Milk refrigerating unit
SUBSTANCE: milk refrigerating unit contains square reservoir with external heat-insulating coating, evaporator, force-suction manifold of compressor-condenser device. Evaporator is of slot type and represents two halves of V-shaped bottom with injector and suction header each, which are connected accordingly with force and suction manifolds of compressor-condenser device, at that slot evaporator is made with seam welding with seam width of at least 4 mm, pitch of seams of not more than 35 mm, depth rolling of slots of not more than 3 mm.
EFFECT: exclusion of evaporator damage during its flushing with hot water.
The invention relates to the field of refrigeration and can be used in the food industry, in agriculture and farms serving the flock, with a daily milk yield of 1000-5000 l of milk.
Known dairy refrigeration systems designed to collect, cooling and storage of milk at the optimum temperature of 4° [1-9].
Their basis is the bath-tank square [1, 2, 6, 8] or round (cylindrical, oval) shape[3, 4, 5, 7, 9], made of stainless steel, with immersion tube , soldered outer tubular [1, 6] or welded slot[4, 5, 7, 8], and welded tubular-slot  the evaporator of the refrigerant coming from the compressor-condenser unit. To reduce power consumption in the storage tanks on the outside by a layer of insulation. At the top of the tanks [1-9] mounted geared motor with stirrer. Slotted evaporators of the refrigerant is performed by the method of resistance spot welding [4, 5, 8, 9] or seam laser welding ,
These installations provide direct cooling of milk due to the circulation of refrigerant through the evaporator[1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9] or contain intermediate hedonometer (ice water)  with the accumulation of cold in idle mode and perform combined cooling .
They do as much as possible which remain open removable lids [2, 3, 6, 8] or closed (sealed) with built-in wash pump [1, 7, 9]. Mechanized or manual flushing tanks after cooling and draining the milk is hot and cold water.
The lack of high-strength tubular evaporators of the refrigerant is limited cooling capacity, due to the small area of thermal contact between the boiling refrigerant and milk bands soldering copper pipes, and the main disadvantage powerful cladopodiella slot evaporators in contact with the milk in the bottom of the tank, is the low reliability and resistance to over-pressure refrigerant when washing with hot water. Because of the limited strength of welded joints (seams, spot welds) and a large square slab of evaporators at the maximum load when a large step welds with increased pressure of the refrigerant in the case of washing with hot water can rupture the evaporators in the field of welding and depressurization of the refrigeration system. However, a disadvantage spot welding [8, 9] is a long manufacturing cycle and a big step that weaken the strength, as well as a large number of points (1150 on each half of the evaporator), and the lack of suture laser technology  is the small width of the seam (up to 1.1 mm), due to the narrow focus of the manhole is and its low efficiency, that also weakens slotted evaporator.
Spot welding slotted evaporator  ⊘6 mm in a checkerboard pattern, with a pitch of 40 mm, consisting of 1150 points each, connects the two sheets of stainless steel 2.0 mm and 1.2 mm, between which circulates refrigerant. Each of 2300 points bottoms with regard to the pressure of the refrigerant R22 R=1.0 MPa when cooling is experiencing a breakout about 160 kg and is close to the tensile strength. Liquid refrigerant from the condensing unit is injected into the injector (semicircular punch each of the two halves at the bottom center of the V-shaped bottom and is extracted in the form of a pair of two headers on the edges (similar to the punch). Separation of any of the 2300 points increases the load on the next, which leads to bloating slotted evaporator, leakage and failure. To prevent this requires high stability of resistance spot welds and a large margin of safety.
A special danger of destruction slotted evaporator occurs after cooling and draining of milk in the process of flushing the tank with hot water. The remains of the liquid refrigerant in the injector from the hot water boil, the pressure in the evaporator is increased in 2...3 times up to R=1.5 To 3.0 MPa at temperatures up to +65°that breaks the spot welding. To avoid such situations in the operating instructions tanks with slotted evaporators enter the I temperature of the leaching . In addition, automatic units injected solenoid valves, shut-off of liquid refrigerant at the completion of cooling, pressure sensors, suction, obestochivaete compressor when P=0.13 MPa after complete evaporation of the liquid refrigerant from the injector at the end of the cooling cycle (before washing). However, the low qualification of the staff, as well as manually disable Fieldbus 3F × 380 In the process of completing the refrigeration cycle leads to the conservation of residues of liquid refrigerant in a slit evaporator and the outlet of the refrigeration unit from damage due to sharp increase of pressure when washing with hot water, accompanied by destruction of the welded joints.
