Safety device for bed against surface water

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: safety device for bed against surface water includes preparation of base course, foundation, pockets backing, blind area facility. Between blind area and bed there is formed self-locking waterproofing locker made of wedgelike elements: braced - underlying and overlying, nonrigid - made of viscoplastic material, such as bitumen, located between rigid elements. At that external wall of foundation is implemented leaned big end down the foundation.

EFFECT: reduction of differential settlement of foundation and building deformation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, and more particularly to protecting foundations from surface water.

There is a method of protection embedded in the water-saturated ground structures against groundwater (A.S. No. A, publ. in BI No. 2 10.01.84), which aimed insulating protection structures erected in water-saturated soil layer underlain by basalt layer, simultaneously with the formation of isolated from the surrounding ground space under the sole structure, the same space is formed around the side surface structures by placing around structures extending from top to bottom dome of waterproof material with sealed attachment of its upper edges to the side surface of the structures above groundwater level and the location of its lower edges on the aquitard and the simultaneous filling draining material limited dome space, and the discharge in the drainage material of the compressed air by submitting the latter to the top of the dome.

The disadvantage of this method is the difficulty of providing for long periods of sealing the top edge of the waterproofing material to the side surface of the structure and workability of the material. Otherwise, you will need to replace it from the top edge to the fundamentals of the of the Foundation of a building. In addition, the dome must be protected from the pressure of caving soils, and to maintain positive air pressure under the dome (with respect to the hydrostatic) required continuous operation of the compressor with extra energy. The method is designed for the obligatory presence of impermeable layer at the base of the Foundation.

The prototype of the invention is a method to protect the base and Foundation walls from surface waters using scaffoldings and clay castle, arranged between the paving and the sole Foundation (Ary, Mview, Iasolution, Obijaewsa. Waterproofing of underground and underground facilities during construction and repair: a Training manual. - Tver, publishing house "Russian brand", 2003, p.78, 29).

The disadvantage of this method is the fragility and unreliability of the protective properties of the blind area and clay castle. This is because over time between the paving and the wall of the Foundation of a gap. The beginning of its appearance, i.e. the gap between the blind area from the wall, contributes to subsidence in the axils beneath the paving, as backfilling has a maximum density of about 90% of the natural soil. In the resulting gap reaches surface water, sometimes together with the ground, which promotes germination of plants between the wall and the paving and widening of the gap. Getting into Zaza is, water in sub-zero temperatures walls or blind area freezes, expands and increases the gap between the wall and paving. At zero temperature the water comes to a clay (bentonite) castle, which increases in volume and protects the wall from moisture only in the case when the amount left voids and the volume expansion of clay equal. Otherwise, when an insufficient volume of voids may be offset designs, but with a significant gap waterproofing membrane (Ary, 77-79 C.) in Addition, when the fluctuation of the groundwater level, the bentonite clay loses its waterproofing ability. In case of violation in some places the integrity of the connection blind area and clay membrane surface water enters the basement, modifies the physico-mechanical properties of soils, reduces the bearing capacity, which ultimately leads to subsidence of Foundation deformation of the walls of the structure and the formation of cracks. Currently in construction "clay castles" is practically not applicable.

As one of their examples of the impact of surface water on buildings and structures can serve as city hospital №1, Kazan, built in the early 1900, perfectly preserved. But in those places where the water penetrated between the wall and paving brick wall, formed cracks.

And the acquisition is aimed at reducing uneven subsidence and deformation structures by preventing access of surface water to the base of the Foundation.

The result is achieved that, the method including preparing the Foundation, Foundation, backfill sinus, the device of the blind area, according to the invention between the paving and the basis of a self-satisfied waterproofing castle of wedge elements: hard - underlying and overlapping, and yielding of the viscoplastic material, such as bitumen, located between the rigid elements, with the outer wall of the Foundation operates inclined with broadening the base of the Foundation.

The result is that the hard underlying and overlapping wedge-shaped elements fixed vertical ribs.

The essence of the method is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows a vertical cross section of the base with a self-latching lock.

Figure 2 shows a vertical cross section of a variant of fixation of rigid elements (3 and 5).

