Proof protective items

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to protective items including those proved from stabbing weapon attack and preferably, protective items proved from stabbing weapons and bullets. It consists of multiple set of flexible layers with surface density from 0.5 to 6.0 kilogram per square meter. Each layer is made of woven fabric which density factor from 0.75 to 1.15. It is manufactured from yarn with linear density 500 dtex or less, density from 3 to 20 grams per dtex and fracture energy from 8 to less than 30 J per gram. In addition, yarns contain staple fibers with linear density from 0.2 to 7.0 dtex per fiber.

EFFECT: production of advanced, flexible and light item proved from stabbing weapon attack as well as bullets, if necessary.

19 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex

 

The level of technology

1. The technical field to which the invention relates.

This invention relates to an impenetrable protective products, particularly to protective products, not forcing any sharp weapons, and more particularly to protective products, not forcing any sharp weapons and bullets.

2. Description of the prior art,

New impenetrable products are constantly being improved, as are adopted or upgraded standards and requirements to ensure protection from life-threatening factors.

In September 2000, the National Institute of justice (NIJ) published standard NIJ 0115.00, entitled "Resistance of personal body armour to piercing weapons", and standard NIJ 0101.04, entitled "Puleneprobivaemost personal body armour". In connection with these new standards there is a need for a lightweight, comfortable and flexible protective clothing with improved resistance to breaking down any sharp weapon, or any sharp weapons and bullets, which is to ensure adequate protection, based on daily needs, may be, for example, the police, the military and other security personnel, with amendments to the requirements for their specific work, and depending on the working environment.

In U.S. patent 5578358 (Foy and others) and 5622711 not disclosed robinieae any sharp weapons, made from woven aramid fiber with a specific combination of linear density of yarn and the ratio of the density of the fabrics made from the yarn. In these patents are applied to the yarn toughness of at least 30 joules per gram.

In U.S. patent 6103646 of the product described, could pierce any sharp weapons and bullets. These products are not forcing any sharp weapons layers and layers, not punched by bullets, combined with proof any sharp weapons layers on the outer surface or impact surface of the product.

In U.S. patent 5565264 disclosed protective fabric with high-density weave. Namely, for the formation of superdense blocking structure, resistant to displacement of the yarn cross-section filaments are deformed by weaving up to approximately a square form.

In U.S. patent 5837623 and 5976996 disclosed are substrates for protective fabric made from yarns with high-density weave, including staple yarn. In these patents it is shown that the staple fiber yarn are used only where the fabric is subjected to a slight stretching or breaking load, and that by using coating on the fabric, you can increase its strength and improve its performance in relation to stretching and breaking load. The dense coating of woven materials, which together is carried out in the above patents, is substantially greater in height that is about 130-140%. For these patents tissue ratios tissue density are more than 1,15. Such fabrics usually very hard, poorly draped, and high-density woven backing fabric have limited flexibility, regardless of the types of yarns.

In connection with the foregoing purpose, the present invention is to provide an improved, flexible, lightweight product that could pierce any sharp weapons and, if necessary, by the bullets.

The invention

The invention relates to an impenetrable protective product that contains:

multiple flexible layers, not forcing any sharp weapon, weighing from 0.5 to 6.0 kilograms per square meter, each layer made from a woven material;

woven material with a coefficient of tissue density from 0.75 to 1.15, made of yarn;

yarn with a linear density of 500 decitex or less, a strength of from 3 to 20 g per decitex and energy of destruction from 8 to less than 30 joules per gram, yarn, optionally containing staple fiber; and

staple fibers with a linear density of from 0.2 to 7.0 decitex on the fiber.

In accordance with a second embodiment the present invention additionally includes a second set bulletproof layers

Brief description of drawings

The invention can be more fully understood from the following detailed description associated with the accompanying drawings described below.

Figure 1 shows a schematic illustration of an impenetrable protective products could pierce any sharp weapons layers according to the present invention.

On figa-C shows schematic illustrations, respectively, of the mixed staple yarn, twisted staple yarn and mixed continuous multifilament yarn.

Figure 3 shows a schematic illustration of an impenetrable protective products could pierce any sharp weapons layers and bulletproof layers, according to the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

The present invention relates to an impenetrable protective products, including protective products, not forcing any sharp weapons, and protective products, not forcing any sharp weapons and bullets.

In the first embodiment, impenetrable protective product 10 includes a woven material made from a variety of flexible layers 12, 14, not forcing any sharp weapons. Figure 1 item 14 refers to the layers, a third or more of the account, which if necessary can be included in the product. Woven material manufactured from yarn. Yarns containing staple fibers.

