Safeguarding method from groundwater pollution in storing areas and landfill areas, containing toxic or radioactive substances and device for its implementation

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for protection of fresh groundwater, ground and soils from pollution by toxic and radioactive substances in areas of technical wastes storage. In expected place of landfill it is created barrier, formed samples set of ground strata for depth till first water-bearing stratum of protected territory and set of local clay samples from the nearest region. Samples of ground strata are divided into layers presented by different lithological members and then territory is divided into separated sections and for each of them functioning critical time as natural geochemical barrier is defined. Then territorial sections (k) are defined, for them variation range ΔTs of territory required operation life Toper from critical time of its operating as natural geochemical barrier Tscrit exceed previously agreed acceptable value ΔTs= Toper - Tscrit > Tacc. Then it is formed database of potential contaminant migratory parameters for local clays and materials for artificial barriers, each section of being protected territory is covered by barrier material.

EFFECT: providing criterion of predictability territory operation critical time, appraisal ability of contaminants migration velocity in ground strata and increasing of being protected territory operating time.

7 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the protection of the environment and can be used to protect against contamination of toxic or radioactive substances underground drinking water, and soils in areas of technical waste.

There is a method of protection from pollutants, namely, that the original solution is subjected to neutralization to a value of 4.0 ≤ PH ≤ 2,0, at the same time, the original single solution injected bentonite clay in an amount of not more than 5.0 g/DM3light the aqueous phase is separated by decantation, and the residue is repeatedly subjected to interaction with the following portions of the original solution to the ratio of W:T≤2:1, followed by decanting the clarified aqueous phase (patent RU No. 2104316 C1 6, SW 3/44 // SW 15:00).

The disadvantage of this method is the use of only natural bentonite clay as adsorbent, while a number of local loamy differences may have greater absorptive capacity in relation to a range of pollutants. The known method does not allow to quantify the minimum required weight of the sorbent for the full treatment of the initial solution from pollutants. In addition, it is necessary to constantly attract professionals to the process wastewater collection and treatment solid waste landfills, as well as to control C the quality of these works.

The known method of wastewater treatment solid waste landfills from heavy metals, which consists in the fact that the waste water collected by the drainage system and directed to a special ponds. Simultaneously, prepare a solution of milk of lime CA(Oh)2that was mixed in mixers with collected waste water for 10-15 minutes to a pH of 9.0 to 9.5, and create pH, changing the amount of CA(Oh)2in relation to the treated filtrate. Treated wastewater is spread over the surface of a solid waste landfill based 1-2 mm/day, while the total recycled filtrate on one partition should not exceed 200-300 mm/year in one section, while in case of separation of the acidic filtrate its processing before recycling to spend until the pH of the filtrate drainage system will be not lower than 7.0. In the case when the composition of the filtrate is methane phase, but with the concentration of heavy metals above the MPC, the recirculation of leachate pre-obrabatyvat solution of milk of lime to a pH of 9.0 to 9.5, with the necessary pH create, changing the amount of CA(Oh)2in relation to the treated filtrate, spend up to the maximum effect of reducing the concentration of heavy metals in the wastewater discharged drainage systems is th (patent RF №2162059 C1 7, 02F 1/62, WV 3/00).

The disadvantage of this method is the necessity to constantly attract professionals to the process of collection, treatment and regular monitoring of wastewater solid waste landfills.

The closest technical solution, i.e. the prototype of the claimed method is a method of protection against contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances, which consists in the fact that at the proposed location of the waste disposal install screen (patent RF №2050334 C1 6, 02F 1/62, 1/28).

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to predict the time limit exploitation of the territory allotted for the storage of these wastes, and the inability to estimate the rate of migration of contaminants in soil thickness, overlying the aquifer, and the time of their contact with him. The disadvantages include a lack estimate the required power of the screen, protecting groundwater for the period of service territory.

The result of the invention to provide protection from contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances, and devices for its implementation, the possibility of forecasting the limit of the time the exploitation of the territory the ability to assess the rate of migration of contaminants in soil thickness, overlying the aquifer, and the time of their contact with him, and also increase the operating time of the protected site to the desired through the creation of additional artificial screen, the power of which is determined analytically by the results of the analysis of migration parameters contaminants in used to manufacture the materials.

The essence of the claimed invention, a method of protection against contamination of groundwater and soils in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances, is that at the proposed location of the waste disposal install screen, in addition to the projected location of the waste disposal form sets of samples of soil thickness of the aeration zone to the depth of the first aquifer) protected areas, generate a series of samples of local clay from a nearby region, share samples of soil massif protected areas on layers made of different lithologic differences, and then on the basis specified in the design of the concentration of pollutants, the required operation time and taking into account the acceptable accuracy deviations for each layer determine the effective porosity (ne), the ratio microdis the version (D), filtration rate (ν) and the value of the maximum permissible concentration of the first contaminant on the upper boundary of the adjacent layer, and then divide the area into separate sections for each layer of each given power limit time functioning as a natural geochemical barrier, identify areas of (k), for which the range of variation ΔTsthe desired lifetime of the territory Texfrom the limit time of its functioning as a natural geochemical barrier Ts porexceeds the predetermined allowable value

ΔTs=Tex-Ts por>TSSform database migration parameters of potential pollutants to local clays and materials artificial screens and in accordance with the required capacity to cover every part of the protected territory of the material of the screen.