Figure 3 shows a vertical longitudinal section abutting the neighboring overlapping and underlying elements and their ligation between them (for two examples).

To protect the Foundation of the proposed method against the Foundation 1 on hard-Packed and planned soil backfill 2 are rigid wedge-shaped spreading elements 3 with the slope of the upper plane to the base 1, on which were laid the hearth is Levi wedge-shaped elements 4 of the viscoplastic material, for example bitumen. At last placed the hard wedge of overlapping elements 5. Directly against the outer side of the wedge-shaped elements 3, 4, 5 hammered rods 6 (for example, reinforced concrete poles). Top laid paving 7. The outer wall 8 of the Foundation 1 is performed by widening the bottom. Rack 6 may be replaced by vertical ribs 9 and 10, is made on a rigid wedge-shaped elements.

Protection perform the following way.

After execution of the Foundation 1 produce backfill 2 sinuses of the pit with simultaneous compaction of the soil. Not reaching the blind area to the value not less than the thickness of the block of the wedge-shaped elements 3, 4, 5, backfill soil stop, leveled and compacted soil placed against the tops to the wall of the basement rigid wedge-shaped spreading elements 3. Then the grounds for the Foundation (vertices from Foundation) stack pliable wedge-shaped elements 4 and at their tops to the Foundation - fixed overlapping wedge-shaped elements 5. Assembly of wedge-shaped elements 3, 4, 5 in the blocks may occur on plants concrete structure. To prevent waste from the Foundation block of the three wedge-shaped elements 3, 4, 5 fixed vertical posts 6 of corrosion-resistant material (e.g. concrete)installed in compacted soil, or fix in artikelname ribs 9 and 10 on the hard wedge-shaped elements 3 and 5 (figure 2). Blind area 7 perform over the plates 5.

The outer side 8 of the Foundation 1 is performed by broadening its sole.

To prevent extrusion of pliable material of the wedge-shaped elements 4 at the contact between a homogeneous rigid klenovich elements: the underlying 3, as well as overlapping 5, the end adjacent parts of them are in the form of a fold and lip - POS.1 - or tongue and groove - 2 3.

To increase the rigidity in the horizontal direction of the block design of three wedge-shaped elements 3, 4, 5 items 3 and 5 stack with offset vertical joints around the perimeter of the Foundation 3.

To protect the Foundation from surface waters at the expense of automatically locking waterproofing castle in contact with the outer wall 8 of the Foundation 1. In the precipitation process backfill 2, blocks of wedge-shaped elements 3, 4, 5, blind area 7 the gap between the wedge elements and the wall 8 of the Foundation 1, and also between the latter and the blind area 7 is not formed. This is because, firstly, wedge-shaped pliable element 4 under the action of vertical loads and the buoyancy force of the wedge tends to "slip out" of rigid elements 3 and 5, thereby closely adjacent to the wall 8 of the Foundation 1. Secondly, due to the broadening bottom of the outer wall 8 of the Foundation 1 items 3, 4, 5, and blind area 7 when SDA is caña tightly pressed to the wall 8 and block the access of water to the Foundation of two barriers: paving 7 and pliable element 4. Blocking prevents water erosion of the Foundation soil, reducing its load carrying capacity and, consequently, prevent deformation of the walls of the structure.

Waterproofing self-latching lock from bitumopodobnaya viscoplastic materials are durable, not affected by temperature changes (coefficient of volume expansion of the bitumen at lower clay), shrinkage is 0,3-0,6 (at T=160 C) compared to 7-15% clay, capable of flowing in the solid state, is not washed away by water, is not subject to corrosion.

1. The way to protect the Foundation from surface waters, including ground preparation, Foundation, backfill sinus, the device of the blind area, characterized in that between the paving and the basis of a self-satisfied waterproofing castle of wedge elements: hard - underlying and overlapping, yielding of the plastic material, such as bitumen, located between the rigid elements, with the outer wall of the Foundation operates inclined with broadening the base of the Foundation.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the hard underlying and overlapping wedge-shaped elements fixed vertical ribs.



 

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