Method of processing of sulphide concentrates

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mixing of source concentrate with calcium oxide CaO and calcium peroxide CaO2 and burning in two stages. At the first stage burning is carried out at temperature of 350-500°C within 30-40 minutes, at the second stage - at temperature of 500-800°C during 30-60 minutes. After burning there is performed leaching of non-ferrous metals out of cinder. Consumption of calcium oxide CaO is 50-100% from stoichometric required for binding sulphur into gypsum while consumption of calcium peroxide CaO2 is 1-10% from concentrate weight.

EFFECT: increased extraction of non-ferrous metals and reduced duration of cinder leaching.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to non-ferrous metallurgy, in particular to methods thermohydrosulfuricus complex processing of sulfide concentrates and middlings, and can be used to extract non-ferrous and precious metals.

Traditional processing of sulfide ores and concentrates, such as copper, is reduced to the melting of obtaining iron slag and copper matte, which is then subjected to conversion, and the blister copper rafinuyut by electrolysis. For partial removal of sulfur prior to smelting the concentrate is subjected to oxidative roasting with the formation of sulfur dioxide.

The roasting of zinc concentrates is carried out with full oxidation of sulfur. Cinder subjected to leaching in the circulating solutions of sulfuric acid, zinc from the resulting solution extracted with electroextraction / (1) Processes and apparatus nonferrous metallurgy. Naboychenko S. and others - Ekaterinburg: GOU VPO USTU-UPI, 2005/.

For hydrometallurgical processing Ogarkov burning desire to spend modes, providing translation of recoverable metals in a soluble sulphate, and iron - stable oxide form. Based sulfatizing firing - moderate temperatures (600-700° (C) and limited excess air. The rate of the process under similar conditions falls sharply, and duration, respectively, increased the AET.

The closest in technical essence is a method of processing copper sulfide concentrates, including sulfamethizole firing the source of the concentrate at a temperature of 500-600°within 90-180 minutes, the resulting calcine is leached with a solution of sulfuric acid or water with separation of cake and filtrate. Copper from the filtrate produce by electrolysis, and the cake is processed to extract precious metals / (2) Patent Ru No. 2255126 from 2005.06.27. Thermohydrosulfuricus method for integrated processing of copper sulfide ore concentrate with the extraction of non-ferrous and precious metals.

The main purpose sulfatizing firing - obtaining soluble compounds of non-ferrous metals in the calcine. Conditions of firing by way of the prototype does not allow to achieve the goal in full. The results of the research and practice of using sulfatizing firing and the copper and zinc concentrates show that the composition of the calcine is inevitably present insoluble ferrites non-ferrous metals. Even under the harsh conditions of leaching Ogarkov temperature 90°and a sulfuric acid concentration of 100-150 g/DM3- removing the zinc in solution does not exceed 80%. The duration of leaching is at least 4-5 hours.

The present invention aims to eliminate this drawback and EET objective is to increase the speed and the degree of extraction of non-ferrous metals in solution after sulfatizing firing.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the initial concentrate is mixed with calcium oxide Cao and calcium peroxide CaO2and the firing of lead in two stages: the first at a temperature of 350-500°C for 30-40 minutes, the second at a temperature of 500-800°C for 30-60 minutes. Consumption of calcium oxide Cao is 50-100% of the stoichiometrically required for binding of sulfur in the gypsum, and the consumption of calcium peroxide CaO2is 1-10% by weight of the concentrate.

The essence of the proposed invention is that in the presence of calcium supplements, in particular Cao, changes the mechanism of the firing process. Sulfate sulfur formed in the conditions sulfatizing firing in the presence of calcium supplementation is associated primarily with calcium. Thermodynamic features of this process determine the lower temperature of the beginning of oxidation of the sulfur with the transition already at temperatures of 450-500°in autocatalytic regime. At such low temperatures, the formation of ferrite does not occur and the subsequent leaching of slag, a waste flows better and with greater speed. For faster firing at low temperatures in the mixture prior to firing injected peroxide calcium. Active atomic oxygen released during thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the sulfide sulfur even in tokyotower. For more efficient use of calcium peroxide in the first stage, the temperature should not exceed 500°C, at higher temperatures leads to its decomposition. The required duration of firing the first and second stages depends on the properties of the original concentrates (grain size, sulfur content), the design of the firing apparatus and according to research should be 30-40 minutes and 30-60 minutes, respectively.