(1) Layers

Article 10 contains the multiple flexible layers 12, 14, could pierce any sharp weapon.

Layers 12, 14, not forcing any sharp weapons, in the aggregate, have a surface density of from 0.5 to 6.0 kg per square meter and preferably from 1.0 to 5.0 kg per square meter. When the surface density of the layers is less than 0.5, the layers 12, 14 do not provide sufficient protection. When the surface density of the consolidated multiple layers exceed 6.0 kg per square meter combined layers 12, 14 are usually too bulky, heavy and hard, becoming uncomfortable to wear. When the surface density is too high, it interferes with the ability of the owner to move and to maneuver quickly and leads to significant fatigue of the owner during a long period of socks.

The greater the number of layers 12, 14, the greater the surface density of the combined layers 12, 14. The lower linear density of staple yarn, reaching for the manufacture of the fabric layers 12, 14, the greater the number of layers 12, 14, which can be applied with acceptable surface density of the combined layers 12, 14. For example, when fabrics made from staple yarn 220 decitex as in the main direction and in the direction of the fill, the number of layers 12, 14 of woven material is in the range from 3 to 50. On the other hand, when fabrics made from staple yarn with 110 d is zitex as in the main direction, and in the fill direction, the number of layers 12, 14 of woven material is in the range from 6 to 80.

Layers 12, 14 may be held together or connect in some way, such as stitching, or they can be stacked together in a pile and to hold, for example, with a shell made of cloth or by using a fixing element. Layers 12, 14 can be divided into sections that can be individually put in a pile and connect, or all of the layers 12, 14 can be stacked in a pile and joined into a single unit. Preferably the layers 12, 14, or partition layers connected together at the corners or at points along the edges of the layers 12, 14 at a distance from each other, and otherwise, is essentially not using the funds to hold the layers 12, 14 of the fabric together. Alternatively, the layers 12, 14 or section of the layers can be bonded together at the points or small areas located approximately at a distance of 15 or more centimeters from each other. Providing significant mobility of the layers 12, 14 relative to each of the adjacent layers, as described above, increases the resistance to more significant impacts piercing weapons, however, can reduce the resistance against bullets.

Merging layers 12, 14 or sections of the layers according to the present invention is manufactured by stacking them together face-to-face relation to each other with layers etc the other materials or without them, if you want to. Materials for the other layers that can be placed between the layers 12, 14, or sections of layers include, for example, water-repellent materials, protevorevmaticescoe materials, etc.

(2) Fabric

Layers 12, 14 are made of woven material. Under means any woven weaving fabric, such as mickalene weave, V-shaped weave, weave "Gunny", satin weave, twill weave, etc. Mickalene weave is the most common.

The fabric from which made the layers 12, 14, is a fabric with a tight weave, which means that its density ratio is from 0.75 to 1.15 and preferably from 0.85 to about 1.10 is. More preferably, the layers 12, 14 of thick woven material had the following relation between the linear density of yarn (decitex) and the ratio of the density fabric:

Y > or = X 6.25·10-4+ 0,69(1)

where Y = the ratio of the density of the tissue and X = linear density of the yarn, as described in the aforementioned U.S. patent 5578358.

The coefficient of tissue density and fill factor are the signs characterizing the density of the weave of the fabric. The fill factor is a calculated value associated with the geometry of the weave and also the total percentage of the total surface area of the fabric, filled with threads of the fabric. The fill factor can be calculated in various ways, well known in this field. For example, the method used to calculate the fill factor can be the following (from the publication of Weaving: Conversion of Yarns to Fabric, Lord and Mohamed, published Merrow (1982), pages 141 - 143):

dw = width of the main yarn in the fabric;

df = the width of the yarn to fill tissue;

Pw = step main yarn (number of threads per unit length);

pf = step yarn to fill.

The fill factor in the main direction =

The fill factor in the direction of filling =

The fill factor of the fabric =

The width of the main yarn and yarn for filling, dwand dfcan be calculated in various ways known in this field, such as those listed in the publication "All-Fiber System Meets the Needs Fabric Engineering" author J.B.Dickson, vol.102, p.113 - 250 of Textile World (1952).

Depending on the type of weave of the fabric maximum fill factor can be quite low, even if the threads in the fabric are close to each other. For this reason, a more applicable measure of the density of the weave is the ratio of the density of tissue." The coefficient of density improvement and tissue is a measure of the density of the weave of the fabric compared to the maximum density weave depending on the fill factor.

The coefficient fabric density =

For example, the maximum fill factor, which is possible without damage to the threads in the fabric, fabric with midlevel weave is 0.75; and therefore, the fabric with midlevel interlacing with the actual fill factor of 0.68 would have a coefficient of tissue density of 0.91, and fabric with midlevel interlacing with the actual fill factor of 0.83 is, therefore, to have a coefficient of tissue density of 1.1. The preferred weave when applying the present invention into practice is mickalene weave.