The essence of the claimed invention also lies in the fact that additionally form the database required power screens for individual sites, choose from this set to the desired maximum value of absorptive capacity of the artificial screen and evenly applied all over the entire protected area.

The essence of the claimed invention also lies in the fact that in the case of localization of loci is and pollution along the border of its distribution take out a ground layer to the depth to the lower boundary of the aquifer, and then fill the trench with the material of the screen and create a screen-type "wall in the ground".

The essence of the claimed invention also lies in the fact that in the case of localization of the source of pollution along the border of its distribution Buryats staggered chain of wells to a depth of the lower boundary of the aquifer and through them to the pump selected to screen plugging the solution into the pore or fracture-pore space of the soil and create a vertical cutoff sorbing the screen, the amount of which is determined by the formula

V=πother2where n is the porosity of the soil, R is the radius of the spreading solution, H is the depth to the lower boundary of the aquifer), the distance between the wells in the row and between the rows of wells should not exceed 2R.

The essence of the claimed invention also lies in the fact that in the device to implement the method that contains the set of sets of samples of soil strata, the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants, block the formation of a solution with a given initial concentration of pollutants, added the timer, the first and second computers, the memory block, the block I / o information, the Comparer and the actuator, and the outputs of the processing unit sets of samples of soil strata, block the formation of a solution with sedanolide concentration of pollutants connected respectively to first and second inputs of the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants, and the output of the timer is connected simultaneously to the third input of the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants and the second input of the first transmitter, the first input connected to the output of the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants, and the input-output of the first transmitter connected two-way communication line to the first input-output memory block, a second input connected to the block I / o information, and the third and fourth inputs and outputs of the memory block are connected by two-way communication with the entrance-exit of the second transmitter and the unit of comparison, while the second output block I / o information is connected with the actuating mechanism.

Technical implementation of the method and device for protection against contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic and radioactive substances, is based on a modern instrument equipment for geochemical analysis of soil, the base of the computer equipment, chemical industry and land management techniques.

As the actuator is specific land management technique, drilling and injection installation recommended after the completion of design and survey works.

Figure 1 shows the functional diagram of the device for implementing the method is, showing: block the formation of sets of samples of soil strata 1, block formation of a solution with a given initial concentration of pollutants 2, the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants 3, timer 4, the first transmitter 5, the memory block 6, block I / o information 7, the second transmitter 8, a block comparison 9, the actuator 10.

Figure 2 shows an example of an experimental evaluation of the relative concentration of pollutants from time to time.

The device for realization of the proposed method works as follows (figure 1).

At the preliminary stage in the alleged burial place of toxic waste form sets of samples of soil stratum directly on the projected area to the first aquifer and nearby locations local clays, which are then divided into separate layers for different lithological differences in unit 1, form the initial set of samples of the layers of soil massif. On the basis of samples obtained experimentally determined dependence of the change of concentration of each pollutant in each lithological layer from the time when filtering the original solutions of pollutants through soil samples.

To do this in unit 2 form the original solution with a given concentration of pollutants WithRefand each subsequent sample from a set of samples with the OEB soil massif protected area and local clays 1 sequentially loaded into the unit determine changes in the concentration of pollutants in time 3. Using timer 4 capture the start time of the measurement and regularly at the specified intervals Δt take a metered volume of filtrate and measure the concentration of pollutants, for example, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From the output of the unit of measurement of the concentration of the pollutant 3 corresponding electrical signals for each of the pollutants served at the first input of the transmitter 5, the second input of which the signal from the second output of the timer 4, and determine the relative concentration of each of the investigated element at a given point in time tiby the formula

Withki Rel=Cki/Cki ex(where Ckithe concentration of the analyzed element "K" for sampling time tiWithKishthe concentration of the analyzed element "K" in the original solution).

Through pre-selected intervals of time Δt procedure for determining the relative concentration and repeat on the output of the first transmitter 5 sequentially generate respective electrical signals, which are served at the first input of the memory block 6, where, and remember it in the appropriate section.

According to the results of the experiment in the first evaluator 5 build a family of graphical dependencies Ccotn(t) changes the relative concentrations of each (k) of the studied item from time Phil is ation and the graphic-analytical method (Vmesto "Dynamics of groundwater", Moscow state University, 1973, str) determine the values of the migration parameters - effective porosity neand coefficient of microdisperse D. figure 2 presents a typical species of this family of curves, where the dots represent the experimental results.

