Method of large-size springs making from steel

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: bar is heated up to the temperature that provides homogenisation of steel high-temperature phase. Then spring is wound from bar at its heating temperature. At that spring is subjected to turn-by-turn tempering. Tempering of every turn is carried out after its winding and after-winding ageing in time sufficient for steel polygonisation for complication of recrystallisation rearranging of its structure. Final thermal treatment of spring is carried out by means of its tempering.

EFFECT: higher strength and operational durability of produced spring.

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering technology and can be used in the manufacture of large springs of steel produced by hot wrapped.

A known method of manufacturing a high-loaded compression spring, including using pre-hardened wire and including a winding spring, heat treatment, polishing the ends of thermocalc and blast hardening, in which thermocalc produce after blast of cold working at a temperature of 200-250°With (see RF patent №2208056, CL C21D 9/02, declared 2001.02.08 published 2003.07.10).

The disadvantage of this method is that it applies only to cold springs wound.

A known method of manufacturing springs, uses the effect of thermomechanical hardening, consisting in heating the billet to a temperature of austenization are determined, podstugivaniya billet 50-100°With, but not below the quenching temperature, bending the workpiece in the direction opposite to the direction of winding, winding it on a mandrel and subsequent cooling, and the total degree of deformation in bending and winding is 15-40% (see ed. St. USSR №528989, CL 21F 3/04 declared 31.01.75 published 25.09.76).

The use of the known method ad hoc cooling reduces and makes unstable the length of the spring hardening effect and strength characteristics.

Most Liskin to declare, selected for the prototype, is a method of manufacturing large-springs, including high-temperature thermomechanical processing of wire before winding helical by pulling and winding the spring, followed by a final heat treatment, which includes an additional high-temperature thermomechanical processing of a spring during winding, which before wrapped perform high-speed heating of thermo-hardened rod to a temperature of 100 to 150°With the above point AU3phase transformations, helical broaching is performed in the direction of deformation of a coil compression spring, and as the final heat treatment of springs used vacation (see RF patent №1234018, CL B21F 35/00, declared 13.08.84 published 30.05.86).

The disadvantage of the prototype is that the use of its ad hoc cooling reduces or negates the effect of hardening from additional high-temperature thermomechanical treatment the spring and reduces the strength characteristics.

Method of manufacturing large springs of steel, including heating wire winding spring of the rod when the temperature of heating and quenching of the spring and the final heat treatment by leave, the heating rod is carried out until the temperature provided is that the homogenization of the high-temperature phase steel and produce pometkovo hardening spring, moreover, quenching each coil is carried out after him winding and poslenovogodnee exposure over time, ensuring the processes of polygonization steel to avoid recrystallization of the reorganization of its structure.

In the manufacture of large springs of steel the proposed method, the following occurs.

Heating the rod to a temperature that ensures homogenization of high-temperature phase aligns the chemical composition of the steel content of carbon and alloying elements. Overheating leads to grain growth in steel, as a consequence of underheating will be uneven in the amount of chemical composition and, as a result, the consequence of incomplete hardening. And in fact, in another case, will reduce the strength of the spring material.

At high winding of the spring to the diameter of the rod plastic deformation occurs, there is a thermo-hardening of the entire spring. Cooling each coil spring is produced after a certain time (polyvidone extract), constant for all orbits, and determine the chemical composition of the workpiece material (rod). During this poslenovogodnee exposure in deformed when the wrapped spring steel processes of polygonization complicating recrystallization restructuring of material and optimize the value pack is Oceania, recorded subsequent powercobol quenching. Polakova hardening provides a constant dynamic strength along the length of the spring, which allows to significantly increase its service life. In known methods of hot wound spring after a wound that has lasted for some time, hardenable steel entirely, after a random time determined structural features of technological equipment. During this time, the spring material is a reorganization of the structure of hot work hardening, formed during the winding, the structure of recrystallization, which leads to non-uniformity of the magnitude of the hardening from coil to coil or the complete withdrawal of hardening.

The inventive method can be implemented on known equipment for coiling springs, for example, the device according to U.S. Pat. SU # 1348040, CL B21F 3/04, publ. 27.01.93, additionally equipped with a device to provide adjustment of the start time powercobol hardening spring, for example, with adjustable cooling bath.