(3) Yarn

Woven fabric made from yarn. The yarns have a linear density of 500 decitex or less and preferably at least 25 decitex. Yarn have a strength of from 3 to 20 g per decitex and preferably from 5 to 16 grams per decitex. Energy of destruction yarn (or toughness) is from 8 to less than 30 joules per gram and preferably from 10 to 25 joules on, the elongation at break of yarns is preferably at least 2.0 per cent, and the upper limit of the relative elongation at rupture is not known. Relative elongation at rupture less than 2.0 percent usually get the yarn, which is fragile (fragile).

Yarn in most TC is nevah layers contain staple fibers. Cm. figa, which is a schematic illustration of a mixed staple yarn. Yarn can be a exceptionally staple yarn. However, the woven material may be made from a variety of yarns made from staple fibers, and other yarn, containing continuous complex thread. Cm. figs, which is a schematic illustration of a mixed continuous multifilament yarn. There can be any knitted fabric, which are used as staple yarn and continuous multifilament yarn, such as knitted weave (a) with staple yarn and continuous complex threads interspersed in either or both directions - the main direction and the direction of the fill, (b) with two or more continuous complex threads in addition to the staple yarn in either or both directions - the main direction and the direction of the fill, or (c) with two or more staple yarns in addition to the continuous multifilament yarn in any of the two or in both directions - the main direction and the direction of the fill.

The product 10 may include multiple layers 12, 14 of woven material, made entirely or partially of staple yarn, and one or more layers made of woven material made exclusively what about from a continuous multifilament yarn. For example, device 10 may contain a duplicate set of one or more layers made from a continuous multifilament yarn laid in a pile behind one or more layers 12, 14, are made entirely or partially of staple yarn.

When the product includes at least one layer of woven material made of a yarn comprising a continuous multifilament yarn, this fabric preferably has a ratio of the density of the fabric, at least, of 0.75, and this yarn has a linear density of less than 500 decitex.

In addition, the yarn used to manufacture the woven material in the layer or in different layers, can be produced from a single polymer, various polymers, copolymer, various copolymers or mixtures thereof. Described here is suitable polymers and copolymers.

Yarn can be woven with the level of twist in the range corresponding to the coefficient of twist equal to not more than 5. Cm. figv, which is a schematic illustration of twisted staple yarn. Under the twist coefficient refers to the ratio of the number of twists in the yarn, expressed as the number of turns on the 1 inch to the square root of the number of the yarn. Under the effective twisting means, that in order to twist the thread, one thread end is held fixed and the other end of the bend is scarfing or rotates around the longitudinal axis of the filament. Spun yarn has a twist coefficient, which can be calculated as follows:

The coefficient of twist = tpi·sqrt(denier)/73(7)

= tpc·sqrt(decitex)/30,3(8)

= tpi/sqrt (number of cotton yarn) (9)

where tpi = the number of turns per 1 inch,

tpc = the number of turns of 1 cm, and

the number of cotton fabric = the number of skeins of yarn for 840 yards in 1 pound.

Yarn can contain multiple threads, woven (i.e., combined and twisted together. When two threads sbivautsa and twisted together, this thread is called bicomponent filament. Twist multifilament yarn will be in the opposite direction to any twisting of the individual filaments in the multifilament yarn. One or more component yarns can be a continuous complex thread.

The number of threads or ends in the main direction and the direction of the filling may be the same or different. The linear density of yarns or ends in the main direction and the direction of the fill, or even in the same direction may be the same or different. To ensure adequate protection of life in combination with acceptable flexibility and comfort, a higher linear density of yarns in the woven material, a smaller number of ends e is inico length.

(4) Fiber

Yarn made from staple fibers. For these purposes, the term "fiber" is defined as a relatively flexible, macroscopically homogeneous body with a high ratio of length to width across the area of the cross section perpendicular to its length. Cross-section of the fiber may be of any shape, but are typically round in shape. On an equal footing with the term "fiber" is used the term "filament".

Staple fibers can be mixed; the yarn can be woven; other both. When the thread is made from "mixed" staple fibres, it is a merged element of the discrete fibers, mixed or confused along the length of the yarn to maintain the unity of the thread.

Staple fibers have a linear density of from 0.2 to 7.0 decitex on the fiber and preferably from 0.4 to 5.0 decitex on the fiber.