The calcine containing oxides and to a lesser extent sulphate ferrous metals subjected to leaching in acid solution. Since the content of ferrite in the material is minimal, removing non-ferrous metals in the solution is higher than in the known methods, in particular when using the prototype method. From the obtained solutions of non-ferrous metals extracted by the known methods, for example by electrolysis.

For solving the main problem of this invention is the increased speed and the degree of extraction of non-ferrous metals in solution, after firing, you need the maximum extent possible to prevent the formation of ferrites. Consumption of calcium oxide Cao should be 50-100% of the stoichiometrically required for binding of sulfur in the gypsum, and the consumption of calcium peroxide CaO2- 1-10% by weight of the concentrate.

Implementation of the proposed method are discussed in the following examples.

Example 1. Weighed 100g copper (21% Cu, 27% Fe, 38% S) and zinc (42% Zn, 6% Fe, 39% S) concentrates burned by way of a prototype (at a temperature of 600°C for 120 minutes) and the proposed method with positivly Cao and Cao2to the concentrate at a temperature of 600°C. the resulting cinder was videlacele solution of sulfuric acid 100 g/l at a temperature of 90°C. the resulting solution was filtered from the undissolved residue was analyzed for copper and zinc and hoped for the extraction of these metals in solution. The results are shown in table 1.

Table 1

The results of experiments on roasting and leaching Ogarkov
Conditions roastingThe duration of the leaching of the calcine, hThe degree of leaching, %
Additive Cao %Additive CaO2, %copper from copper to-TAzinc from Zinkov. the
Prototype (without additives)36857
The proposed method
30012819
24137
 /td> 37044
50114835
27962
38374
75516954
28177
39284
1001017257
28579
39488
1101217357
28480
39387

Dosage Cao is given in % of the stoichiometrically required amount for the binding of sulfur in gypsum; dosage Sao2in % by weight of the concentrate.

Example 2. These concentrates were mixed with Cao (75%) and Cao (5%), burned in LW the stage. First, at a temperature of 350-500°With, then at a temperature of 500-800°C. Cinder was videlacele within 2 hours, the solutions were analyzed and counted removing analogously to example 1. The results are shown in table 2.

Comparative analysis of the known technical solutions, including fashion, selected as a prototype, and the present invention allows to conclude that the aggregate of the stated characteristics are provided by the perceived achievement of the technical result. Implementation of the proposed technical solution allows to increase the extraction of copper from sulphide concentrates in comparison with the prototype by 25-30%and zinc by 30-35%. The duration of the leaching of non-ferrous metals from slag, a waste is reduced in 1,5-2 times.

Table 2

Firing results in phasic firing.
Conditions roastingThe degree of leaching, %
No. op.stage 1stage 2
Temperature, °Duration, minTemperature, °Polojitelnoi, mincopper from copper to-TAzinc from Zinkov. the
130020450254936
235030500308374
340035700459289
450040800609692
550060900909691

1. Method for processing sulfide concentrates, including sulfamethizole roasting the concentrate, leaching the calcine with the selection of the metal, characterized in that the initial concentrate is mixed with calcium oxide Cao and calcium peroxide CaO2, firing lead in two stages, first at a temperature of 350-500°C for 30-40 minutes, the second at a temperature of 500-800°C for 30-60 minutes

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the consumption of calcium oxide Cao is 50-100% of the stoichiometrically required for binding of sulfur in the gypsum, and the consumption of calcium peroxide Sao2is 1-10% by weight of the concentrate.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: before leaching ore is broken and ground to size of 60-70% not more, than 3.0 mm. Leaching of ore is carried out in vats at mixing within 60-120 min with solution of sulphuric acid of primary concentration 10-40 g/l and solid phase contents 50-70%. While leaching during the first 40 minutes concentration of sulphuric acid is maintained within limits of not less, than 10 g/l. After completion of leaching solid and liquid phases are separated and copper is extracted out of leaching liquid phase.