The procedure of determination of migration parameters is performed for all studied pollutants for each soil sample for soil thickness, as a rule, presents several lithologic differences. Therefore, in the block definition concentration of pollutant in time 3 replace the soil samples and the whole procedure of determination of migration parameters can be repeated for all samples in layers protect soil column.

Similarly, define the migration parameters of local claysandwhere the subscript "g" defines the location of the investigated sample.

On the basis of the analysis in the memory unit 6 form a generalized database migration options pollutants in the protected ground thicker; this database also includes information on migration options pollutants in local clays and known materials for artificial screens, for example, suspension and chemical gelling solutions (cement-sandy, sandy-clayey, sandy-gel etc).

For the case, the hen dirt series is a combination of two or more layers with different lithologic differences, the pollutant concentration at the upper boundary of the aquifer is calculated on the basis of specific combinations of layers and taking into account the capacity of each layer.

Quantitative assessment of the degree of protection of groundwater against pollution in the areas of toxic or radioactive wastes are made on the basis of calculation of the maximum allowable time of operation of the landfill site (TAve)that none of the identified pollutants does not exceed the limits of natural or artificial screen, to be considered as a geochemical barrier, both during operation and after preservation of the landfill site. This means that dictate when the concentration of the active contaminant is less than the MPC on the border of the first aquifer in contact with the area of waste disposal.

The possibility of creating artificial screens is largely determined by their cost. In this regard, determine the minimum (necessary and sufficient) power screen, which will serve as a reliable geochemical barrier to contaminants during the entire period of operation of the landfill site after its closure.

By the operator through the block I / o 7 output signal from the memory unit 6, the corresponding database migration options Uch the people protected territory served on the first input of the second transmitter 8, then limit the time of operation of each portion of the territory of Ts poras natural geochemical barrier, compared with the required on the job by the time of its operation TECdetermine the time interval required for renewal of his service ΔTs=TEC-Ts porcompare with the allowable threshold ΔTSSand for ΔTs>TSSform the corresponding database of protected areas, which separately memorize in the memory unit 6.

In case ΔTs>TSSthe solution to the problem of groundwater protection can be accomplished by creating an artificial screen. As such a screen in terms of a near surface disposal facility is economically the most appropriate may be artificial horizontal screen from local clays, which is an artificially created additional soil layer.

The calculation results form the database capacity screens plots protected areas and the corresponding signals from the first output of the transmitter serves 8 to the third input of the memory unit 6.

In the future, there are two options for completion of the work.

Option No. 1.

Each of the sites protects the screen, the capacity of which corresponds to the calculation of the th value of M s min.

Option No. 2.

After calculating the power of screens for areas protected areas define the area requiring maximum power screen. To do this, from the output 3 of the memory unit 6 a signal corresponding database power screens plots protected areas, are served to the input of block sorting parameter, which determines the maximum value of the required power screenand a corresponding signal is fed into the block I / o information 7. In accordance with the received power value of the screen, the operator generates the block input / output 7 signal to enable the Executive mechanisms for the formation of the protective screen.

In conditions of deep burial of wastes or, if necessary, to prevent the possibility of pollution in the border areas (containment landfills) increase the operating time reaches by creating a vertical screen in the aquifer.

Option number 3 ("wall").

On the border of the protected territory dig a trench to the depth to the bottom of the first aquifer and width

A trench filled with clay, selected for the manufacture of the screen.

Option number 4 (vertical sorbing veil).

V=πother2(where n is the porosity of the soil, H is the depth of the borehole (m), R is the radius of the distribution of solution (m)), the distance between the wells in the row and between the rows of wells should not exceed 2R. As a result of injection of clay or chemical gel-forming fluids in the pore or fracture-pore space of the soil create vertical cutoff sorbing the screen.

The use of the claimed invention will allow on the basis of a given anthropogenic load to assess the duration of the lifetime of the projected area of the storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances. When the required operation time is significantly longer than the specified period, it is necessary to increase e is about by creating protective shields of natural and synthetic sorbent materials.

1. The way to protect against contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances, which consists in the fact that at the proposed location of the waste disposal create a screen, characterized in that the projected location of the waste disposal form sets of samples of soil strata at a depth first aquifer protected areas, generate a series of samples of local clay from a nearby region, share samples of soil massif protected areas on layers made of different lithologic differences, and then divide the area into separate sections for each of them determine the time limit, functioning as a natural geochemical barrier, identify territories (k), for which the range of variation ΔTsthe desired lifetime of the territory Texfrom the limit time of its functioning as a natural geochemical barrier Ts porexceeds the predetermined allowable value ΔTs=Tex-Ts por>TSSform database migration parameters of potential pollutants to local clays and materials for artificial screens and cover every part of the protected territory of the material of the screen.

