energy absorption (SEA) of at least 280 j·m2/kg, measured in a pool FMJ Parabellum 9×19 mm according to the test method based on Stanag 2920. Preferably the product has a value SEA at least 300, 325, 350 or even 375 j·m2/kg.
The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which, however, do not limit the present invention.
- XB: private viscosity is determined by the method PTC-179 (Hercules Inc. Rev. Apr.29, 1982) at 135°in decline, the time of dissolution 16 h using DBPC as anti-oxidant in an amount of 2 g/l solution, by extrapolating measured at various concentrations the viscosity at zero concentration;
Side chain: the number of side chains in the model UITE Pradelles infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform on the film thickness 2 mm, received by way of injection molding, by quantification of the absorption at 1375 cm-1using the calibration curve on the basis of NMR measurements (see, for example, EP 0269151);
- Stretching: ultimate tensile strength (or strength), modulus of tensile elasticity (or modulus) and elongation at break were determined and measured on multifilament yarn according to the standard ASTM D885M using the nominal base length of the fibre of 500 mm, at a speed of cross-beams 50%/min and with clamping devices Instron 2714 type Fibre Grip D5618C. On the basis of the measured chart of the stretching modulus of elasticity is defined as the gradient of the tension between 0.3 and 1%. To calculate the elastic modulus and strength of the measured tensile force divided by the titer determined by weighing 10 m fiber; values in GPA is calculated based on the density of 0.97 g/cm3. Features stretch thin films was determined according to ISO 1184(H);
The porosity of the films was calculated from the measured density of the film and the density of the material from which the films were made (for UITE used the value of the density of 0.97 g/cm3);
- Ballistic characteristics: V50and SEA composite panels was determined by the test procedure Stanad 2920 using bullets FMJ Parabellum 9×19 mm (Dynamit Nobel). Build layers were recorded using flexible the hair on the support, filled with substrate material Roma Plastilin, which were prepared at 35°Stratacache impact was measured by measuring the depth of deformation of the rear face of the substrate material.
Preparation of fibers, NRRE
Mnogoletija beach NRRA was obtained by extrusion 8% solution (by weight) of homopolymer UITE having less than 0.3 side groups per 1000 carbon atoms and XB of 19.8 DL/g in decaline containing CIS/TRANS isomers in a ratio of from 38/62 to 42/58, which was made on the 130-mm twin-screw extruder, equipped with a gear pump at a temperature of 180aboutWith across the head with 1176 holes, with the filing of 2.2 g/min per hole. Holes had initial cylindrical channel with a diameter of 3.5 mm and a length of 18 diameter, after which the conical narrowing with a cone angle of 60°passing in a cylindrical channel with a diameter of 0.8 mm and a length of 10 diameters. Fluid filaments were cooled after passing through the air gap of 25 mm in a water bath held at a temperature of 30-40°and a flow rate of water approx. 5 cm/s perpendicular to the threads within the tub, and threads were chosen so fast to get the stretch factor 16 formed on the fiber in the air gap. Next thread is additionally stretched in the solid state in two stages: first in a furnace with a temperature gradient 110-140°and then at CA. 151B0; With using the stretch factor in the solid state, equal to approx. 25, in this process, the yarn was evaporated decalin. The resulting yarn had a titer 930 decitex, the tensile strength of 4.1 GPA and a modulus of tensile elasticity 150 HPa.
Was made a monolayer of fibers, NRRE, as described above, by sending several fibres yarn bobbin frame, passed through the comb and wetting of the filaments of the water dispersion material Kraton® D1107 (thermoplastic elastomer block copolymer is a polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene) as the matrix material. Filaments were oriented parallel to the plane and after drying the areal density of the monolayer was approx. 38 g/m2when the content of the matrix material approx. 12% by weight. Pre-molded sheet was produced by the superposition of two monolayers turn 90°and on each side as a separating layer deposited porous film of linear low density polyethylene of a thickness of 7 μm (equivalent areal density of approx. 7 g/m2), after which the monolayers and the separating film has consolidated at a pressure of approx. 0.5 MPa and a temperature of 110-115aboutC. the Polyethylene film had a yield strength of approx. 10 MPa or a safety factor of about 70 N/m
Freedom is Oh, unrelated Assembly of several pre-molded sheet was made of a flat product, resistant to ballistic impact, the Assembly was stitched at the corners. Ballistic characteristics of the three different assemblies were tested bullet type FMJ Parabellum 9×19 mm (8 g). The results V50, SEA and injuries (back face deformation) are shown in Table 1.