To implement the method rod billet of steel for the manufacture of springs are heated continuously consistently high-frequency current across the section to a temperature of homogenization of the high-temperature phase (about 1000-1050° (C) and fed into the winding area. After that, the rod billet wound on the op is awkw. Each coil together with the mandrel through specific for each steel composition time (polyvidone extract), such as 15, is fed into the cooling device, where the hardening. Thus obtained, the spring further undergoes surgery vacation, blasting, precipitation (samevolume), testing, painting.

The inventive method was tested in the manufacture of cylindrical helical compression spring with an outer diameter 90-135 mm, manufactured from bar stock steel grades SA, SG, SF and other diameter 10-19 mm Springs revivalist on a spring winding equipment vertical layout. The temperature of the heating rods 1000-1050°, polyvidone extract - 10-15 C.

Studies of the quality and strength characteristics of the springs showed:

- step coils of the spring after the operation rainfall with a total decrease in the length (height) of the spring constant, which indicates the consistency properties of the spring material in each pass;

- the study of the structure of steel in each pass has shown that quenching fixed fine polygoncount structure constant throughout the length of the spring;

- bench tests on fatigue life have shown that the durability of the tested spring is 3-5 times higher than the durability of the springs, made by known t is hnologie. The results of bench tests confirmed operational.

Thus, the inventive method of manufacturing large springs in comparison with the prototype allows to provide an increased and constant along the length of the spring level of quality and dynamic strength, which significantly increases the operational durability of the coil springs.

Method of manufacturing large springs of steel, including heating wire winding spring of the rod when the temperature of heating and quenching of the spring and the final heat treatment by leave, characterized in that the heating rod is carried out until the temperature optimum homogenization of the high-temperature phase steel, and produce pometkovo hardening spring, and quenching each coil is carried out after him winding and poslenovogodnee exposure over time, ensuring the processes of polygonization steel to avoid recrystallization of the reorganization of its structure.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: metallurgy; manufacture of cylindrical springs from austenitic steel.

SUBSTANCE: cylindrical spring is manufactured from cold-hardened wire made from austenitic steel at preset diameter, ultimate strength and limit of plasticity. Wire is wound on mandrel at pitch equal to diameter of wire at definite force of tension; wire is fixed in stressed state; after fixing, it is heated to temperature below steel recovery temperature and is subjected to isothermal holding at heat; then, spring is released at room temperature. Diameter of mandrel is found from the following relationship: (D-d)/d·100=ad+b, where D is required inner diameter of spring, mm; d is diameter of mandrel, mm; a(mm-1) and b are parameters depending on temperature, isothermal holding time, stresses at winding the wire on mandrel and wire diameter. Manufacture of springs of required size and form from low-plasticity steel at retained mechanical properties of wire is possible due to use of stress relaxation effect.

EFFECT: possibility of making springs at preset geometric sizes and mechanical properties.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: manufacture of helical compression springs operating at impingement of their turns in condition of elevated temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: after coiling spring with pitch exceeding pitch of ready spring, the last is subjected to heat treatment and shot-blast hardening. Then spring is compressed by action of axial load consisting of 10 - 300 F3 where F3 - spring force at maximum deformation. It is possible to perform secondary compression of spring by action of load increased in proportion to relation of target camber to camber value caused by first load. Spring may be subjected to action of vibration loads. In order to satisfy high demands made to force parameters of spring the last is dressed after twisting and ends of spring are ground and chamfered.

EFFECT: possibility for making springs with accurate and stable in time elastic characteristics.

4 cl

FIELD: manufacture of helical compression springs operating at impingement of their turns in condition of elevated temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: after coiling spring with pitch more than that of ready spring, the last is subjected to heat treatment and shot-blast hardening. After thermal compression and scragging spring or simultaneously with said operations, turns of spring are subjected to plastic strengthening. In order to realize it, spring is compressed by action of load consisting of 10 - 300 F3 where F3 - spring force at maximum deformation.

EFFECT: possibility for making springs with improved dynamic strength and with accurate stable in time elastic characteristics.