Will calculate the specific voltage stepper spot weldingwhen the diameter d=6 mm and 40 mm
The effort of tearing F [N]acting on the square slotted evaporator α×α=40×40 [mm2] when the pressure of the refrigerant P=1.0 MPA is obtained from the ratio
In the calculation, the partial pressure of refrigerant R22, P=1.0 MPa at a temperature of milk +25°C. Voltage in the welding point reaches a value
If we consider a three-fold increase partioning pressure refrigerant to 3.0 MPa at a temperature of hot water 65° In the cleaning mode, the voltage at the welding point will also grow up to σt=17,1 kg/mm2and the force F to 480 kg In different design handbooks specify different maximum allowable voltage σprupture of welded joints (from 15 to 30 kg/mm2).
However, it can be argued that no reserves of strength in that the evaporator does not include it in the daily operation may break down in the weak welding. Experience enterprise LLC "NPP "Automash" recovery tank "KURGANSELMASH", GDR, Poland, "Alfa Laval" sample in 1985...1999, and today, immersion coils , shows that the point slotted evaporators are the "weak" spot.
Another disadvantage of the slot evaporators is restricted passage slots [7. 8, 9]. This passage occurs under internal pressure due to the natural flexibility of the slotted walls of the evaporator, consisting of two sheets of steel 2.0 and 1.2 mm. pressure Rise during operation limited to the mentioned limits the strength of the welds, so the thickness of the passages gap at P=1.0 MPa practically does not exceed h=0.6 mm
Given that each slit has a triangular shape with an area of S=(40-6)×0,6×0,5=10,2 mm2and the number of slits 45, received a total area of orifice collector S0=45&x000D7; 10,2=459 mm2.
Restricted orifice reduces the volume of the boiling refrigerant and therefore limits the power (cooling capacity) condensing unit and the cooling rate of the milk. Tubular evaporators [1, 2] have increased the reserves of strength, withstanding pressures on the order of more than 30 MPa, however, the disadvantage of submersible tubular coils  is the need for hand washing after cooling, due to the "dead" zones between the pipe and the bottom to direct jets of cleaning solution. But the main disadvantage of external brazed copper coils-evaporator  are the gaps between the heat strips on the bottom, which limit the heat exchange area and reduce power (cooling rate).
The closest in technical essence of the present invention (the prototype) is a milk cooling plant with soldered copper tube coil-evaporator . It contains a square tank with external heat insulation coating, injection-suction line of the compressor-condenser unit, copper tube evaporator with injector and intake manifold, consisting of 36...48 are soldered to the V-shaped bottom two meters of pipes ⊘14 mm To improve the heat transfer pipe polyploidy and soldered on the outside of the bottom strips the width 18 mm The total area of heat transfer between the boiling refrigerant and milk Qn=1,3...1.7 m2is a small part of the total area of the bottom (3.8 m2), limited technological gaps between the strips. Additional conductive coating to solder the coil  has a limited effect because of the relatively low (compared to metals) thermal conductivity, increasing the heat removal 5...10%. The conductivity also decreases due to the three-layer thermal resistance: stainless steel, tin-lead solder, copper. The manufacturing process of such evaporators is poorly amenable to mechanization and, along with non-ferrous metals, increases the cost of the tank. Moreover, because of the "tin disease" and technological deviations some pipe coil otbivayutsja during long-term operation, not vaporized refrigerant flies in the suction line Assembly, obturative Carter, disrupts the oil pump and jammed the compressor.
The invention is aimed at increasing the rate of cooling of milk and increase reliability in all modes, including rinsing with hot water. This technical result is achieved by the fact that the dairy refrigeration installation, containing a square tank with external heat insulation coating, injection-suction line compressor-conden atomnogo unit, according to the invention, the evaporator is made slot and represent two halves of a V-shaped bottoms with an injector and intake manifold, each associated respectively with the discharge and suction lines condensing unit, with a slit evaporator performed seam welding with wide joints not less than 4 mm, spacing of joints not exceeding 35 mm and with a depth of flaring cracks not less than 3 mm.