Staple fibers are (a) substantially the same length, (b) variable or arbitrary length, or (c) subgroups staple fibers having substantially the same length and staple fiber in other subgroups that have different lengths, being mixed with staple fibers in subgroups form a substantially homogeneous distribution.

Suitable staple fibers have a length of 1 to 30 centimeters. Staple fiber is produced using the methods of obtaining short staple fibers, while receiving a fiber length of from 1 to 6, see

Staple fibers can be produced by any method. Staple fibers can be formed by shtabelirovanija tow of continuous fibers, while receiving staple fiber with deformed areas, which play the role of izvilista. Staple fibers can be cut from a continuous Naismith fibers, resulting in nesvita (i.e. without tortuosity) staple fiber, or in addition to cut off from the winding of continuous fibers having a crimp sawtooth shape along the length of the staple fiber, with a frequency of tortuosity (or repeated bending) not more than 8 izvietota per centimeter.

The fibers may be present in uncoated or coated form or another, pre-treated (for example by pre-drawing or heat treatment) form. When applied fiber, polyaramid threads, it usually is a fiber which there is no need to cover or otherwise pre-processed.

Staple fiber obtained by stapulionis harness, can be produced by breaking tow or bundle of continuous filament yarns in the process of shtabelirovanija harness with one or more zones of RA is the gap, located at a specified distance, creating a fiber random variable mass medium cut length, controlled by using a device for adjusting the area of the gap. These threads have a tendency to explosive load in the range from approximately 4 to 15 grams per denier (i.e., from about 3 to 13.5 g per decitex) depending on the average length of the fibers. Fibers obtained by stapulionis harness, nesvita, since the degree of tortuosity is attached to the fiber sledstvie tension and subsequent deformation under compression after the break.

Staple fiber according to the present invention can be turned into yarn using traditional methods ring-spun long and short staple fibers, which are well known in this field. For a system of short-staple spinning cotton is usually used fibers with lengths from 3/4 in. to 2 and 1/4 inch (that is, from 1.9 to 5.7 cm). For combed system spinning or hardware system spinning typically use long staple fibers up to 6 and 1/2 inches (that is, up to 16.5 cm). However, the invention is not limited to ring spinning, because the yarn can also be formed by applying the method of spinning with blowing air, open-end spinning method, and many other types of wool, through which the staple fiber is transformed into the right to apply the yarn.

Staple fiber obtained by stapulionis harness, typically have a length of up to 7 inches (i.e 17.8 cm) and can be made using traditional methods shtabelirovanija harness to combed tape staple. Staple fibers with a maximum length of approximately 20 inches (i.e. up to 51 cm) can be obtained using the method described, for example, in international publication WO 0077283. Thus, the yarn made by combining fibers into yarn by interlacing of filaments with Abduvali air, having a strength in the range from 3 to 7 g per decitex. Such yarn may have a secondary twist, i.e. they can be subjected to a twist after forming to make the fiber more strength, the strength may be in the range from 10 to 18 grams per denier (i.e. from 9 to 17 g per decitex). Staple fibres obtained by stapulionis harness, usually do not require crimp, because the fiber is endowed with the degree of tortuosity in the process.

The use of yarns made from staple fibers, not from continuous fibers, provides numerous advantages. When used yarn from staple fibers, it is possible to develop product specifications with more different linear density of the filaments than is possible for continuous filament yarn. Suppliers and yarn of continuous filament yarns made of yarn only with a limited number of linear densities. Changing the way from spinning the yarn production with the same linear density yarn with different linear density leads to loss of production time and labor costs. To obtain a yarn with linear density, which before had been made, additional costs such as the costs of developing and installing the required multi-channel mouthpieces for threads and on the development of other changes in production equipment that may be required. However, yarn of staple fibers can be produced from yarns made of different continuous fibers.

Also staple yarns with a linear density of less than 500 decitex cheaper than a continuous multifilament yarn. In addition, the need for continuous complex threads with certain linear densities can be greater than the capacity for making such threads. In this case, to produce the required staple yarn you can use continuous multifilament yarn with other linear densities produced in excess or in stock, for a significant cost reduction.

In addition, the use of yarns made from staple fibers, makes it possible to produce a yarn with a homogeneous mixture of fibers or to produce a mixture of fibers with high performance features : what IKI, made from different polymers or copolymers. It is virtually impossible in today's production equipment for the manufacture of continuous filament yarn.

The use of staple yarns also enhances the ability of the product to conform to the contours of the body shape of the wearer.

Fibre-forming polymer

Fibers made of polyamide fibers, polyolefin fibers, polybenzoxazole fibers, polybenzimidazole fibers, poly{2,6-diimides[4,5-b4′,5′-e]peridinin-1,4-(2,5-dihydroxy)venereologia} fiber (PIPD) or mixtures thereof. Preferably, the fibers are produced from polyamide.

