Method of receiving protective material for manufacturing watertight diaphragms, protecting soil

FIELD: textile; paper; process.

SUBSTANCE: method provides forming of composition nonwoven material with surface layer, underlayer and wireframe interlayer made of polymer material, at that received structure is passed through shafting. In the course of protective material receiving surface layer and underlayer form with surface density 200-400 g/m2, at that thickness of wireframe interlayer is 100-250 micron. Layers binding is implemented by means of passing through tightly pressured shafting, at that ratio of shafts diameters is 1:[6-8], big shaft is heated till temperature 180-250°C, and its rotational velocity is 1.2-4 rpm. Finished nonwoven material is enrolled and held at temperature 18-24°C during at least three days.

EFFECT: improvement of material physical properties; reduction of ecological stress to environment and reduction of material and technical consumption at its recovery.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of creating a special layered membrane materials, which are used to protect soil and groundwater from various pollutants during construction, such as solid waste (MSW) or construction of sludge pits with oil.

There are various ways to prevent the ingress of contaminants into soil and groundwater. Natural clay, due to its low permeability, nontoxicity, and widespread distribution have long been used for these purposes. The simplest screen is a layer of compacted clay with a thickness of 0.6-1.0 m, However, the clay layer has several limitations. Depending on the remoteness of the clay pit from the construction site or oil can significantly increase the cost of construction. In addition, the heterogeneity of the composition of the clays, the presence of inclusions, lenses of sand, the need for careful sealing of all it is difficult to perform in different climates and weather conditions.

The simplest anti-filtration screen is plastic film, usually made of high density polyethylene.

A known method of manufacturing a layered material that prevents the passage of liquids (see p, EN, op. 10.01.2001). The method includes the introduction of a non-woven fiber fabric and thermoplastic plank is in the gap for their connections and lamination of the surface film with the formation of the laminated panel. However nonwoven laminate obtained in a known manner intended for the manufacture of, for example, surgical gowns, sheets, bandages, etc.

A method of obtaining a decorative laminate (see p, EN, op. 20.06.2000). Known decorative material contains two main layers and located between the intermediate binding layer consisting of a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate, made in the form of separate particles. The surface of one of the main layer consisting of a textile base, weighing 100-320 g/m2containing flax fibers, or a mixture of linen, viscose and polyester fibers, which is applied to the intermediate bonding layer is subjected to a subsequent heat treatment at a temperature of 115-125°C for 1-2 C. the Obtained laminated material is duplicated with the second main layer through the mirror shaft at a pressure of 0.5 to 1.5 bar. However, the known method is intended for production of laminated materials for finishing haberdashery items, strollers, interior decoration etc.

A method of obtaining a nonwoven laminate that includes a nonwoven laminated material made of a fibrous mixture of natural and/or synthetic fibers, as well as one frame layer, the positioning inside the material. Using frame layer allows to obtain a material with different mechanical properties, such as flexibility, strength, etc. of the Frame layer may be made of polymer film. The polymeric film is connected with non-woven laminated material by passing it together with the insulating layer through the calender (see p, Ru, "Nonwoven laminate", op. 20.08.2004).

This method is chosen as the closest analogue. However, the known method is intended for the manufacture of insulating gaskets with high insulating properties.

The problem solved by the invention is to develop a method of manufacture of a protective material for the manufacture of membrane screens that protect the soil, which operation would make it possible to obtain a material with high membrane properties, in particular a material with a high surface density in the range 450-850 g/m2. In addition, the material must be flexible, well up into rolls, which makes it easy to transport and work with him in the field. The material should be soft and cheap. Should easily fit in slurry pits or storage of solid waste, which will reduce the complexity of their construction, as well as lower the cost of the construction. In the manufacture of the material COI is lesofat waste production of chemical fibers. The use of such waste in the manufacture of the layered material, in addition to infringing waterproofing, will reduce the environmental burden on the environment, but also solve the problem of disposal of such waste and reduce material and technical costs arising from the disposal of such waste.

This task is solved in that in the method of obtaining a protective material for the manufacture of membrane screens that protect the soil, which form a composite nonwoven material with the surface layer, the underlying layer frame and an intermediate layer of polymeric material, with the resulting structure is passed through the rollers, in the course of obtaining protective material surface layer and the underlying layer forming weighing 200-400 g/m2while the thickness of the frame layer is 100-250 μm, and the bonding layers produced by transmission through tightly pressed shafts, the ratio of the diameters of the shafts is 1:[6-8], big shaft is heated to a temperature of 180-250°C, and the speed of its rotation is 1.2-4 rpm, the finished non-woven fabric was rolled up and maintained at a temperature of 18-24°C for at least three days.

In the manufacture of protective material pre-receive layers canvases on carding m the bus. Layers canvases made from waste chemical fiber (nylon, polyester, acrylic, or their mixture).