The invention is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 presents a General view of the tank of the invention. Figure 2 - schematic diagram of the dairy refrigeration unit.
Milk cooling unit (1, 2) contains a square tank 1 stainless steel with an outer insulating coating 2, the upper yoke 3 mounted on it a gear motor 4 and the agitator 5.
V-shaped bottom 6 of the tank 1 with the intake manifold 7 and the injector 8 forms two half slotted evaporator 9 halon.
Slit the evaporator 9 plate 6 made by roller seam welding step SWnot more than 35 mm, the width of the weld is not less than 4 mm, forming due to uniform welding of the joints between two sheets of a same triangular slit along the plane of the bottom 6, the depth h of not less than 3 mm, and providing uniform boiling of the refrigerant during cooling of milk. Before welding outside the East 10 slotted evaporator 9 rolled in the respective rollers to obtain a depth of not less than 3 mm The tank 1 is located on the supports 11, containing the adjusting pivot washer for exhibition in height. Each intake manifold 7 is connected in parallel with a suction line 12 condensing unit (ADC) 13.
The composition of the condensing unit 13 are connected in series compressor 14, a condenser 15 and a fan 16, a receiver 17, the filter-drier 18, thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) 19, the solenoid valve 20. To the suction pipe 12 is connected to the pressure sensor 21. Injection Magistral condensing unit 13 is connected with the injector 8 slotted evaporator 9.
In the dairy refrigeration unit also includes a temperature sensor storage tank 1 and the electrical control Cabinet (figure 1, 2 is not shown), which switch off the installation when the temperature reaches 4°and again include it in 3-4 hours when the temperature is raised to 5°during storage.
Setup works as follows.
After filling the tank 1 warm milk t=25°C enabling liquid refrigerant from receiver 17 ADC 13 through the filter-drier 18 and thermostatic expansion valve 19, the solenoid valve 20, the discharge line 22 enters the injector 8 and slit the evaporator 9 of the tank 1, where it boils, cooling the milk, and drawn into the reservoir 7. A pair of refrigerant inside the gap isparities develop pressure P=1.0 MPa, and further pass through the suction line 12, when the input CCA. In the compressor 14 of the pair of compressed refrigerant to the condensing pressure and forced into the condenser 15, where they are cooled and condensed into the liquid phase, giving heat to the surrounding air by pulling the fan 16. The liquid refrigerant collected in the receiver 17.
The geared motor 4, a mixer 5 provides sufficient heat removal and eliminates the formation of ice on the bottom 6 of the tank 1.
The uniformity and symmetry of seam welding slotted evaporator 9 provides a uniform division of flow boiling of refrigerant from the injector 8 to the intake manifold 7 and creates a uniform heat removal from all bottoms. Thermostatic expansion valve 19 as milk cooling automatically reduces the flow of liquid refrigerant by adjusting the loading slot of the evaporator 9. When the pressure of unsaturated vapor refrigerant of 0.13 MPa (setpoint pressure sensor 21) turns off the compressor, followed by discharge of milk and the washing tank 1 hot water that is only slightly increases the pressure in the gap evaporator 9 to 0.2 MPa. When incomplete cycle cooling temperature of the milk 6...8°With, in the case of simultaneous failures of the compressor 14, a fan 16 and a solenoid valve 20 in the aperture of the evaporator 9 and the injector 8 is a residue (0,2...0,8 l) liquid (boiling) halon. Rinsing with boiling water increases D. the pressure up to 3.0 MPa at 65° When and achieved the highest voltage gap welding seams.
Calculation of specific voltage seam weldingfor the present invention will spend on a rectangular fragment of a slotted evaporator dimensions·f=35×40 mm (figure 1), when the vapor pressure P=1.0 MPa, which corresponds to the temperature of the milk 25°and for the pressure P=3.0 MPa (rinsing with hot water). The effort of tearing F[n] will be obtained from the relation
F=P(cf-bf)=1240 N=126 kg, where P=1.0 MPa.