EFFECT: increased extraction of copper out of ore and leaching kinetics and reduction of sulphuric acid consumption and duration of leaching.

6 cl, 6 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method includes breaking and grinding of ore to size of not more, than 0.074 mm, and collective flotation of sulphide and oxidised copper minerals into collective flotation concentrate. After dehydration of concentrate there is performed leaching and mixing with participation of oxygen containing ecologically harmless oxidant at contents of solid phase of 10-50% in water solution of sulphuric acid of 10-80 g/dcm3 concentration at temperature 20-70°C and at presence of trivalent iron ions of 2.0-15.0 g/dcm3 concentration. Cake of leaching is dehydrated and washed, after what liquid phase of leaching is merged with cake washing water. Further merged solution is clarified and copper is extracted out of merged solution thus producing cathode copper.

EFFECT: increased extraction of copper and depth of ore processing; producing commercial output in form of cathode copper and increased ecological compatibility.

11 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dry breaking and grinding of ore to size of not more, than 1.0-4.0 mm, ore leaching and mixing, when contents of solid phase is 50-70% with solution of sulphuric acid of 10.0 to 40 g/dcm3 within 0.5-2.0 hrs. After leaching generated cake is dehydrated, washed, subject to neutralisation and crushed to size of 60-95% class - 0.074 mm. Flotation of copper minerals with production of flotation concentrate is carried out. Solution after leaching of ore and cake wash water are merged and freed from solid suspension; then cathode copper is extracted out of them.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of sulphuric acid and water for process; increased extraction of copper out of ore and upgraded quality of consumer products.

8 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method of heap leaching of mineral raw material at negative temperature includes feeding of water solution of sulphuric acid onto mineral raw material, stacked in heap on impervious bed, at that solution has concentration of more, than 51 g/dcm3 and contains ions of trivalent iron of concentration more, than 3 g/dcm3, then method includes collection and settling of productive solution, flowing out of heap. After settling there is performed oxidising of bivalent iron in productive solution, extraction of useful elements, returning of solutions after iron oxidising and extraction of useful elements for leaching of mineral raw materials.

EFFECT: implementation of process of heap leaching under permafrost conditions around year; increased calendar time for implementation of heap leaching; increased extraction of metals out of mineral raw material and reduction of time for extraction of useful elements.

11 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method of extraction of sulphide containing ores includes at first stage feeding of water solution of sulphuric acid onto crumbled ore stacked in heap on impervious bed till concentration of not less, than 2.0 g/dcm3 is achieved in solution after leaching, at second stage there is performed feeding of water solution of sulphuric acid containing ions of trivalent iron of concentration more, than 3 g/dcm3. Then productive solutions flowing out of heap are collected and settled, and bivalent iron is oxidized in them with compounds of active oxygen. After metals have been extracted out of productive solutions they are returned for ore leaching.

EFFECT: upgraded degree of sulphides decomposition and extraction of metals; reduced time of leaching, simplicity and low cost of implementation of method and ecological compatibility of process.

10 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to copper metallurgy, particularly to methods of processing of sulphide oxidised copper ores. The method includes dry crumbling and further crushing of ore to the size of not more, than 1.0-4.0 mm, leaching of ore at mixing and contents of the solid phase of 50-70% with solution of sulphuric acid of concentration from 10.0 to 40 g/dcm3. After dehydration and washing out of cake of leaching ore neutralisation and crushing of cake is carried out to the size of 60-95% class - 0.074 mm, further flotation of copper minerals out of leaching cake is performed with production of flotation concentrate. Leaching of flotation concentrate is carried out at mixing in water solution of sulpuric acid of concentration 10-80 g/dcm3 at temperature of 20-55°C with use of ozone and at presence of ions of trivalent iron of concentration from 2.0 to 15 g/dcm3. Then dehydration and washing out of concentrate leaching cake is executed; ore leaching liquid phase is merged with washing out waters of concentrate leaching cake, produced copper containing merged solution is freed from suspended solids and copper is extracted from merged solution with production of cathode copper.