A comparative experiment was repeated, but in this case, as a separating film was deposited microporous film UITE thickness of 20 μm Solupor® RA with a porosity of 83% (produced by DSM Solutech, NL). This stretched along two axes, the film had a tensile strength of approx. 12 MPa, and a tensile elongation of 13% (both in the process direction) and a safety factor of approx. 240 N/m Collected leaves can easily slide over each other, increasing the need for stabilization during further processing and testing. Flexibility stable Assembly became higher, the stack can make it easier to bend than a stack of comparative example A. it was Unexpectedly found that the observed values of V50 and hence SAE were significantly higher than in the comparative example, Whereas the rate of morbidity was not increased.
Comparative experiment b and example 2
Comparative experiment a and Example 1 was repeated, but the monolayers had plowed the Yu density approx. 39 g/m2and the contents of the matrix was approx. 15% by weight. The test results confirmed the improvement in ballistic performance sheets, made from porous separating layers (see Tab. 1).
Comparative experiment C and Example 3
Unidirectional monolayer was produced as in comparative example a, with the areal density of approx. 20 g/m2and the contents of the matrix was approx. 15% by weight. Pre-molded sheet was produced by blending 4 monolayers turn 90abouton both sides there was a plastic film 7 g/m2, and the layers are consolidated at 110-114°C. Several of these sheets were stacked in a pile, stabilized by crosslinking and tested for resistance to ballistic impact, as described above.
Example 3 pre-molded sheets contained two microporous film of 8 μm (areal density 3 g/m2and with a porosity of 63%. This inverting the film is produced by DSM Solutech, NL, and as the film Solupor® RA performed by the method according to EP 0504954 A1. Assembly, made from such sheets, showed significantly better ballistic characteristics than the samples of non-porous films, see Table. 1.
Improved performance is also shown in figure 1, where the observed values of SEA are shown relative to the areal energy density is con tested assemblies in the experiments And, In 1 and 2.
|Exp.||Pre-molded sheet||Build sheets|
|The number of monolayers||Number of pages||Areal density||Ballistic results|
|Cf. exp. And||2||22||2||322||211||37|
1. Molded sheet containing at least two monolayers, with each monolayer contains unidirectional oriented fibers having a tensile strength of at least about 1.2 GPA and a modulus of tensile elasticity of at least 40 GPA, and a binder, the fiber direction in each monolayer is rotated relative to the fiber direction in an adjacent monolayer, and a separating film on both outer surfaces, characterized in that the separating film has a porosity of 40-90%.
2. The sheet according to claim 1, wherein the fibers include fibers of polyethylene, NRRE.
3. The sheet according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the binder consists essentially of a thermoplastic elastomer and has a modulus of tensile elasticity of less than 40 MPa.
4. The sheet according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the separating film is made of polyethylene with ultra-high molar mass.
5. The sheet according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the separating film is stretched along two axes.
6. The sheet according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the separating film has a surface density of 2-4 g/m2.
7. The sheet according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the separating film has a safety factor of at least 150 N/m
8. The sheet is about to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains two unidirectional monolayer of oriented fibers.
9. The Assembly, consisting of at least two formed sheets according to any one of claims 1 to 8, not related to each other.
10. Flexible product that is resistant to ballistic impact, containing at least one Assembly according to claim 9.
11. Flexible product that is resistant to ballistic impact, including the Assembly that contains many worksheets containing at least two monolayers, with each monolayer consists essentially of unidirectional oriented fibers of polyethylene having a tensile strength of at least 1.2 GPA, and the fiber direction in each monolayer is rotated relative to the fiber direction in an adjacent monolayer, and two plastic separating film on both outer surfaces, characterized in that the separating films have a porosity of 40-90%, while the Assembly has a surface density of at least 1.5 kg/m2and the specific energy absorption of at least 300 j·m2/kg when measured with the use of bullets FMJ Parabellum 9×19 mm test procedure based on Stanag 2920.
FIELD: protective equipment.