The voltage in the welding seam reaches values
Obviously, even when washing with hot water and a three-fold increase in the pressure in the seam gap evaporator to P=3,0mpa, the voltage in the welding joints remains insignificant σW=2.4 kg/mm, which is 7 times less than the voltage on break point in the evaporator - analogue of  and with a large margin (6...12 times) that provides the durability and reliability of dairy refrigeration plants in the heavy mode. The total area of heat transfer Q slotted evaporator, with the size of the contour 1950×900 mm in each half of the V-shaped bottom, is Q=3.5 m2. Compared with the prototype, containing 36...48 soldered Polyplastic six-foot pipe having an area of heat transfer Qn=1,3...1.7 m2the size and thickness of selvog the evaporator, determine the cooling rate of milk increased in 2...2.5 times.
The depth of the rolling h=3 mm triangular slit evaporator provides the area of orifice S=(35-4)×3×0,5=465 mm2. Given the total number of 26 gaps between the injector 8 and the collector 7, we obtain the equivalent orifice half of the evaporator S0=26S=1200 mm2. Full orifice slot evaporator 9 is 2700 mm2that is equivalent to the hole ⊘55 mm and allows linear losses to connect to ADC power up to 50000 kcal/H. it is Obvious that due to the deep rolling in comparison with the similar point, the area of orifice S0volume boiling in a slit evaporator 9 halon and, accordingly, the capacity of the evaporator and the cooling rate of milk has increased several times.
These parameters slotted evaporator in combination with proportional powerful ADC provide rapid cooling of the milk volume 2000...5000 l to +4°2...3 hours with the observance of sanitary norms.
Seam roller welding seam width b=4 mm is provided suture machine MS-2201 or equivalent (MS-2204, MS-005 and others) with a corresponding sharpening of the leading roller. Narrowing seam less b=4 mm weakens proportionally margin slotted evaporator 9, which is impractical. Similarly, the extension of the step slot evaporator SWwhen use 35 mm also weaken the structure and make it less reliable. The use of laser welding, with the maximum width of the bead b=1.1 mm, leads to a sharp decrease in the step SWup to 20 mm for a recovery factor of safety, which greatly complicates and hinders the deep rolling of sheets with a thickness of 1.2 mm
Since November 2005, the company LLC "NPP "Automash" (gcouros) the production of slit evaporators in accordance with the present description is embedded in the serial production of TMHU-S, NMHU S & d to volume 2000...5000 liters of milk.
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Milk cooling at the plant, containing a square tank with external heat insulation coating, the evaporator, the discharge-suction line of the compressor-condenser unit, wherein the evaporator is a slot and represent two halves of a V-shaped bottoms with an injector and intake manifold, each associated respectively with the discharge and suction lines condensing unit, with a slit evaporator performed seam welding with wide joints not less than 4 mm, spacing of joints not more than 35 mm, the depth of the roll gaps of at least 3 mm.
FIELD: cooling equipment and other industry, for instance, chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: evaporator comprises panels or coil pipe batteries, as well as liquid and vapor manifolds with coolant. Panels or coil pipe batteries or manifold batteries extend in horizontal direction one under another and are shifted one from another. The panels or coil pipe batteries or manifold batteries are enclosed with iron sheet having varying height. Panels or coil pipe batteries or manifold batteries are inserted in metal frame fixedly connected with metal tray and hermetically closed with plastic sheets along perimeter thereof.
EFFECT: provision of necessary heat carrier temperature and continuous temperature maintenance, decreased power inputs and heat carrier volume, reduced device costs and increased safety.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: refrigeration equipment.
SUBSTANCE: cooling agent evaporator comprises cooling agent pipeline and surface connected to the pipeline through heat-conductive connection. The surface is used as heat-exchanger and is covered with water-repellent oil film. The evaporator may be of lamella type (plate type).
EFFECT: decreased noise during evaporator operation.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: cooling and air conditioning system components, particularly evaporators.
