Milk refrigerating unit

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: milk refrigerating unit contains square reservoir with external heat-insulating coating, evaporator, force-suction manifold of compressor-condenser device. Evaporator is of slot type and represents two halves of V-shaped bottom with injector and suction header each, which are connected accordingly with force and suction manifolds of compressor-condenser device, at that slot evaporator is made with seam welding with seam width of at least 4 mm, pitch of seams of not more than 35 mm, depth rolling of slots of not more than 3 mm.

EFFECT: exclusion of evaporator damage during its flushing with hot water.

4 dwg


The invention relates to the field of refrigeration and can be used in the food industry, in agriculture and farms serving the flock, with a daily milk yield of 1000-5000 l of milk.

Known dairy refrigeration systems designed to collect, cooling and storage of milk at the optimum temperature of 4° [1-9].

Their basis is the bath-tank square [1, 2, 6, 8] or round (cylindrical, oval) shape[3, 4, 5, 7, 9], made of stainless steel, with immersion tube [2], soldered outer tubular [1, 6] or welded slot[4, 5, 7, 8], and welded tubular-slot [3] the evaporator of the refrigerant coming from the compressor-condenser unit. To reduce power consumption in the storage tanks on the outside by a layer of insulation. At the top of the tanks [1-9] mounted geared motor with stirrer. Slotted evaporators of the refrigerant is performed by the method of resistance spot welding [4, 5, 8, 9] or seam laser welding [7],

These installations provide direct cooling of milk due to the circulation of refrigerant through the evaporator[1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9] or contain intermediate hedonometer (ice water) [3] with the accumulation of cold in idle mode and perform combined cooling [7].

They do as much as possible which remain open removable lids [2, 3, 6, 8] or closed (sealed) with built-in wash pump [1, 7, 9]. Mechanized or manual flushing tanks after cooling and draining the milk is hot and cold water.

The lack of high-strength tubular evaporators of the refrigerant is limited cooling capacity, due to the small area of thermal contact between the boiling refrigerant and milk bands soldering copper pipes, and the main disadvantage powerful cladopodiella slot evaporators in contact with the milk in the bottom of the tank, is the low reliability and resistance to over-pressure refrigerant when washing with hot water. Because of the limited strength of welded joints (seams, spot welds) and a large square slab of evaporators at the maximum load when a large step welds with increased pressure of the refrigerant in the case of washing with hot water can rupture the evaporators in the field of welding and depressurization of the refrigeration system. However, a disadvantage spot welding [8, 9] is a long manufacturing cycle and a big step that weaken the strength, as well as a large number of points (1150 on each half of the evaporator), and the lack of suture laser technology [7] is the small width of the seam (up to 1.1 mm), due to the narrow focus of the manhole is and its low efficiency, that also weakens slotted evaporator.

Spot welding slotted evaporator [8] ⊘6 mm in a checkerboard pattern, with a pitch of 40 mm, consisting of 1150 points each, connects the two sheets of stainless steel 2.0 mm and 1.2 mm, between which circulates refrigerant. Each of 2300 points bottoms with regard to the pressure of the refrigerant R22 R=1.0 MPa when cooling is experiencing a breakout about 160 kg and is close to the tensile strength. Liquid refrigerant from the condensing unit is injected into the injector (semicircular punch each of the two halves at the bottom center of the V-shaped bottom and is extracted in the form of a pair of two headers on the edges (similar to the punch). Separation of any of the 2300 points increases the load on the next, which leads to bloating slotted evaporator, leakage and failure. To prevent this requires high stability of resistance spot welds and a large margin of safety.

A special danger of destruction slotted evaporator occurs after cooling and draining of milk in the process of flushing the tank with hot water. The remains of the liquid refrigerant in the injector from the hot water boil, the pressure in the evaporator is increased in 2...3 times up to R=1.5 To 3.0 MPa at temperatures up to +65°that breaks the spot welding. To avoid such situations in the operating instructions tanks with slotted evaporators enter the I temperature of the leaching [8]. In addition, automatic units injected solenoid valves, shut-off of liquid refrigerant at the completion of cooling, pressure sensors, suction, obestochivaete compressor when P=0.13 MPa after complete evaporation of the liquid refrigerant from the injector at the end of the cooling cycle (before washing). However, the low qualification of the staff, as well as manually disable Fieldbus 3F × 380 In the process of completing the refrigeration cycle leads to the conservation of residues of liquid refrigerant in a slit evaporator and the outlet of the refrigeration unit from damage due to sharp increase of pressure when washing with hot water, accompanied by destruction of the welded joints.