2. The way to protect against loading the view of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of waste, containing toxic or radioactive substances according to claim 1, characterized in that the form the database required power screens for individual sites, choose from this set to the desired maximum value of absorptive capacity of the artificial screen and evenly applied all over the entire protected area.

3. The way to protect against contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances according to claim 1, characterized in that in the case of localization of the source of pollution along the border of its distribution take out a ground layer to the depth to the lower boundary of the aquifer, and then filling the trench with the material of the screen, and additionally create screen type "wall in the ground".

4. The way to protect against contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic or radioactive substances according to claim 1, characterized in that in the case of localization of the source of pollution along the border of its distribution Buryats staggered chain of wells to a depth of N through the pump in the pore or fracture-pore space of the soil selected for the screen grouting mortar and create a vertical cutoff sorbing the screen, the amount of which is determined by the formula V=πother2where n is the porosity Grun is a, R is the radius of the spreading solution, H is the depth to the lower boundary of the aquifer, the distance between the wells in the row and between the rows of wells should not exceed 2R.

5. Device for protection against contamination of groundwater in areas of storage and disposal of wastes containing toxic and radioactive substances, including forming unit sets of samples of soil strata, the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants, block the formation of a solution with a given initial concentration of pollutants, characterized in that it also includes a timer, the first and second computers, the memory block, the block I / o information, the Comparer and the actuator, and the outputs of the processing unit sets of samples of soil strata, block the formation of a solution with a given initial concentration of pollutants connected respectively to first and second inputs of the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants and the output of the timer is connected simultaneously to the third input of the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants and the second input of the first transmitter, the first input connected to the output of the unit of measurement of the concentration of pollutants, and the input-output of the first transmitter connected two-way communication line to the first input-output memory block, a second input connected to the block in the ode-output information, and the third and fourth inputs and outputs of the memory block are connected by two-way communication with the entrance-exit of the second transmitter and the unit of comparison, while the second output block I / o information is connected with the actuating mechanism.



 

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23 cl, 3 tbl, 25 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: sapropel moisture content reduction method comprises the following stage, i.e. forming the 3 to 6 mm-thick sapropel mass on a flat surface, pressing the loose capillary structure porous material to the sapropel surface with subsequent squeezing the moisture out of the said material, in several cycles, and separating the precipitate. Prior to forming the sapropel mass, it is subjected to heating to the temperature at which the sapropel colloid structure gets destructed. Note that the temperature of the flat surface whereon the sapropel layer is being formed, is kept up constant during the entire process cycle.

EFFECT: increased volume of liquid phase withdrawn from sapropel, higher commercial properties and expanded application.

FIELD: chemistry, technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: water purification is performed by impact of electric discharge radiation and further action of chemically active particles and radicals, formed during electric discharge in filled with oxygen-containing gas space between sectioned metal electrode and water surface. Electric discharge is realised in filled with oxygen-containing gas space, separated from sections of sectioned metal electrode with thin dielectric layer from material, resistant to action of electric discharge and chemically active particles and radicals, formed during electric discharge. Material has electric strength more than 300 MV/m, relative dielectric permeability 5÷50, specific volume resistance 1010÷1017 Ohm·m, specific surface resistance at temperature 20°C and relative humidity 70% more than 1010 Ohm and heat conductivity coefficient more than 6 W/(m·K).

EFFECT: invention reduces energy consumption for water purification.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: as initial raw material for filtering material production preliminary accumulated and dehydrated sediment from water purification, which mainly contains contaminant colloid particles, having chemical affinity with iron, is used. Sediment is pressed in briquettes with density 2.6 g/cm3 and fired by thermal sintering into conglomerate at temperature 1200-1400°C. Water purification is carried out on produced filtering material.

EFFECT: cheap and available raw material for production of filtering material and increase of its absorptive ability.

3 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of dump base, arrangement of fencing structures, erection of antifiltering screen, drain system for collection and treatment of filtrate, and also of gas collection system, layerwise installation of waste with soil isolating layers, provision of insulating coating of arranged dump surface. Territory of dump is divided into working sections in amount of at least three. Every section of dump is formed as independent from the others. Filling of every subsequent section with waste is started on completion of the previous section filling. Extraction and recycling of waste from the area of the first filled section and its preparation for repeated filling is performed in the period of the last section filling with waste, then on the prepared territory of the first section waste is repeatedly placed, with simultaneous extraction and recycling of the second section waste with its preparation for repeated filling, after that cycle is repeated according to the sequence of the sections' initial filling. Ratio of the average duration of one section filling and number of sections is calculated with the help of mathematical dependence.

EFFECT: increase of efficiency of land lots usage as solid domestic waste refuse dumps and increase of their service life.

4 cl, 3 dwg

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