When the polymer is a polyamide, it is preferable to aramid. Under the "aramid" is meant a polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide (-CO-NH-) linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Suitable aramid fibers are described in the publication of Man-Made Fibers : Science and Technology, Volume 2, part, entitled "Fiber-Forming Aromatic Polyamides", page 297, W. Black, and others, Interscience Publishers, 1968. Aramid fibers are also described in U.S. patent 4172938; 3869429; 3819587; 3673143; 3354127 and 3094511.

You can apply additives to aramid, and found that with aramid can be mixed up to 10 percent by weight of another polymer material, or that it is possible to use copolymers containing up to 10 per the clients of another diamine, replacing the diamine of the aramid or as much as 10 percent of the acid chloride of other dibasic acids, replacing the acid chloride dibasic acid or aramid.

The preferred aramid is a para-aramid and poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide)(PPD-T) is the preferred para-aramid. Under PPD-T is meant the homopolymer resulting from polymerization with the ratio "mole per mole p-phenylenediamine and terephthaloylchloride, and copolymers resulting from the inclusion along with p-phenylenediamine small amounts of other diamines and along with terephthaloylchloride small amounts of other acid chlorides of dibasic acids. As a rule, other diamines and acid chlorides of other dibasic acids can be used in amounts up to approximately 10 mole percent of p-phenylenediamine or terephthaloylchloride, or perhaps in slightly higher quantities, only under the condition that the other diamines and acid chlorides of dibasic acids no reactive groups which interfere with the polymerization reaction. Under PPD-T also refers to copolymers resulting from the inclusion of other aromatic diamines and other aromatic anhydrides of dibasic acids, such as, for example, 2,6-naftanaila, or chlorine - or dihl terephthaloylchloride, or simple 3,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether.

Preferably, if the polymer is a polyolefin, polyethylene or polypropylene. Under the polyethylene is meant predominantly linear polyethylene, preferably with molecular weight of over one million, which may contain minor amounts of branched chain or small amounts of comonomers not exceeding 5 modified units per 100 carbon atoms of the main chain, and which may also contain in the amount of approximately not more than 50 wt.% added to it one or more polymeric additives such as alkene-1-polymers, in particular low density polyethylene, propylene and the like, or additives of low molecular weight, such as antioxidants, lubricants, agents, shielding ultraviolet radiation, dyes, etc. which are normally incorporated in the composition. Such polyethylene is commonly known as polyethylene with stretched chains (ECPE). Similarly, the polypropylene is a predominantly linear polypropylene with a molecular weight of preferably more than one million. Fibers of linear polyolefins with high molecular weight are available for purchase. Obtaining polyolefin fibers is discussed in U.S. patent 4457985.

Suitable are polybenzoxazole (PBO) and polians the thiazole (PBZ), such as described in the application WO93/20400. Polybenzoxazole and polybenzamidazole preferably consist of repeating units of the following structures:

Despite the fact that these aromatic groups connected to the nitrogen atoms may be heterocyclic, preferably they are carbocyclic; and, although they may represent a condensed or unfused polycyclic system, preferably they are separate six-membered rings. Despite the fact that the group specified in the main chain bis-azoles, preferably represents a pair-fenelonov group, such group may be substituted by any divalent organic group which does not interfere with obtaining a polymer, or not a group. For example, such a group can be an aliphatic group containing up to twelve carbon atoms, tollen, biphenylene, simple bis-phenylenebis ether, etc.

Polybenzoxazole and polybenzamidazole used for the manufacture of fibers according to the present invention must have at least 25 and preferably at least 100 repeating units. Obtaining polymers and spinning (forming) of such polymers described in the aforementioned international publication WO 93/20400.

From what the men

Products according to the present invention is preferably constructed entirely of woven material without the hard plates or plates and cured without a binder, impregnating woven materials. In the products according to the present invention is more flexible and lighter in weight than known impenetrable designs that offer comparable protection.

The product 10 according to the present invention preferably corresponds to at least level 1, more preferably level 2 and most preferably level 3 operational requirements against piercing weapons, which is described in the standard NIJ Standard-0115.00, entitled "Resistance of personal body armour to piercing weapons", dated September 2000, In accordance with the present invention many specifications as possible match the standard. For example, when woven materials in layers made from staple yarns with 220 decitex, as in the main direction and in the direction of the fill, the number of staple fibers or filaments as in the main direction and in the direction of the filling can be from 60 to 90, depending on the number of staple fibers or filaments is selected in the specified range, the number of layers can range from 3 to 50. When used the tsya staple yarns of different linear density, there are corresponding variations of product specifications.