SUBSTANCE: it is provided laminar armour plate including layer made of ceramic material, layer made of separate correlated plates located on backside of layer made of ceramic material and fixedly connected to external plate of layer made of separate correlated plates by means of sizing binding and laminar layer. On external side of layer made of ceramic material sequentially installed layer made of polyfoam and layer made of steel. Layer made of steel is implemented of thickness not less then 2/3 of layer made of ceramic material thickness. Layer made of polyfoam is implemented of thickness not less then 1/2 of layer made of steel and layer made of ceramic material summary thickness. Layer made of separate correlated plates is implemented of outside plate made of composite material on the basis of glasscloth, following it plates made of aluminum alloy and plates made of metal with modulus of elasticity E≥5×1010 Pa.
EFFECT: rising of laminar armour plate protective properties, reduction of internal layers of armour plate damage and elimination of burning of its construction components and protected object by pyrotechnical compound.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: it is presented fabric for manufacturing ballistic durable production, described by surface density, not exceeding 200 g/m2. Fabric is implemented by linen, twill or sateen weave of filament with line density, not exceeding 120 tex. Fiber is formed by using draw die, containing not less then 300 holes, of extile solution of aromatic copolymer acid chloride dibasic terephthalic acid and diamine benzimidazole and p-phenylene diamine. It is proposed also ballistic durable pack containing of fabric layers and having specific ballistic stability V50 till 170 m/s·kg.
EFFECT: increasing of fabric ballistic stability.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of the inventions relates to ballistically resistant material for protective clothes. The flexible bag which is ballistically resistant to perforation is proposed. It includes the layer of compressible material and at least one laminated plastic which consists of at least one layer of yarn which contains fibers with strength at a minimum 900 MPa according to the standard ASTM D-885. The layer of yarn is connected with at least with one polymeric continuous body, the elastic modulus of which is from 5 to 1000 MPa while stretching according the standard ASTM D-882. The bag has the outer and inner sides converted to the subjected side. The layer of compressible material is placed either on the inner side of the bag or between laminated plastics in the bag in which the number of the laminated plastics converted to the outer side of the bag exceeds at least two times the number of the laminated plastics converted to the inner side.
EFFECT: increased ballistic protection degree of the bag.
26 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the devices of body armour. Three versions of the armoured element for guard vest are proposed. The armoured element for guard vest according to the first version contains an armoured plate, on the obverse side of which hemispheric cavities are made in the staggered order, and an armoured bottom layer. The hemispheric cavities are made with the curve radius which equals at least half of the gauge but not exceeds the distance from the cap of bullet to its centre of gravity, and the armoured bottom layer is made with cavity from the side of the armoured plate. The armoured element for guard vest according to the second version contains the armoured plate, armoured bottom layer and damping element, placed from the backside of the armoured plate. The armoured bottom layer is made with the cavity from the side of damping and cushioning element. The armoured element for guard vest according to the third version contains the armoured bottom layer and armoured plate formed in a block and dumping and cushioning elements placed from the front and back sides of the armoured plates. The armoured bottom layer is made with the cavity from the side of damping and cushioning element.
EFFECT: invention ensures the minimal weight characteristics of the armoured element and level of after-penetration effect saving protection characteristics of the guard vest.
16 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: protective means.
SUBSTANCE: there are suggested a composite armour, containing a crushing-deflecting layer and an arresting layer. The crushing-deflecting layer consists of separate corundum components made as cylinders with one or two convex ends connected into a united panel by means of a binding on a polymer base and arranged with their axes along normal to an exterior surface of the armour. The arresting layer is made out of aluminium alloy or steel. The crushing-deflecting and arresting layers are arranged with a gap of more, than 1 mm, or a layer of a material with a coefficient of elasticity at compression less, than 40 GPa is placed between the said layers.
EFFECT: invention upgrades efficiency of armour.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: means of individual protection and protection of combat material and civil special material from the destruction by ballistic indenters (projectiles, bullets, fragments).
