Method of determination of forest fire danger
FIELD: agriculture, physics.
SUBSTANCE: moisture content of the forest combustible materials (FCM) is determined by sounding the underlying surface in the SHF-range in the wave length allowing the electromagnetic radiation to pass through the FCM surface layer, forming the image matrix by means of a multi-beam antenna with the adjustable count digitisation in the scan band and the separate reception path in every beam, calculating the image matrix signal parameters, i.e. M1 making mathematical waiting, σ being mean square departure, Sp being the relief shape, S0 being the processed matrix geometrical area. It also includes separating the outlines on the image by the methods of spatial differentiation and FCM moisture content (W) inside the said outlines by the calibration function, i.e. W,%=Sp/S0·exp(M1/σ)·100%, where Sp is the image matrix signal relief area, S0 is the processed matrix geometrical area, M1 is the signal mathematical waiting, σ is the signal mean square departure.
EFFECT: fast determination of forest fire danger over vast territory.
2 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to forestry, in particular to remote operational assessment humidity of forest combustible materials) on large areas.
Forest fires have been and remain the dominant factor in determining the structure and dynamics of boreal forests. The scale of impacts on forests they exceed all other factors. Timely forecast of forest fire danger in advance allows to concentrate the available resources and to introduce regimes in fire zones.
The known method biologicheskii assessment of forests in an integrated indicator (KPO) of the wildfire Vgikesetiraa (see, for example, forest Fire indices of drought, in the collection "Biologicheskie zoning in the taiga zone" Sofronov M.A., Volokitina A.V., USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian branch, Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1990, p.37-38 - equivalent). The method is analogous to the calculation of KPO is based on the data of the ground meteopole the following dependencies:
where T° - air temperature at 12 o'clock local time, °C
tp- dew point, °C
∑ - the amount of temperature difference for all the days τithe dry period from the date of the follow-up days of precipitation greater than 3 mm.
After precipitation of more than 3 mm account is set to zero, and the calculation KPO begins anew from the day of establishing escorteboy weather. The amount of KPO are classes of fire danger on Vgeneral: class I - up to 300; class II - 300...1000; class III - 1000...4000; class IV - 4000...8000; V the class of extreme danger is over 8,000.
Isolated areas of different classes put on the map Leskhoz (forestry) on the integrated units and paint over red weights.
The disadvantage of analog are:
- significant errors in the resulting estimates for irregular rainfall on the area of surveillance,
- low accuracy in sparse network of meteopole,
- inadequate (indirection) the criterion characterizing arid weather condition, and not fire the maturity of forest combustible materials.
The susceptibility of forest mortality and litter to the fire depends on their moisture content. The most reliable method for predicting fire danger would be the direct measurement of humidity LGM.
In most national systems of forest monitoring for the prediction of forest fire hazards using remote sensing data of aerospace assets in the IR range.
The closest analogue to the technical nature with the proposed technical solution is the Method of control forest fire danger". Patent RU No. 2.147.253, CL AS, 3/02, 2000
The way the closest analogue is before the registration of the self-radiation of the underlying surface in the IR range, corresponding to the maximum thermal radiation (9-12 Ám), calibration tract sensing measurements of the reference sites, the conversion functions are registered in the electrical signal into a digital matrix counts the dependence of the amplitude A(x, y) spatial coordinates, the selection methods of the spatial differentiation of circuits on two-dimensional images of the forest, the calculation of the moisture content (W) of forest combustible materials within the selected paths for regression dependencies:
and is the correction factor taking into account the parameters of the tract sensing, geographical area, forest type;
σ2L2- power variable and constant component of the signal of the image area within the analyzed circuit.
Disadvantages closest are:
the dependence of the integral indicator of forest type, i.e. the need to introduce a correction factor (a), the values of which are unknown;
since infrared radiation shielded canopy, it provides only indirect information about humidity LGM;
- the inadequacy of the used regression according to the physical process of increasing fire maturity LGM.