Will calculate the specific voltage stepper spot weldingwhen the diameter d=6 mm and 40 mm

The effort of tearing F [N]acting on the square slotted evaporator α×α=40×40 [mm2] when the pressure of the refrigerant P=1.0 MPA is obtained from the ratio

In the calculation, the partial pressure of refrigerant R22, P=1.0 MPa at a temperature of milk +25°C. Voltage in the welding point reaches a value

If we consider a three-fold increase partioning pressure refrigerant to 3.0 MPa at a temperature of hot water 65° In the cleaning mode, the voltage at the welding point will also grow up to σt=17,1 kg/mm2and the force F to 480 kg In different design handbooks specify different maximum allowable voltage σprupture of welded joints (from 15 to 30 kg/mm2).

However, it can be argued that no reserves of strength in that the evaporator does not include it in the daily operation may break down in the weak welding. Experience enterprise LLC "NPP "Automash" recovery tank "KURGANSELMASH", GDR, Poland, "Alfa Laval" sample in 1985...1999, and today, immersion coils [2], shows that the point slotted evaporators are the "weak" spot.

Another disadvantage of the slot evaporators is restricted passage slots [7. 8, 9]. This passage occurs under internal pressure due to the natural flexibility of the slotted walls of the evaporator, consisting of two sheets of steel 2.0 and 1.2 mm. pressure Rise during operation limited to the mentioned limits the strength of the welds, so the thickness of the passages gap at P=1.0 MPa practically does not exceed h=0.6 mm

Given that each slit has a triangular shape with an area of S=(40-6)×0,6×0,5=10,2 mm2and the number of slits 45, received a total area of orifice collector S0=45&x000D7; 10,2=459 mm2.

Restricted orifice reduces the volume of the boiling refrigerant and therefore limits the power (cooling capacity) condensing unit and the cooling rate of the milk. Tubular evaporators [1, 2] have increased the reserves of strength, withstanding pressures on the order of more than 30 MPa, however, the disadvantage of submersible tubular coils [2] is the need for hand washing after cooling, due to the "dead" zones between the pipe and the bottom to direct jets of cleaning solution. But the main disadvantage of external brazed copper coils-evaporator [1] are the gaps between the heat strips on the bottom, which limit the heat exchange area and reduce power (cooling rate).

The closest in technical essence of the present invention (the prototype) is a milk cooling plant with soldered copper tube coil-evaporator [1]. It contains a square tank with external heat insulation coating, injection-suction line of the compressor-condenser unit, copper tube evaporator with injector and intake manifold, consisting of 36...48 are soldered to the V-shaped bottom two meters of pipes ⊘14 mm To improve the heat transfer pipe polyploidy and soldered on the outside of the bottom strips the width 18 mm The total area of heat transfer between the boiling refrigerant and milk Qn=1,3...1.7 m2is a small part of the total area of the bottom (3.8 m2), limited technological gaps between the strips. Additional conductive coating to solder the coil [1] has a limited effect because of the relatively low (compared to metals) thermal conductivity, increasing the heat removal 5...10%. The conductivity also decreases due to the three-layer thermal resistance: stainless steel, tin-lead solder, copper. The manufacturing process of such evaporators is poorly amenable to mechanization and, along with non-ferrous metals, increases the cost of the tank. Moreover, because of the "tin disease" and technological deviations some pipe coil otbivayutsja during long-term operation, not vaporized refrigerant flies in the suction line Assembly, obturative Carter, disrupts the oil pump and jammed the compressor.