EFFECT: reduction of sulphuric acid consumption for processing, increased extraction of copper out of ore, upgraded quality of commercial products of cathode copper.

8 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to copper metallurgy, particularly to methods of processing of sulphide oxidised copper ores as well as process products, tails and slag, containing oxidised and suplhide minerals of non-ferrous metals. The method includes dry crushing, crumbling of ore to the size of 60-95% class 0.074 mm, floatation concentration of crushed ore with extraction of the copper sulphide minerals concentrate at the first stage, while at the second stage copper oxidised minerals concentrate is extracted from the rest ore. Further leaching is carried out at mixing of copper concentrate of copper oxidised minerals with solution of sulpuric acid of concentration from 10.0 to 50 g/dcm3, and leaching at mixing of copper sulphide concentrate with using of ozone in water solution of sulphuric acid of concentration 10-80 g/dcm3 at the temperature of 20-70°C at presence of ions of trivalent iron of concentration 2.0-15.0 g/dcm3. Then dehydration and washing of leaching cakes is performed; leaching and washing solutions are merged, the merged solution is freed from suspended solids, and copper is extracted out of solutions with production of cathode copper.

EFFECT: increase extraction of copper, increased efficiency of ore processing and production of whole commercial output as cathode copper.

11 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydro-metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, particularly to hydro-metallurgical processing of ores, concentrates, tails, slag and sulphide containing metals by vat, heap and underground methods. The method includes contacting of sulphide containing product with water solution of sulphuric acid of concentration more, than 1.8 g/dcm3 at presence of ions of trivalent iron and oxidisation of bivalent iron in the leaching solution. Contacting is performed by means of pumping of the leaching solution through a hydro-dynamic emitter which is fed with gas phase containing ozone of concentration more, than 20 g/m3 and further inflow of the gas-liquid mixture from the hydro-dynamic emitter into a lower part of a contact chamber before a barring surface. The solution is returned to leaching after iron oxidisation.

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7 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mineral enrichment and can be applied in mining industry, namely, in heap or underground leaching of metal tailings left from copper sulfuric ore dressing, as well as in safe storage of tailings. Blend composition for obtaining of pellets for sulfuric-acid leaching contains new and old tailings of copper sulfuric ore dressing, and fine dry-milled copper fusion slag and lime are used as a binder; the components are taken in a ratio, mass %: tailings 85-92, slag 5-10, lime 3-5. The process of pellet obtaining involves fine dry milling of copper fusion slag and lime. Next, the slag and lime are mixed with tailings of copper sulfuric ore enrichment with simultaneous dampening during mixing and pelleting.

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7 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes copper leaching in sulphuric acid solution during heating and aeration. Leaching is followed by imposition of symmetrical alternate current of industrial frequency at electric current density of 3 A/cm2 and higher.

EFFECT: copper extraction in solution in the conditions comparable with basic technology is enhanced.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at treatment of iron and zinc containing materials by Waelz process. At a stage of fuming in a rotary kiln pellets are charged; the said pellets are fabricated out of mixture of iron and zinc containing material, recycled dusts and a hard carbon reducing material. At that the pellets contain 40-60% of iron at a molar ratio of iron to carbon 0.7-1.0 to 1.0 and are of 15-40 mm size. At that 90-95% of the hard carbon reducing material contains fractions of minus 0.2 mm.