Article 20, is illustrated in figure 3, it can optionally contain a second set bulletproof layers 22. Figure 3 position of the 24 designated third in a row or more bullet-proof layers, which can optionally be included in the product. Article 20 according to the present invention preferably corresponds to at least type IIA, more preferably type II and most preferably type IIIA operational requirements in respect of bullets, which is described in the standard NIJ Standard-0101.04, entitled "Puleneprobivaemost personal body armor"dated September 2000, you can apply any of the bulletproof layers known in this field. For bulletproof different layers you can apply different materials or designs. Suitable bulletproof layers are described in U.S. patents 6119575 and 6195798 and international publication WO 01/96111 A1.

The term "product" is used here to refer to at least two flexible proof any sharp weapons layers, as described here. The product may include at least two bulletproof layer. The product may include other layers or materials such as water-repellent materials, protevorevmaticescoe mate is ialy, and fastening elements or coatings, or stitching or kleivane to hold layers together.

The term "protective" means that the products are resistant to breakdown in respect of certain life-threatening factors such as piercing weapons, and preferably bullets. Piercing weapons is a sharp or pointed objects, like ice. The term "slug" is used here to denote a bullet or other object or its fragment as the fragment being shot off from firearms.

Protective products protect those parts of the body, serious damage which can lead to death. Such parts include the torso, groin area, neck and head. Essentially protective products include protective clothing or body armor that protects these parts, such as vests, jackets, etc.

Ways to test

In the following examples were used the following methods of testing.

The linear density of. The linear density of the filaments or fibers was determined by weighing the filament or fiber of known length, based on the techniques described in ASTM D1907-97 and D885-98. Decitex or "decitex" was defined as the weight in grams of 10,000 meters of yarn or fiber.

Mechanical tensile properties. Tested fiber brought to the condition and then tested for tensile strength, the basis of IVaS on techniques, described in ASTM D885-98. Strength (tensile strength), elongation at break and modulus of elasticity were determined using samples from the gap fibers on a tensile testing machine "Instron".

The surface density. The surface density of the layer of tissue was determined using standard method of test ASTM D 3776-96 in units of mass per unit area (weight) of fabric. The surface density of the composite structure was determined by summing the surface densities of the individual layers.

The degree of tortuosity. The assessment of the degree of tortuosity of synthetic staple fibers was performed using the standard method of test ASTM D 3937-01 (1995).

The length of the segments. Evaluation of length and length distribution of synthetic staple fibres (staple charts) was performed using the standard method of test ASTM D 5103-01 (1995).

Resistance to piercing weapons. Testing of multi-layer panels for resistance to piercing weapons were performed in accordance with standard NIJ Standard-0115.00 "Resistance of personal body armour to piercing weapons," published in September 2000, to determine the class of protection against piercing weapons.

Ballistic specifications. Testing of multi-layer panels for ballistic dynamometer was performed in accordance with standard NIJ Standard-0101.04 "Poinephobia is resistant personal body armor", published in September 2000

Examples

Now the present invention will be illustrated by the following specific examples.

Receiving yarn

The following different types of yarns made from poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide) fiber available for purchase at the company E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company ("DuPont") under the trademark KEVLAR.

Yarn #1

Yarn #1 is a yarn of poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide) continuous filament yarn with a 220 decitex available for purchase from the company DuPont under the trademark KEVLAR, with a nominal strength of 24.5 g decitex, nominal module 630 to decitex, nominal elongation at break of 3.4% and a nominal linear density 1,67 decitex on the fiber. Energy of destruction thread is of 37.7 j/g, which is greater than 30 j/g

Yarn #2

Yarn #2 is korotkostebel cotton yarn KEVLAR ring spinning method with 660 decitex (English room cotton yarn 18/2s), 1,67 decitex on filament of 1.5 dpf). Energy of destruction thread is 11.5 j/g, less than 30 j/g, yet more than 8 j/g, the nominal strength is 7.8 g per decitex, nominal elongation at break is 4.05%. This yarn is produced by applying 4.8 cm, with a square cross-section, Diakonie along the length of the staple fiber from 1.67 decitex on the filament. Such staple fiber is turned into yarn using technology spinning short staple fiber, which includes well-known equipment available for sale. The way the ring spinning short staple fibers used for manufacturing yarn according to this example, includes (1) the process of cardownie, where the staple fibers into a tape, carding, (2) multi-pass drawing process (shredder/intermediate step (distillation)/pulling on finishing machine), where the tape multiple carding into the tape with final finish after stretching, (3) the process of predopredeny (education Rove), where the tape is received after the withdrawal is processed into rovings, (4) the ring-spun process, where the rovings twisted rings in the yarn (5) the process of eliminating defects to remove unwanted defects from ring-spun yarn, and (6) the winding process for packaging yarn on cone bobbin.