4 cl

FIELD: metallurgy, namely heat treatment of springs of silicon steels, possibly manufacture of springs and other elastic members in machine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of isothermal quenching at soaking and further tempering; realizing isothermal quenching by two stages. At first stage isothermal quenching is realized from 900 - 920°C at soaking for 5 - 7 min at 355 - 365°C. At second stage isothermal quenching is realized from 830 - 840°C and soaking is realized at 355 - 365°C for 12 -15 min. Tempering is realized at 200 - 220°C in air for 40 - 50 min or in furnace with fluidized bed for 20 - 30 min. Invention provides operational strength of springs increased up to 80 000 - 100 000 loading cycles without breaking at sharp impact loads.

EFFECT: enhanced operational strength of springs.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy, in particular heat treatment of products from spring steel.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improve relaxation strength of products from spring steel due to decrease of residual austenite content. Claimed method includes hardening of products from martensite-type spring steel by heating in salt electric furnace at 900-9400C and drawing at 350-3900C; holding for 1 h and cooling in air. After heat treatment to provide product purity its surface is finished and subsequently content of residual austenite in one product from lot is determined. Method of invention affords the ability to improve relaxation strength of products from martensite-type spring steel in accordance with performance demands.

EFFECT: products from martensite-type spring steel with improved relaxation strength.

1 tbl, 1 ex

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to a method of processing steel, and can be used in the manufacture of steel strip to be applied, for example, when making spring units for the furniture industry

The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering and metallurgy and can be used in hardware industry in the manufacture of spring product type train wire terminals
The invention relates to the manufacture of helical compression springs of hardened before winding wire

The invention relates to heat treatment and can be used in engineering in the manufacture of springs and other parts

The invention relates to a device for heat treatment of parts, namely the production of torsion springs

FIELD: manufacturing and testing of spring, possible usage in industrial branches, manufacturing and using springs: mechanical engineering, aviation engineering, automobile engineering, tool-making industry, etc.

SUBSTANCE: device for contact predeformation of springs contains lower immobile plate and lower moving plate, mounted on which with possible re-mounting along outer diameter of spring are guiding supports for same. Spring is positioned between lower and upper inserts, on end surfaces of which screw surfaces are made, repeating profile of edge coils of spring. Inserts have stops, lower insert being positioned on lower moving plate between re-mountable guiding supports, and spring being mounted so that it is in contact by edge coils with screw surfaces of inserts and abuts by end of edge coils against stops of inserts. Upper insert is made with ball surface, interacting with ball surface of puncheon, held on lower immobile plate are guiding bars and stops, limiting edge positions of lower moving plate, which is provided with mechanism for its movement into working zone under the puncheon and backwards.

EFFECT: increased labor productivity during predeformation of springs and during adjustment of device for predeformation of springs with different sizes.

4 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of jewelry articles, possibly manufacture of gold-alloy small springs of locks of snap hooks in jewelry industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of winding from wire prepared by deforming alloy at several stage with intermediate annealing between said stages small spring; at last stage deforming alloy by drawing at total reduction degree exceeding 85% but less than 95%. Preferably drawing of wire is started from initial diameter of wire din = 1mm till final diameter df = 0.35 mm for 13 passes at total reduction degree 87.3%. Spring is made of gold alloy with purity 385.

EFFECT: enhanced elastic properties of spring, improved manufacturing process for realizing the method.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: manufacture of helical compression springs operating at impingement of their turns in condition of elevated temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: after coiling spring with pitch exceeding pitch of ready spring, the last is subjected to heat treatment and shot-blast hardening. Then spring is compressed by action of axial load consisting of 10 - 300 F3 where F3 - spring force at maximum deformation. It is possible to perform secondary compression of spring by action of load increased in proportion to relation of target camber to camber value caused by first load. Spring may be subjected to action of vibration loads. In order to satisfy high demands made to force parameters of spring the last is dressed after twisting and ends of spring are ground and chamfered.

EFFECT: possibility for making springs with accurate and stable in time elastic characteristics.