EFFECT: production of metallised pellets, meeting requirements of metallurgical industry, and of commodity zinc sublimates.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at treatment of iron and zinc containing materials by Waelz process. At a stage of fuming in a rotary kiln pellets are charged; the said pellets are fabricated out of mixture of iron and zinc containing material, recycled dusts and a hard carbon reducing material. At that the pellets contain 40-60% of iron at a molar ratio of iron to carbon 0.7-1.0 to 1.0 and are of 15-40 mm size. At that 90-95% of the hard carbon reducing material contains fractions of minus 0.2 mm.

EFFECT: production of metallised pellets, meeting requirements of metallurgical industry, and of commodity zinc sublimates.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy of non-ferrous metals.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns an area of purifying methods of secondary zinc alloys, their procurement from the auxiliary raw materials, and can be used in metallurgy and mechanical engineering. The method of purifying of the secondary zinc alloys includes processing of an alloy combination with intensifying agent which, when coming into contact with the zinc residual elements, begin to form churlish, heat-resistant phases, and segregate the infusible compounds. Interaction with these intensifying agents and segregation of the infusible phases is carried out by means of passing the molten mass through a foam-ceramic filter with an active ultra dispersal cover obtained as a result of chemical sedimentation of connection between a number of elements belonging to the II-IV Group of the Mendeleev periodic system, coupled with the thermal processing performed under the 1000-1200°C range of temperatures. The technical achievements of this invention result in removal of non-metallic inclusions, increases in consistency of distribution and reductions in composition of led and iron.

EFFECT: increase in the quality of zinc alloys when they are purified resulting in procurement of an auxiliary raw material.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy; removal of chlorine and fluorine from dust-like zinc-containing materials of lead-zinc processes, for example from Waelz sublimates or slag sublimates.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes calcination of materials for obtaining chlorine- and fluorine-containing sublimates followed by leaching-out which is conducted in sulfuric acid solution at separation of solid from solution. Then, solution is cleaned from chlorine step by step by sedimentation with the aid of univalent copper and from fluorine by sedimentation with the aid of lime, thus obtaining fluorine-containing lime cake which is dried to moisture content of 20-30% and is subjected to Waelz process treatment at extraction of zinc into Waelz oxide and conversion of fluorine and calcium into waste clinker.

EFFECT: possibility of utilization and removal of fluorine from zinc production process with waste or copper-containing clinker.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, possibly removing chlorine and fluorine from dust like materials of lead-zinc production, for example from rotary-kiln sublimates and slag sublimates.

SUBSTANCE: method for removing chlorine and fluorine form dust like zinc-containing materials of lead-zinc production comprises steps of baking materials for producing secondary chlorine- and fluorine-containing sublimates; their further two-stage water-soda washing at temperature 70 - 90°C. Chlorine and fluorine are washed with use of aqueous solution containing sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate at their concentration in initial solution of each stage, respectively 67 - 72 g/l and 8 - 13 g/l.

EFFECT: enhanced degree of removal of chlorine and fluorine due to transforming lead and other metals to insoluble compounds.

1 tbl

FIELD: ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy; processing blast-furnace sludge for obtaining lumped material suitable for blast-furnace melting by zinc content, as well as zinc sublimates for subsequent extraction of zinc.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of starting raw charge; zinc-containing blast-furnace sludge is first dried to moisture content not exceeding 3-4% and is mixed with binder containing calcium hydroxide and/or bentonite and circulating materials. Mixture is ground, moistened and lumped for obtaining pellets and briquettes. Lumped material is subjected to high-temperature treatment at heating rate of 10-30 deg/min (preferably, 20 deg/min) to temperature of 1110-1230C (preferably, 1200C) and is kept at this temperature for 20-40 minutes, after which it is discharged through hot end of furnace, cooled down and is subjected to separation by sizing; separated fines are returned for grinding the charge and/or are used for blast-furnace melting. Dust-and-gas mixture is evacuated from furnace through its cold end and is subjected to processing for separation of zinc iron-containing dust and zinc sublimates by know methods. Besides that, blast-furnace sludge is processed at addition of converter sludge of steel making process into charge. Lumped material is heated to temperature of 1110-1150C (preferably up to 1120C). Roasted lumped material is subjected to screening for separation of minus 5 mm fraction which is directed for grinding the mixture of blast-furnace sludge and binder. In case of deficiency of carbon in charge, use is made of peat as carbon reductant which is introduced under layer of pumped material during transportation into roasting furnace.