Yarn #3

Yarn #3 is a ring-spun yarn KEVLAR received by the break in tension, with 220 decitex (English room cotton yarn 26,6/1s), 1,67 decitex on filament of 1.5 dpf). Energy of destruction thread is 9.2 j/g, which is significantly less than 30 j/g, yet more than 8 j/g, the nominal strength with the hat 8.6 g on decitex, and nominal elongation at break is 2.44%. Such a yarn made from staple fibers of different lengths rupture in tension with 1.7 decitex on the filament, the average length is usually between 7 and 11 cm (about 3 to 5 inches). Such staple fiber is produced and converted into staple yarn, obtained by spinning, with combed technology spinning of long staple "from harness to combed tape", which includes well-known equipment available for sale. The method for manufacturing yarn according to this example, includes (1) the process of breaking up of the loom, where the harness containing the set of continuous filament yarn, pull and tear with obtaining arbitrary lengths for the manufacture of "combed tape", (2) multi-pass process tension on the shaft with needle headset, also known as processing combed strap (shredder/intermediate step (distillation)/pulling on finishing machine), where the tape with multiple breaks, obtained when tension or combed ribbon into a ribbon with final finish after drawing, (3) the process of predopredeny (education Rove), where the tape is received after the withdrawal is processed into rovings, (4) the ring-spun process, where the rovings crucified the rings into yarn, (5) the process of eliminating defects to remove unwanted defects from ring-spun yarn, and (6) the winding process for packaging yarn on cones.

Yarn #4

Yarn #4 is a yarn of poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide) continuous filament yarn with 930 decitex available for purchase from the company DuPont under the trademark KEVLAR, with a nominal strength 24,1 g decitex, with a nominal module 630 to decitex, nominal elongation at break of 3.4% and a nominal linear density 1,67 decitex on the fiber. Energy of destruction thread makes 44.3 j/g, which is greater than 30 j/g

Getting layers

For tests at different surface densities of the above-mentioned yarns produced layers of the following fabrics.

(1). Fabric with midlevel interlacing of yarns of #1 with 220 decitex made with 70 x 70 threads per inch (of 27.6 x 27.6 threads per cm) with a coefficient of tissue density of 1.0 and is used as a control sample. This layer is defined as the layer "A".

(2). Fabric with midlevel interlacing of the yarn #2 660 decitex made with 34 x 34 yarns per inch (13,4 x 13.4 threads per cm) with a coefficient of tissue density 0,88. This layer is defined as the layer "B".

(3). Fabric with midlevel interlacing of the yarn #3 with 220 decitex made with 70 x 70 threads per inch (of 27.6 x 27.6 threads per cm) of coefficients is antom fabric density of 1.0. This layer is defined as the layer "C".

(4). Fabric with midlevel interlacing of the yarn #4 930 decitex made with 26 x 26 threads per inch (10.2 x 10.2 threads per cm) with a coefficient of tissue density of 0.82. This layer is defined as the layer "D".

Example 1 of the invention and examples 2, 3 and 4 for comparison

In example 1 of the invention in samples with different composite structures, which conducted the test on resistance to piercing weapons, tissue layers "C" were made according to the invention. In examples 2,3 and 4 fabric layers "A", "B" and "D" were made for composite structures, which were tested on the impenetrability any sharp weapons. Ongoing trials on impenetrability any sharp weapons are based on the test Protocol for level 1, described in the standard NIJ Standard 0115.00, entitled "Resistance of personal body armour to piercing weapons", dated September 2000 In the test set the maximum efficiency is not more than 7 mm, when tests are conducted at 24 j, and not more than 20 mm when the tests are performed at 36 j to meet the level 1 operational requirements. Test results of impenetrability any sharp weapons are listed in table 1.

Table 1
Example No.The energy gap of the thread (j/g)DesignSurface density (kg/m2)The depth of penetration (mm)
@24 j@36 j
Example 1 of the invention9,226 layers "C"3,20(< 7)15(<20)
Example 2 to compare37,716 layers "A"2,000
Example 3 for comparison11,532 layer "B"7,01922
Example 4 for comparison44,364 layer "D"12,83661

The test results on the impenetrability of the product according to the present invention any sharp weapons showed good impenetrability products any sharp weapons according to the level 1 standard NIJ when the surface density of 3.2 kg/m2, i.e. the efficiency is less than 7 mm when the test was carried out at 24 J., and less than 20 mm when the test was carried out at 36 joules, despite the significantly lower energy gap of the thread, that is to 9.2 j/, while in the example for comparison 2 was also shown good resistance to piercing weapons required of energyasia thread was very high, that is above 30 joules per gram, which is usually very expensive to produce. The results of comparative example 3 and comparative example 4 showed a very low impenetrability any sharp weapons even at very high surface density of 7.0 kg/m2and 12.8 kg/m2respectively.