Then layers canvases are binding on the needle Assembly. So get the surface and underlying layers. While it has been experimentally determined that for getting a protective material with a surface density of 450-850 g/m2it is necessary that the density of the surface and underlying layers were 200-400 g/m2and the thickness of the layers may not be the same. Experimentally, it was also determined that to give a protective material required softness, flexibility and strength it is necessary that the thickness of the frame layer of a polymeric film, such as polyethylene, was in the range of 100-250 μm. When the thickness is more than 250 μm, the protective material is not only hard, but also increases its cost, because the cost of such polymer films increases. When the thickness of the polymer film is less than 100 μm increases the ability of protective material flowing liquid as it decreases the mechanical strength of the frame layer. Process connection surface, frame and underlying layers is carried out with simultaneous transmission of two tightly pressed against the shaft. Surface and underlying layers are connected with the frame layer by interconnection volotorricella layers with the structure of the polymer material of the frame layer. The weakening of these bonds is a problem and worsens the quality of the finished material. Empirically, it was determined that if the shaft diameters are in the ratio 1:[6-8], i.e. the larger diameter shaft 6-8 times larger than the diameter of the smaller of the shaft and, thus, the greater the shaft is heated to a temperature of 180-250°C, with the passage of the original components of protective material over the tightly pressed shafts is the penetration of the melt polymer material in the surface layer and the underlying layer. Fibers of these layers are firmly connected with the frame layer after cooling. The passage of the original components between the shafts is provided due to tolerances on the surface of the shaft and the elastic forces of deformation of the entire system: shaft - fasteners - shaft, and the elasticity of the material. The use of shafts of different diameters allows a more economical use of heat and, consequently, to save electricity, as the shaft of smaller diameter selects a smaller amount of heat without compromising the quality of the finished material. And the frequency of rotation of a large shaft in the range of 1.2-4 rpm allows you to get the desired characteristics of the finished protective material. Which was confirmed experimentally.

In the process of obtaining protective material is controlled protective material, its appearance, geometric time is'. When the deviation from the set parameters regulate the temperature and speed of rotation of the shafts, and, if necessary, and density of the pressing shafts to each other.

The result is a protective material with a surface density of 450-850 g/m2. Outlined schematic diagram is common for a variety of input fibers and polymer material. In specific cases may vary individual parameters, such as thickness and surface density of the surface and underlying layers, the thickness of the frame layer, the speed of rotation of the shafts, the heating temperature. Subsequent curing of the protective material at a temperature of 18-24°C for at least three days makes protective material is more elastic, which improves its performance. However, this term depends on the initial parameters of the components of the material.

Example. The method is carried out as described above. Can be used chemical fibers and their production waste produced in Russia by the following technical documentation:

fiber nylon twisted THE 6-13-91-94 or THAT 6-06-S103-84,

fiber nylon stretched THE 6-06-0103-84,

fiber synthetic polyester from waste (elongated and navatanee) THE 63-473-32-90,

fiber polyacrylonitrile (acrylic) THAT 6-06-34-22-81 (A) or polyester in the window THAT 6-06-28-1-82.

It uses a carding machine H-11-W and needle Assembly THEM-1800-M-A. Implementation of the method is illustrated with examples, are given in table 1.

Thus, the proposed method allows to obtain a protective material with a surface density of 450-850 g/m2. The invention is based on the experimentally established facts. Soft, flexible and cheap material, easy to transport, fits well in all climatic conditions during the construction of the vaults, which reduces the cost and complexity of construction. This eliminates the need for disposal of waste chemical fibers. There is an economy of resources for their utilization. Furthermore, the reduced and the load on the environment because the process of recycling fibers unsafe.

Obtained by the claimed method of the protective material protects the soil and groundwater from infiltration of various contaminants. The protective material can be used for the construction of sludge pits at drilling wells for oil production, in the construction of landfills, solid waste, and construction of reservoirs, hydraulic structures, strengthening of river banks and under any climatic conditions. Canvas protective material well and easily fastened to each other in field conditions is x, that allows to obtain a membrane screen of any size and configuration.

Table 1
The surface density of the protective material, g/m2The surface density of the surface layer, g/m2The thickness of the frame layer, μmThe surface density of the underlying layer, g/m2The rotation speed of the large shaft, Rev/minThe heating temperature of the shaft, °
4502001002004180
6503001502502200
8002002504001,5230
8503502003501,2250

A method of obtaining a protective material for the manufacture of membrane screens that protect the soil, which form a composite nonwoven material with the surface layer, the underlying layer frame and an intermediate layer of polymeric material, with the resulting structure is passed through the rollers, characterized in that during the process of obtaining protection is on material surface layer and the underlying layer forming weighing 200-400 g/m 2while the thickness of the frame layer is 100-250 μm, and the bonding layers produced by transmission through tightly pressed shafts, the ratio of the diameters of the shafts is 1:[6-8], big shaft is heated to a temperature of 180-250°and its rotational speed is 1.2-4 rpm, the finished non-woven fabric was rolled up and maintained at a temperature of 18-24°C for at least three days.



 

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Biomat // 2321982

FIELD: reinforcement and protection of ground surfaces such as ground planning embankment slopes, automobile and railway roads, open pits, dry slopes of earth-fill dams etc from erosion processes by quick recovery of soil and plant layer.

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EFFECT: improvement of material physical properties; reduction of ecological stress to environment and reduction of material and technical consumption at its recovery.

1 tbl, 1 ex

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12 cl, 2 tbl

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33 cl, 17 dwg

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