EFFECT: improved quality of products.

4 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: hydrometallurgical processes; processing of sulfide products containing non-ferrous and noble metals.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in bacterial-chemical leaching; moderately thermophilic bacteria Sulfobacillus are used in this method. Leaching is performed at two stages: first stage is carried out at intensity of mixing of 1-4 W/l without additional aeration at temperature of 60-80°C and pH of 1.6-1.7; second stage is performed at intensive aeration and mixing at volumetric coefficient of mass exchange by oxygen of 200-800-1 h at temperature of 50-55°C, pH of 1.3-1.5 and concentration of solid phase of 1-5%.

EFFECT: reduction of power requirements; high degree of extraction of non-ferrous metals.

1 ex

FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy; processing of zinc sludge and other zinc-containing materials by Waelz process.

SUBSTANCE: charge for Waelz process of zinc-containing materials includes zinc-containing material, coke breeze, anthracite and additionally limestone at the following ratio of ingredients, mass-%: coke breeze, 8-14; anthracite, 14-18; limestone, 1-3; the remainder being zinc-containing material.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of coke breeze at retained and improved parameters of Waelz process.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: processing finely-dispersed iron-and-zinc-containing wastes of metallurgical process and byproducts of coke and byproduct process; ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in thickening finely-dispersed iron-and-zinc-containing wastes, dehydration to moisture content not exceeding 10% and mixing with reductant. Dehydrated iron-and-zinc-containing wastes are mixed with coal tar in the amount of 10-20% of mass of wastes and are nodulized. Then, reducing heat treatment of nodulized wastes is carried out in presence of solid carbon-containing reductant in the amount of 20-40% of mass of wastes and coal tar pyrolysis products at putting-on the counter-flow blast into rotary furnace followed by separation of zinc and entrapping of sublimates at obtaining of zinc oxides. Gaseous fuel is burnt in working space of furnace before ignition of solid reductant and coal tar pyrolysis products.

EFFECT: high intensity of zinc sublimation and iron reduction processes; increased degree of removal of sulfur; increased degree of metallization of finished product.

7 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: processing finely-dispersed iron-and-zinc-containing wastes of metallurgical process and byproducts of coke and byproduct process; ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in thickening finely-dispersed iron-and-zinc-containing wastes, dehydration to moisture content not exceeding 10% and mixing with reductant. Dehydrated iron-and-zinc-containing wastes are mixed with coal tar in the amount of 10-20% of mass of wastes and are nodulized. Then, reducing heat treatment of nodulized wastes is carried out in presence of solid carbon-containing reductant in the amount of 20-40% of mass of wastes and coal tar pyrolysis products at putting-on the counter-flow blast into rotary furnace followed by separation of zinc and entrapping of sublimates at obtaining of zinc oxides. Gaseous fuel is burnt in working space of furnace before ignition of solid reductant and coal tar pyrolysis products.

EFFECT: high intensity of zinc sublimation and iron reduction processes; increased degree of removal of sulfur; increased degree of metallization of finished product.

7 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: before leaching ore is broken and ground to size of 60-70% not more, than 3.0 mm. Leaching of ore is carried out in vats at mixing within 60-120 min with solution of sulphuric acid of primary concentration 10-40 g/l and solid phase contents 50-70%. While leaching during the first 40 minutes concentration of sulphuric acid is maintained within limits of not less, than 10 g/l. After completion of leaching solid and liquid phases are separated and copper is extracted out of leaching liquid phase.

EFFECT: increased extraction of copper out of ore and leaching kinetics and reduction of sulphuric acid consumption and duration of leaching.

6 cl, 6 tbl, 5 ex

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