Example 5 of the invention

Tested on ballistic dynamometer and tested for resistance against piercing weapons specimen, made of 22 layers "C" from the drum surface and 16 layers "D" on the reverse side with respect to the body, based on the level IIA test Protocol ballistic dynamometer described in the standard NIJ Standard 0101.04, entitled "Puleneprobivaemost personal body armor"dated September 2000, at 1 Protocol testing resistance against piercing weapons described in the standard NIJ Standard 0115.00, entitled "Resistance of personal body armour to piercing weapons" and dated September 2000 G. the Results are given below in table 2.

Table 2
Example No.Over-

not-

Naya raft-

ness (kg/m2)
The depth of penetration (mm)Deformation invisible surface with the according level IIA NIJ V50 (m/s)
@J@J9 mm357 mag9 mm357 mag
Example 55,90(<7)13(<20)35(<44)41(<44)455409

Testing of dry series of the combined layers of this sample according to the invention against piercing weapons showed very good impenetrability any sharp weapon compared to a level 1 standard NIJ, that is, the efficiency <7 mm when the test was carried out at 24 j, and <20 mm when the test was carried out at 36 joules. Tests V50s for ballistic dynamometer and tested for deformation invisible surface was performed on the combined layers. Test the product according to the invention of the United layers showed good value V50 ballistic at a speed of 455 m/s relative to the 9 mm bullets and 409 m/s relative to the bullets 40 S&W with the warp invisible of the surface is less than 44 mm, about 9 mm bullets, and bullets 40 S&W, in accordance with ballistic level IIA NIJ standard.

1. Impenetrable protective product contains:

many flexible layer with a surface density of 0.5 to 6.0 kg/m2moreover , each layer made from a woven material;

woven mater what al has a coefficient of tissue density from 0.75 to 1.15 and made of yarns; and

the yarns have a linear density of 500 decitex or less, the strength of from 3 to 20 g per decitex and the energy of destruction from 8 to less than 30 j/g, and yarn additionally contain staple fibers;

staple fibers have a linear density of from 0.2 to 7.0 decitex on the fiber.

2. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which staple fibers are (a)essentially the same length, (b) variable-length, or (c) subgroups staple fibers having essentially the same length and staple fiber in the other subgroup (subgroup), having different lengths, and staple fiber in subgroups mixed together, forming an essentially homogeneous distribution.

3. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which the yarns are woven, or staple fibers are mixed, or both.

4. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which the yarns have a level of twist corresponding to the coefficient of twist of not more than 5.

5. Impenetrable product according to claim 4, in which the yarn included many woven and twisted together threads.

6. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which the yarn possess the energy of destruction from 10 to 25 j/g

7. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, wherein the yarn has a tensile strength of from 5 to 16 grams per decitex.

8. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which the staple fibers have a degree of tortuosity of no more than the 8 izvilista per centimeter.

9. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which staple fibers are selected from the group consisting of polyamide fibers, polyolefin fibers, polybenzoxazole fibers, polybenzimidazole fibers, poly{2,6-diimides[4,5-b4′,5′-e]peridinin-1,4-(2,5-dihydroxy)filinovich} fibers and mixtures thereof.

10. Impenetrable product according to claim 9, in which staple fibers include aramid fibers.

11. Impenetrable product of claim 10, in which staple fibers include poly(paraphenylenevinylene) fiber.

12. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which the staple fibers have a linear density of from 0.4 to 5.0 decitex on the fiber.

13. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, in which the layers together have a surface density of from 1.0 to 5.0 kg/m2.

14. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, which corresponds to at least level 1 operational requirements in relation to piercing weapons described in the standard NIJ 0115.00.

15. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, additionally containing a second set bulletproof layers.

16. Impenetrable product according to clause 15, which corresponds at least to the type IIA ballistic performance requirements described in the standard NIJ 0101.04.

17. Impenetrable product of claim 1, wherein the woven material has a coefficient of tissue density from 0.85 to 1.1.

18. Neprobivaemaya according to claim 1, in which the fabric further comprises a continuous complex thread.

19. Impenetrable product according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one layer of woven material made of a yarn comprising a continuous multifilament yarn, and such fabric has a coefficient of tissue density of at least 0.75 and this yarn has a linear density of less than 500 decitex.



 

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