Method for obtaining carbon-containing sorbents based on laminar alumosilicates for multicomponent impurity treatment of water

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns production of sorbent materials for natural and industrial water and sewage treatment for removal of multicomponent impurities, such as oil and oil products, organic substances, heavy metal cations, radionuclides, ammonium cations, and other impurities. Method for obtaining carbon-containing sorbents based on natural laminar alumosilicates involves simultaneous alumosilicate calcination and processing by hydrocarbons of oil origin at 500-700°C until hydrophobic nanolayer is formed and carbon concentration in sorbent reaches 0.7-1.1%.

EFFECT: obtaining sorbents displaying ion exchange activity and high oil absorption capacity.

2 tbl, 9 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of sorption materials for purification of natural, technological and wastewater from multicomponent contamination. The aim of the invention is the expansion of the use of oil sorbents on the basis of vermiculite due to its ion-exchange properties. Carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite can be used in water and wastewater treatment in the oil refining industry, chemical industry, nonferrous metallurgy, mining, defense, thermal power complexes, transport and enterprises for the provision of water, and to remove the surface contamination of water bodies.

There is a method of adsorbents for water treatment based on natural aluminosilicate, including the processing of aluminosilicate with a solution of chitosan, granulation, drying, treatment with a solution of humic acids [1]. The disadvantage of this method is the multi-stage multi-sorbent.

A method of obtaining sorbent for removal of oil and petroleum products from the surface of the water, which includes three stages: the firing of vermiculite at 600-700°With, the processing of the aqueous emulsion of organic matter and re-firing in the same temperature range [2]. The disadvantage of this method is the multi-stage multi-sorbent.

there is a method of adsorbents for water purification from organic impurities, includes three stages: the first is the drying of porous material in the working chamber at 300-500°With, the second evacuation of the working chamber, the third - hydrophobic porous material in the hydrocarbon gas environment at 180-220°C [3]. The disadvantage of this method of adsorbents is also a multi-stage process.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of producing a sorbent, comprising the simultaneous firing of vermiculite and its handling of petroleum hydrocarbons in the stream of hot gases at 670-850°by filing a joint reagents in the burning zone [4]. In this way in the stated temperature range ion-exchange properties inherent in natural vermiculite, appear insufficient.

The proposed method allows to obtain a carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite with ion exchange activity while maintaining significant intensities, allowing it to be used for water purification from multicomponent dirt.

A method of obtaining a carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite includes roasting and processing of vermiculite by petroleum hydrocarbons in the stream of hot gases by simultaneous supply of reagents in the burning zone, and the roasting and processing of Provo is drawn at a temperature of 500-700° Since before the formation of hydrophobic nano-scale layer and the carbon content of the sorbent 0.7-1.1%.

Examples achieve a technical result using the proposed method.

Example 1.

Vermiculite particle size of 1-10 mm is fed to the burning zone simultaneously with the diesel fuel in the amount of 3% compared to vermiculite. The supply of components is carried out with compressed air. The firing of vermiculite and handling of diesel fuel produced simultaneously in the stream of hot gases generated by the combustion of fuel in the torch nozzle. The firing temperatures of the support equal to 700°C. the oil intensity of the obtained sorbent for oil 5 is 12.7 g/g exchange capacity of 0.9 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is determined by the ratio of the carbon content of the sorbent and the specific surface macropores (density of carbon estimated to be equal to 2 g/cm3[5]) and is 4 nm when the carbon content is 0.7% and the specific surface macropores - 0.9 m2/year

Example 2.

The process is conducted as in example 1 except that lower the temperature of the modifications to 650°C. the oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 12.6 g/g exchange capacity of 1.4 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 6 nm when the carbon content of 0.9% and a specific surface area of the macropores is 0.77 m2/year

Example 3.

The process is conducted as in example 2 except tor the, what temperature modification reduced to 500°C. the oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 9.2 g/g exchange capacity of 1.9 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 12 nm when the carbon content is 1.1% and the specific surface macropores - 0.47 m2/year

Example 4.

The process is conducted as in example 1 except that the processing of vermiculite use heavy fuel oil 5. The oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is - 11.1 g/g exchange capacity - 0.8 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 5 nm when the carbon content of 0.9% and a specific surface area of the macropores - 1.0 m2/year

Example 5.