SUBSTANCE: the armored component has an armored plate and rollers. The armored plate is made bimetallic and consists of a layer of titanium alloy and a layer of aluminum. The rollers are positioned in a composite reinforced packet explosion welded to the armored plate on the side of the aluminum layer. The composite reinforced pack has a face layer of aluminum and at least two layers of rollers located in the cells of a metal screen, shifted relative to each other by a value of 0.5 pitch of their laying and interconnected by aluminum interlayers. Metal screens with a cell size of 0.75 to 0.85 of the rollers diameter are used. The rollers and the metal screens are made of materials whose hardness is not less than the hardness of the material of the ballistic indenter. The layer of rollers located under the face layer of aluminum is made of successively alternating ceramic and steel magnetized layers of rollers and the layer located under the first one is made of steel rollers.
EFFECT: enhanced strength and durability of the armored component due to the reduced penetrating power of the ballistic indenter.
1 tbl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: impenetrable materials and products made from them.
SUBSTANCE: an impenetrable material is claimed that contains at least a double layer of cloth material. The first layer of cloth consists of the first set of threads having 5,5 to 20 threads/cm, linear density of at least 210 dtex, and a component of the least 65 per cent of the cloth mass, and of the second set of threads having 0.5 to 16 threads/cm and a linear density of at least 50 dtex. The second layer of cloth consists of the first set of threads, having 0.5 to 16 threads/an and a linear density of at least 50 dtex, and of the second set of threads having 3.5 to 20 threads/cm, linear density of at least 210 dtex and a component of at least 65 per cent of the cloth mass. In the first and second layers the second set of threads is transverse one to the first set of threads, and the proportion of the quantity of threads/cm of the second set and the quantity of the first set exceeds 1. The first and second sets of threads of the first layer have of parallel orientation with respect to the first and second sets, respectively, of the threads of the second layer. In the first layer of cloth at least the first set of threads and in the second layer of cloth at the second set of threads of treated by a water-repellent substance.
EFFECT: reduced absorption of water of impenetrable material.
23 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: armour constructions.
SUBSTANCE: the armour protection has, shaped components of ceramics fixed on a backing and joined by the end face surfaces to one another. The end face surfaces of the shaped components of ceramics are made of a composite profile, the middle part is made with a slope. The bevel angle is selected within 10 to 25 deg. The slopes of each pair of components of ceramics are made with mutually opposite directions. The length of each slope is selected such so that at joining of the components of ceramics with opposite directions of slopes face and rear clearances with a depth of 0.2 to 0.4 and width of 0.04 to 0.15 of the thickness of the components of ceramics are formed. The total length on the joined components of ceramics formed on the continuation of the slope line makes up at least 0.7 of the thickness of the components of ceramics.
EFFECT: enhanced protective properties of the armour protection to the action of subcaliber bullets of small-arms systems.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: armor constructions.
SUBSTANCE: the offered armor (modification 1) can withstand penetration of a propellant projectile hitting the armor and containing at least one energy-absorbing layer consisting essentially of metal material that absorbs the energy of the hitting propellant projectile. The metal material experiences a reversible phase transformation at absorption of energy, the other metal material manifest elastic deformation at least 5%, at least one second layer of metal material is an adjacent one and has a metallic bond to the mentioned at least one energy-absorbing layer. Production pieces are also offered, armor plate, armor (modification 2) and an armored means of movement (2 modifications).
EFFECT: produced a light armor that can withstand a repeated hitting of ammunition.
25 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: individual protection of person against firearm and blank weapon, in particular, armor vests.
SUBSTANCE: the armor for a protective vest consists of in-line layers of fabric of high-modular fiber or felt. The inner layer of left from its inner side is made with vertical channels and additional channels, the additional channels have a width equal to the width of the vertical channels and pass with reference to them at an angle of 60 to 120 deg.
EFFECT: produced enhanced ergonomics of armor due to the enhanced ventilation of the behind-armor space with the protective properties remaining unchanged.
SUBSTANCE: insert comprises two metallic members that have different coefficients of thermal expansion, are provided with projections, and are welded. The projections of one of the members are made of a continuous grid of intersecting strips. The projections of the other member are the cells of the grid. The section of the projections is shaped into a trapezium. A thin metallic layer can be mounted over the contact surface.