SUBSTANCE: evaporator comprises of the first elongated flat multi-channel pipe having serpentine configuration defined by elbow members bent across the minor dimension thereof. The pipe has a number of spaced apart parallel parts extending between ends of the first pipe. Inlet member of clamping means is connected to the first pipe end, outlet member thereof is fastened to the second end thereof. Ribs are located between neighboring parts of the first pipe. The second elongated flat multi-channel pipe forms suction radiator loop. The second pipe is connected to the first one so that side wall of the second pipe defining major pipe dimension is connected to side wall of the first pipe directly upstream of the outlet member of the clamping means to provide improved heat exchange between the pipes. The second pipe ends are also fitted with inlet and outlet members of clamping means.
EFFECT: increased compactness.
20 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wire-tubular evaporator is provided with guide plate whose body is extended lengthwise and at least one tubular clip for securing the plate to evaporator tube. Tubular clip is mounted on bracket extending aside from plate body.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of fitting the guide plate along center line of evaporator.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: animal husbandry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises heat insulating sealed vessel that receives evaporator, condenser, compressor, tank heat exchanger provided with the coolant section, control unit, and float vale mounted in the top part of the heat insulating sealed vessel. The valve is connected with the water supply system. The top part of the heat insulating sealed vessel that is set above the float valve is connected with the ambient air through the valves and with the output section of the coolant section, vessel heat exchanger, and the bottom section of heat insulated sealed vessel connected to the inlet part of the coolant section through the pump, and control valve is provided with the pipes with spraying openings connected with the atmosphere through the pipe.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and enhanced reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: energy-saving plant has accumulation reservoir, compression-condensation unit, evaporator placed within accumulation reservoir, regulating valve, milk pump, coolant pump, and control unit. There are openings in accumulation reservoir cover for communicating inner volume of accumulation reservoir with atmosphere through hoses with valves. Air filter and fan are positioned on one of hoses. Two closable drain openings are formed in side wall of accumulation reservoir, above and below upper edge of evaporator: upper drain opening and lower drain opening. Two filters provided in central part of accumulation reservoir, at its opposite sides, are made in the form of vertically mounted flexible perforated hoses. One of said filters oriented downward is connected through coolant pump to inlet of coolant section of heat-exchanger. Other filter oriented upward reaches level of lower drain opening and is connected to outlet of coolant section of heat-exchanger. Inlet of milk section of heat-exchanger is connected through milk pump to accumulation reservoir for milk, and outlet of milk section of heat-exchanger is connected to milk storage reservoir-thermos.
EFFECT: reduced capital and operation expenses and enhanced reliability in operation of cooling system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: cooling technique for foods, in particular milk, in farms.
SUBSTANCE: milk cooling system has accumulating reservoir incorporating evaporator of compressor-condenser unit, pumps, milk cooling heat-exchanger, cold accumulator and heat-exchanger with fan positioned in outside air. Accumulator has cylindrical heat-insulated vessel equipped with two groups of partitions arranged in predetermined manner. Accumulator is connected with system for feeding of cold water from artesian well and with heated water system. Milk cooling heat-exchanger is made two-sectioned and is connected to lower and upper parts of cold accumulator. Heat-exchanger positioned in outside air is connected to accumulating reservoir and heat-exchanger for cooling of milk.
EFFECT: reduced capital costs, improved ecological safety, enhanced reliability and cooling capacity under outside air low temperature conditions.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises accumulating tank, evaporator set in the reservoir and connected with the compressing-condensing plant, pump for pumping coolant, heat exchanger, mixer, control unit, pipelines, and temperature gages.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly for brewing industry to maintain low temperature in fermenters.
SUBSTANCE: cold accumulation device comprises heat-insulated tank with row of vertical coil-type tubular heat-exchanging members arranged inside it. The tubular heat-exchanging members are serially connected to cooling machine through control valves and refrigerant distribution means. Liquid to be cooled circulates in closed loop including tank, pump, apparatus with jacket, manifold, liquid flow distributor and temperature sensor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of produced cold usage and decreased power inputs for cold production.