The process is conducted as in example 4 except that the lower the temperature of the modifications to 650°C. the oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 10.2 g/g exchange capacity of 1.2 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 8 nm when the carbon content is 1% and the specific surface macropores - 0.59 m2/year

Example 6.

The process is conducted as in example 4 except that the lower the temperature of the modifications to 500°C. the oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 8.9 g/g exchange capacity of 1.7 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 16 nm when the carbon content of 1.4% and a specific surface area of the macropores is 0.44 m2/year

Example 7.

The process is conducted as in example 5 except that clicks the processing of vermiculite used oil diesel motor. The oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 10.1 g/g exchange capacity of 1.3 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 8 nm when the carbon content is 1.0% and the specific surface area of the macropores is 0.65 m2/year

Example 8.

The process is conducted as in example 5 except that the processing of vermiculite use kerosene for technical purposes. The oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 12.0 g/g exchange capacity of 1.1 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 5 nm when the carbon content is 0.8% and the specific surface area of the macropores is 0.83 m2/year

Example 9.

The process is conducted as in example 5 except that the processing of vermiculite used paraffin N-1. The oil capacity of the sorbent for oil 5 is 9.4 g/g exchange capacity of 1.2 mEq./, the Thickness of the carbon layer is 10 nm when the carbon content is 1.0% and the specific surface area of the macropores is 0.72 m2/year

Comparative properties of the obtained carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite are shown in table 1.

Table 1

Properties of the obtained carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite
# exampleExchange capacity, mEq./gThe oil capacity, g/gThe thickness of the carbon layer, nmUD is supplemented flax surface macropores, m2/gThe carbon content of the sorbent, %
10.912.740.900.7
21.412.660.770.9
31.99.2120.471.1
40.811.151.00.9
51.210.280.591.0
61.78.9160.441.4
71.310.180.651.0
81.112.040.890.8
91.29.4100.721.0

Data presented in table show that the proposed method allows to obtain a carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite with ion exchange activity and oil capacity, in the range of the firing temperature of 500-700°C.

Sorption properties in respect of oil and petroleum products associated with the hydrophobic nature of zmajeva the Oia pore surface, most pronounced in the sorbent when the thickness of the carbon layer 4-12 nm (table 1).

As can be seen from table 2, the increase in the thickness of the carbon layer over 12 nm does not lead to a substantial increase in the hydrophobicity of the sorbent. Reducing the thickness of uglerodnogo layer below 4 nm is undesirable because it reduces videoformate sorbent.

Table 2

The carbon content, the thickness of the carbon layer and the volume fraction of hydrophobic pores in the carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite
The carbon content of the sorbent, %The thickness of the carbon layer, nmThe volume fraction of hydrophobic pores
totalmacropores
0.740.9110.981
0.840.9130.983
1.1120.9250.996
1.4160.9270.998

Set the optimum range of the thickness of the carbon layer corresponds to the range of the carbon content of the sorbent 0.7-1.1%.

Thus, the proposed method allows to obtain a carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite, because simultaneously hydrophobic and ion-exchange properties, allowing it to be used for water purification from multicomponent dirt.

Sources of information

1. RF patent 2277013, MKI 01J 20/16, 01J 20/26, 01J 20/32. Publ. 27.05.2006, bull. No. 15.

2. As the USSR №1207486, MKI 01J 20/16. Publ. 30.01.1986, bull. No. 4.

3. As the USSR №1606182, MKI 01J 20/32. Publ. 15.11.1990, bull. No. 42.

4. As the USSR №1438836, MKI VA 20/32, 02F 1/28. A method of producing a sorbent. Epubl, bull. No. 43.

5. Physical encyclopedic dictionary: 5 so: volume 5 / CH. edit Bauweise, BMW. - M.: Soviet encyclopedia, 1966. - P.222.

A method of obtaining a carbon-containing sorbent on the basis of vermiculite for water purification from multi-component contaminants, including the firing of vermiculite and handling of petroleum hydrocarbons in the stream of hot gases by simultaneous supply of reagents in the burning zone, characterized in that the firing and the treatment is carried out at a temperature of 500-700°before the formation of hydrophobic nano-scale layer and the carbon content of the sorbent 0,7-1,1%.



 

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