EFFECT: enhanced strength.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy industry; other industries; methods of production of the composite metallic articles made out of different metals.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be used at manufacture of the composite metallic articles made out of two different metals, in particular, the saw blades. The metal base has the opposite surfaces, on each of which there is at least one lengthwise located recess. The elongated metallic component manufactured out of the more hard metal is introduced into each recess of the metal base for formation of the composite assemblage. The composite assemblage is heated under pressure with the purpose to press the adjacent surfaces together to produce the bound article. At that they restrain the lateral spread of the composite assemblage at the expense of application of the lateral binding pressure. The horizontal and vertical rolls of the stand used for manufacture of the composite metal article are disposed with the capability of limitation of the lateral spread of the composite assemblage. The invention ensures production of the composite article with the high strength of the binding between the forming it metals with the minimal damage of the material in the field of the binding.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the composite article with the high strength of the binding between the forming it metals with the minimal damage of the material in the field of the binding.
82 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of bimetallic blanks of different kind metals, mainly large-size steel-titanium blanks.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing thrown plate with gap over fixed plate; initiating arranged over it charge of explosion matter. Surfaces of one or both plates are treated before joining them by means of cathode spots of vacuum arc excited between surfaces of plate used as cathode and anode. Prepared material is subjected to heat treatment at temperature 500 - 600°C.
EFFECT: stable level of strength along the whole area of joined surfaces due to preparing highly uniform surfaces before joining and creation of optimal combination of residual stresses after cohesion.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: textile industry; chemical industry; methods of production of the composite fabrics with the reinforcing polymeric areas and the elastic polymeric areas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the elastic product including the substrate with one or more reinforcing discrete polymeric areas, and also the composite fabric including the indicated substrate and the method of its production. The method provides, that they form on the substrate the set of the discrete polymeric areas of the elastomeric and non-elastomeric thermoplastic compounds. The composite fabric contains one or more dividing lines determining the boundaries of the set of the separate sections including at least one non-elastomeric discrete polymeric area and at least one elastomeric discrete polymeric area. The composite fabric contains the laminated substrate. The technical result of the invention is production of the discrete polymeric areas stretching along the whole length of the substrate, without their possible expansion together with the basic surface of the substrate.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the discrete polymeric areas stretching along the whole length of the substrate, without their possible expansion together with the basic surface of the substrate.
26 cl, 31 dwg
FIELD: processes for manufacturing composition materials having special heat properties with use of explosion matter energy, possibly manufacture of heat exchanging apparatuses, heat insulation complex-shape screens and so on.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming three-layer pack of alternating plates of titanium and steel at predetermined relation of plate thickness values; performing explosion welding of prepared pack; hot rolling of welded three-layer pack; separating prepared pack by measured three-layer blanks from which laminate pack is formed again for explosion welding; performing explosion welding at predetermined relation of specific mass of explosion matter to summed specific mass of thrown layers of laminate pack; after hot rolling of welded laminate pack shaping prepared laminate blanks and annealing them for further cooling them in air.
EFFECT: increased thermal resistance of composition material in cross direction, improved heat conductance of material along metal layers, high strength against rupture at condition of bending loads.
3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: material has external layer produced from non-woven material engageable with user body when using the article and internal layer. Both layers are connected to each other by means of the first fastening pattern composed of isolated fastening points. Holes penetrating at least the external layer are produced in correspondence with isolated holes arrangement pattern. The holes pattern is more compact and has greater number of holes per area unit than the number of fastening points per area unit in said first fastening pattern. Mass proportion of type II collagen filaments and porous bone mineral is at least equal to approximately 1:40.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in recovering combined injuries of cartilage and bone tissue in articulations having defects.
13 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: construction industry; domestic appliances; electrical engineering; motor-car industry; methods of production and application of the laminated composite materials with the different layers of a resin.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production and application of the laminated composite material with the different layers of a resin and may used in construction industry, domestic appliances, electrical engineering, motor-car industry. The laminated composite material contains the carrier made out of the thermoplastic polymeric compound, the located on it intermediate layer also made out of the thermoplastic polymeric compound and the applied on the intermediate layer of the thermoreactive layer. Between the carrier and the intermediate layer there is a layer of the resin (a) with the rate of consolidation of at least 20 %. Between the intermediate layer and the thermoreactive layer there is the layer of the resin (c) with the rate of consolidation of at least 60 %. The materials of the layers are laid as the flat sheets and at the temperature of 150-300° C link to the carrier. The material possess the high degree of stiffness and impact toughness, the high quality of the surface, the fast and easy solidification.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the high degree of stiffness and impact toughness, the high quality of the surface, the fast and easy solidification.
13 cl, 1 ex