The invention is aimed at increasing the rate of cooling of milk and increase reliability in all modes, including rinsing with hot water. This technical result is achieved by the fact that the dairy refrigeration installation, containing a square tank with external heat insulation coating, injection-suction line compressor-conden atomnogo unit, according to the invention, the evaporator is made slot and represent two halves of a V-shaped bottoms with an injector and intake manifold, each associated respectively with the discharge and suction lines condensing unit, with a slit evaporator performed seam welding with wide joints not less than 4 mm, spacing of joints not exceeding 35 mm and with a depth of flaring cracks not less than 3 mm.

The invention is illustrated by drawings. Figure 1 presents a General view of the tank of the invention. Figure 2 - schematic diagram of the dairy refrigeration unit.

Milk cooling unit (1, 2) contains a square tank 1 stainless steel with an outer insulating coating 2, the upper yoke 3 mounted on it a gear motor 4 and the agitator 5.

V-shaped bottom 6 of the tank 1 with the intake manifold 7 and the injector 8 forms two half slotted evaporator 9 halon.

Slit the evaporator 9 plate 6 made by roller seam welding step SWnot more than 35 mm, the width of the weld is not less than 4 mm, forming due to uniform welding of the joints between two sheets of a same triangular slit along the plane of the bottom 6, the depth h of not less than 3 mm, and providing uniform boiling of the refrigerant during cooling of milk. Before welding outside the East 10 slotted evaporator 9 rolled in the respective rollers to obtain a depth of not less than 3 mm The tank 1 is located on the supports 11, containing the adjusting pivot washer for exhibition in height. Each intake manifold 7 is connected in parallel with a suction line 12 condensing unit (ADC) 13.

The composition of the condensing unit 13 are connected in series compressor 14, a condenser 15 and a fan 16, a receiver 17, the filter-drier 18, thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) 19, the solenoid valve 20. To the suction pipe 12 is connected to the pressure sensor 21. Injection Magistral condensing unit 13 is connected with the injector 8 slotted evaporator 9.

In the dairy refrigeration unit also includes a temperature sensor storage tank 1 and the electrical control Cabinet (figure 1, 2 is not shown), which switch off the installation when the temperature reaches 4°and again include it in 3-4 hours when the temperature is raised to 5°during storage.

Setup works as follows.

After filling the tank 1 warm milk t=25°C enabling liquid refrigerant from receiver 17 ADC 13 through the filter-drier 18 and thermostatic expansion valve 19, the solenoid valve 20, the discharge line 22 enters the injector 8 and slit the evaporator 9 of the tank 1, where it boils, cooling the milk, and drawn into the reservoir 7. A pair of refrigerant inside the gap isparities develop pressure P=1.0 MPa, and further pass through the suction line 12, when the input CCA. In the compressor 14 of the pair of compressed refrigerant to the condensing pressure and forced into the condenser 15, where they are cooled and condensed into the liquid phase, giving heat to the surrounding air by pulling the fan 16. The liquid refrigerant collected in the receiver 17.

The geared motor 4, a mixer 5 provides sufficient heat removal and eliminates the formation of ice on the bottom 6 of the tank 1.

The uniformity and symmetry of seam welding slotted evaporator 9 provides a uniform division of flow boiling of refrigerant from the injector 8 to the intake manifold 7 and creates a uniform heat removal from all bottoms. Thermostatic expansion valve 19 as milk cooling automatically reduces the flow of liquid refrigerant by adjusting the loading slot of the evaporator 9. When the pressure of unsaturated vapor refrigerant of 0.13 MPa (setpoint pressure sensor 21) turns off the compressor, followed by discharge of milk and the washing tank 1 hot water that is only slightly increases the pressure in the gap evaporator 9 to 0.2 MPa. When incomplete cycle cooling temperature of the milk 6...8°With, in the case of simultaneous failures of the compressor 14, a fan 16 and a solenoid valve 20 in the aperture of the evaporator 9 and the injector 8 is a residue (0,2...0,8 l) liquid (boiling) halon. Rinsing with boiling water increases D. the pressure up to 3.0 MPa at 65° When and achieved the highest voltage gap welding seams.

Calculation of specific voltage seam weldingfor the present invention will spend on a rectangular fragment of a slotted evaporator dimensions·f=35×40 mm (figure 1), when the vapor pressure P=1.0 MPa, which corresponds to the temperature of the milk 25°and for the pressure P=3.0 MPa (rinsing with hot water). The effort of tearing F[n] will be obtained from the relation

F=P(cf-bf)=1240 N=126 kg, where P=1.0 MPa.