FIELD: equipment for collecting and transporting of cooled liquids.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has immovable cooling unit 1 and isothermal reservoir 4 mounted on automobile 5. Cooling unit 1 has refrigerating unit 2 connected to liquid heat-carrier circulation contour 3 equipped with connection means 34, 35. Isothermal reservoir 4 has liquid collecting reservoir 6, reservoir 7 for storing stock of cold-producing substance, and cooling contour 8. Cooling contour 8 has heat-exchanger 81 located within reservoir 6, cooling liquid circulation pump 82 for cooling liquid flowing through reservoir 7, and branch pipes 83, 84 for connection means 34, 35 of cooling contour 3. Control means has temperature sensor mounted on reservoir 6 and is adapted for controlling of cooling contour 3.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of apparatus having refrigerating units adapted to outside vibration effects occurring on movement of apparatus on imperfect roads.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, milk storage technique.
SUBSTANCE: thermal regulator for milk has cold source formed as reservoir containing cooling agent and connected through filter and pump with coiled cooling unit positioned within reservoir, electric regulation device, and control unit. Thermoelectric cooler provides additional cooling by feeding therefrom of cooled water into additional coiled heat-exchanger positioned within reservoir containing milk. Regulating device of thermal regulator allows various milk cooling patterns to be effectuated at different environmental temperatures.
EFFECT: provision for keeping milk temperature at required level at any time of the year, prolonged storage time, and improved quality of milk.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: milk cooling apparatus has refrigerating apparatus with tubular evaporator placed within liquid heat-carrier filling heat-insulated casing, wherein milk reservoir is positioned in spaced apart relation to casing wall. Blade mixers are vertically located within casing and milk reservoir. At least two-tier mixer for liquid heat-carrier is offset relative to axis of oval-shaped casing and localized within concentric baffle combined with additional evaporator having congruent profile, whose entrance part adjoins milk reservoir at minimal gap and whose outlet positioned between milk reservoir and casing defines ejector. Baffle overlaps gap between loop-type evaporators whose pipes are equally spaced from one another. Electric contact commutator fixed at a distance from evaporator pipe is connected to control unit of refrigerating apparatus, said distance corresponding to predetermined thickness of frozen-on ice layer.
EFFECT: increased milk cooling rate and reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: refrigerating equipment used in extreme northern regions.
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating unit has tank adapted for storage of ice water and placed within room, cooling water circulation system, and fan for feeding of outer air through air duct. Ice water tank is made in the form of set of reservoirs whose cavities are communicating with one another. Reservoirs are arranged in horizontal position within warmed box equipped with hood which may be opened. Inlet and outlet air ducts attached to warmed box are equipped with gates. Trough for drainage of warmed water is placed onto one of said reservoirs.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of refrigerating unit owing to simplified construction and reduced production costs due to decreased consumption of power.
FIELD: refrigerating equipment used in food-processing industry, agronomic and industrial complex and agriculture, and also in milk dairies for cooling, storage and processing of milk.
SUBSTANCE: milk refrigerating apparatus has square reservoir, electric pump, three valves and four self-rotating heads arranged at corner parts of detachable closure, and detachable pipe union. Closure has single shell with reservoir and is pressurized to reservoir through elastic collar. Refrigerating apparatus is further equipped with evaporating coil welded to shell outer surface, and heat-conducting cover. Such construction of refrigerating apparatus eliminates air exchange and occasional contamination of milk during cooling procedure, and also ensures mechanized washing thereof, reliable operation and increased cold capacity.
EFFECT: simplified maintenance, quick and high-quality washing of reservoir, enhanced reliability in operation, intensified cooling and improved organoleptical properties of milk.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy equipment.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has reservoir, air-to-water heat-exchanger equipped with fan and spraying device and arranged above reservoir, expansion tank and plate cooler, which are communicated with reservoir. Water circuit change-over device is arranged at plate cooler outlet end and provided with slide. Water circuit change-over device is adapted for communicating plate cooler through pneumatic cylinder with piston to heat-exchanger spraying device. Water circuit change-over device is controlled by means of pulsed pipe through expansion tank serving as sensor and preventing reservoir from water freezing and, accordingly, from breaking down. Expansion tank is equipped with hermetically sealing closure having return valve and vacuum-gauge and is further equipped with scale 17.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation and reduced water loss.
3 cl, 1 dwg