4 cl

FIELD: manufacture of helical compression springs operating at impingement of their turns in condition of elevated temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: after coiling spring with pitch more than that of ready spring, the last is subjected to heat treatment and shot-blast hardening. After thermal compression and scragging spring or simultaneously with said operations, turns of spring are subjected to plastic strengthening. In order to realize it, spring is compressed by action of load consisting of 10 - 300 F3 where F3 - spring force at maximum deformation.

EFFECT: possibility for making springs with improved dynamic strength and with accurate stable in time elastic characteristics.

4 cl

FIELD: manufacture of jewelry articles, possibly in jewelry industry at making small springs of rod type locks of gold alloys.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming wire of gold alloy by deforming during several stages at intermediate annealing procedures between said stages; at last stage of wire forming deforming alloy by drawing it at total reduction degree 65 - 85%; then winding spring of formed wire. In preferable variant of invention last stage of drawing is realized during eight passes at total reduction degree 77.8%. The most effective method of forming springs is realized at using gold of purity degree 585.

EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing effectiveness, improved quality of articles due to their enhanced elastic properties.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: making and testing springs.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises punch with ball surface, which is in a contact with the ball surface of the top insert, bottom insert mounted on the bottom unmovable plate, and screw surfaces with stop provided on both of the inserts. The screw surfaces copy the profile of the end turns of the spring. The bottom unmovable plate is provided with rectangular guiding supports, which are rearranged over the outer diameter of the spring. The rectangular guiding supports are secured to the bottom unmovable plate by means of radial T-shaped slots made in the plate.

EFFECT: simplified design.

2 dwg

FIELD: making springs.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable plate, race for receiving spring, punch with a ball surface which is in a contact with the ball surface of the top insert, bottom insert mounted on the bottom plate, and screw surfaces with a stop made on the both inserts, which copy the profile of the end turns of the spring. The bottom unmovable plate is provided with stops and L-shaped guiding planks which are in a contact with the answering projections of the race and mechanism for moving the race from the setting zone and hollow of the spring to the working zone under the punch and back.

EFFECT: enhanced convenience and safety.

2 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of springs, possibly for furniture, particularly manufacture of springy mattresses for soft furniture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding round cross section wire; forming and binding knots on supporting turns due to twisting wire end under predetermined pressure around supporting turn; before forming spring blank, imparting to wire out-off-round cross section or making spring blank from wire having out-off-round cross section. When wire end portion is twisted around supporting turn in contact zone of twisted wire and wire of supporting turn recesses are formed on portions of supporting turn wire having positive deflection from out-off-roundness due to creation of pressure exceeding preset value. Twisted wire is pressed-in to said recesses.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of knots, increased useful time period of spring, operational reliability of articles.

2 cl

FIELD: medical technique.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes base supporting guides and carriage mounted with possibility of motion along guides. Rotary platform is mounted on base behind horizontal guides of carriage. On one edge of platform there is opening in which vertical shaping pin is arranged. Said pin is secured to base. On other edge of platform there is indicator of platform rotation angle. Guiding tube is mounted between said edges and pressing spring if arranged in parallel relative to said tube with possibility of axial motion. Adjusting and pressing screws are mounted respectively at both ends of said spring. Carriage includes clamping mechanism and handle moving carriage on guides. Member for controlled limitation of horizontal motion of carriage is mounted on base between horizontal guides of carriage.

EFFECT: possibility for simplified forming of curvilinear profile of distal part of bowden.

1 dwg

The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering and metallurgy and can be used in hardware industry in the manufacture of spring product type train wire terminals

FIELD: medical technique.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes base supporting guides and carriage mounted with possibility of motion along guides. Rotary platform is mounted on base behind horizontal guides of carriage. On one edge of platform there is opening in which vertical shaping pin is arranged. Said pin is secured to base. On other edge of platform there is indicator of platform rotation angle. Guiding tube is mounted between said edges and pressing spring if arranged in parallel relative to said tube with possibility of axial motion. Adjusting and pressing screws are mounted respectively at both ends of said spring. Carriage includes clamping mechanism and handle moving carriage on guides. Member for controlled limitation of horizontal motion of carriage is mounted on base between horizontal guides of carriage.

EFFECT: possibility for simplified forming of curvilinear profile of distal part of bowden.

1 dwg

Up!