The voltage in the welding seam reaches values

Obviously, even when washing with hot water and a three-fold increase in the pressure in the seam gap evaporator to P=3,0mpa, the voltage in the welding joints remains insignificant σW=2.4 kg/mm, which is 7 times less than the voltage on break point in the evaporator - analogue of [8] and with a large margin (6...12 times) that provides the durability and reliability of dairy refrigeration plants in the heavy mode. The total area of heat transfer Q slotted evaporator, with the size of the contour 1950×900 mm in each half of the V-shaped bottom, is Q=3.5 m2. Compared with the prototype, containing 36...48 soldered Polyplastic six-foot pipe having an area of heat transfer Qn=1,3...1.7 m2the size and thickness of selvog the evaporator, determine the cooling rate of milk increased in 2...2.5 times.

The depth of the rolling h=3 mm triangular slit evaporator provides the area of orifice S=(35-4)×3×0,5=465 mm2. Given the total number of 26 gaps between the injector 8 and the collector 7, we obtain the equivalent orifice half of the evaporator S0=26S=1200 mm2. Full orifice slot evaporator 9 is 2700 mm2that is equivalent to the hole ⊘55 mm and allows linear losses to connect to ADC power up to 50000 kcal/H. it is Obvious that due to the deep rolling in comparison with the similar point, the area of orifice S0volume boiling in a slit evaporator 9 halon and, accordingly, the capacity of the evaporator and the cooling rate of milk has increased several times.

These parameters slotted evaporator in combination with proportional powerful ADC provide rapid cooling of the milk volume 2000...5000 l to +4°2...3 hours with the observance of sanitary norms.

Seam roller welding seam width b=4 mm is provided suture machine MS-2201 or equivalent (MS-2204, MS-005 and others) with a corresponding sharpening of the leading roller. Narrowing seam less b=4 mm weakens proportionally margin slotted evaporator 9, which is impractical. Similarly, the extension of the step slot evaporator SWwhen use 35 mm also weaken the structure and make it less reliable. The use of laser welding, with the maximum width of the bead b=1.1 mm, leads to a sharp decrease in the step SWup to 20 mm for a recovery factor of safety, which greatly complicates and hinders the deep rolling of sheets with a thickness of 1.2 mm

Since November 2005, the company LLC "NPP "Automash" (gcouros) the production of slit evaporators in accordance with the present description is embedded in the serial production of TMHU-S, NMHU S & d to volume 2000...5000 liters of milk.

Bibliographic data

1. Milk cooling equipment. Patent RU NO. 2265322, 01J 9/04, F25D 1/00, F25D 17/06.

2. Installation of cooling milk. Patent RU NO. 2238642, A01J 9/04, 2004

3. Reservoir-cooler of milk. Patent RU NO. 2007909, A01J 9/04, 28.02.1994,

4. Tank milk cooling. Patent FR 2133145 And 11.02.1998,

5. Reservoir-cooler of milk. Patent SU 1496723 A1, 30.07.1989,

6. Installation of cooling milk MSD 2000T-TAG4561T. Technical description and operation manual gavrov, OOO NPP "Energy", 2002

7. Tank-cooler KRJOS and bath cooling UES and VS. WESTFALIA SURGE. Advertising materials. LLC "Westralia the surge". 105 005, Moscow, Plaskowski per, page 2.

8. Reservoir-cooler of milk MCA-L-2B. Technical conditions TU 4741-083-00238523-97 Kurgan, JSC "KURGANSELMASH".

9. Myokokogen "Alfa Laval" online:

Milk cooling at the plant, containing a square tank with external heat insulation coating, the evaporator, the discharge-suction line of the compressor-condenser unit, wherein the evaporator is a slot and represent two halves of a V-shaped bottoms with an injector and intake manifold, each associated respectively with the discharge and suction lines condensing unit, with a slit evaporator performed seam welding with wide joints not less than 4 mm, spacing of joints not more than 35 mm, the depth of the roll gaps of at least 3 mm.


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