The problem solved by the claimed method is rapid detection and tracking Le is pozarnej risk on large areas by sensing of forests in the microwave range space vehicles with a wide swath on the wavelength, ensuring the passage of the upward radiation through the surface layer of forest combustible materials and the tree canopy.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method for determining fire danger, including the sensing of the underlying surface of the forest space tools to identify and analyze indicator of forest fire danger - moisture of forest combustible materials, obtaining images of the underlying surface in the form of a matrix according to the amplitude signal A(x,y) of the upward radiation from the spatial coordinates, and processing matrices to highlight the boundaries of the contours of the forest fire hazard depending on the parameters of the signal, further probing is carried out in the microwave range at a wavelength of ensuring the passage of electromagnetic radiation through the surface layer of forest combustible materials, for forming matrices using multibeam antenna with adjustable discretization of samples in the scan bar and individual reception path in each beam, and the moisture content (W) of forest combustible materials within the borders of the paths found from the relation:
Sp- the area of the relief signal matrix image;
S0the geometric area of the image matrix;
M1the mathematical expressions, the practical expectation signal;
σ - standard deviation of the signal;
the geometric area of the image matrix is equal to the product of the number of rows and number of columns and the area of one pixel, and the area of the relief signal matrix image is calculated as the integral of the ratio:
m - number of signal lines of the matrix image;
n is the number of columns of signal matrix image;
x, y - coordinates function of the signal A(x, y);
σ - standard deviation of the signal.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:
figure 1 - dependence of the moisture content of forest combustible materials from the complex index (KPO) method closest analogue;
figure 2 - dependence of the flow of the upward radiation from the complex index;
figure 3 - calibration function based humidity LGM from the parameters of the signal matrix;
4 is a printout from the boundaries of the classes of fire danger on the contour map of the region;
5 is a functional diagram of the device that implements the method.
The technical essence of the method consists in the following. Known methods and tools to measure indirect signs of forest fire danger, namely the increase of metatemplates near-surface layer, and the infrared radiation shielded canopy. Radio waves in the microwave range can penetrate p is d canopy vegetation and deep soil layer [see for example, Krapivin V.F., Kondratyev KYA "Global environmental change: ecoinformatics", SPbSU, St. Petersburg, 2002, Theoretical foundations of radiophysical sensing, str-670]. Therefore, the rising of microwave radiation contains information about the moisture content of forest combustible materials: moss, lichen, grass rags, dead needles, leaves, pruning, shrubs. Using the microwave range provides control of the process of increasing fire maturity LGM. Along with the obvious advantage of the microwave range has the disadvantage of restricting its technical applicability - low power rising radiation. In accordance with the law of Planck radiation power at the same temperature of an object decreases inversely proportional to the fifth degree of the wavelength (˜1/λ5) [see, for example, "Physical encyclopedic dictionary," edited by Amerkhanov, Owls. encyclopedia, 1983, Planck's law of radiation, str]. Therefore, when moving in the microwave range have difficulties in providing the necessary energy capacity of the radio channel sounding. As follows from the dimension of the power of the rising radiation [W/m2], the energy potential of the radio channel can be provided by receiving radiation from a large area. For example, when one is about pixel 10 km, the energy potential of the channel increases (10·1000)2≈108time. However, if you increase the size of the pixel dimensions, the problem of formation of the image matrix of the underlying surface, adequate measured physical process in the scan bar.
In the present method are listed contradictory terms are implemented through the use of multibeam antennas, each beam which, to increase the sensitivity attached to a reception path. In this case, the scanning of the underlying surface to form a measurement matrix samples, perform: along the route due to the movement of the carrier (meter) by adjusting the sampling interval times, and across the tracks - multi-beam antenna, as illustrated by figure 5. Hidden information about humidity LGM contained in the signal register of the matrix samples. Drying of combustible material accompanied by the following physical phenomena:
- reduction of humidity leads to an increase of the apparent temperature and emissivity of combustible materials, which is equivalent to increasing the amplitude of the DC component of the signal M1(M1- the expectation of the signal matrix);
the increase in the average surface temperature is accompanied by a decrease once the dew temperature between elements of the underlying surface, in different biologicheskikh conditions (upland, lowland, sun, shade), which is equivalent to decreasing the amplitude of the variable component of the signal σ (σ - standard deviation of the signal matrix);
drought, as a rule, covers a large spatial area, which is accompanied by a reduction in the rate of fluctuations of the signal in the spatial coordinates, i.e. the reduction in the degree of indentation (roughness) of the signal matrix and the reduction of the area of its relief (Sp).
The deposition of fire maturity LGM is determined by the combined, simultaneous change of all three of these factors. The function changes the flow of the upward radiation from the complex index of fire danger is illustrated by the graphs of figure 2. The dependence of the moisture content of forest combustible materials from the tone settings of the image matrix (M1that σ, Sp/S0) (calibration function) is illustrated in figure 3. Quantitative assessment of humidity LGM from measurements of the microwave radiometer carried out by the calibration function of the transition process. Of mathematics known [see, for example. Piskunov NS, "Differential and integral calculus for technical Colleges, volume 1, 5th edition. Nauka, M., 1964, str-458]that the function itself and its velocity changes associated differential equation of the first order is a, the General solution of which is the exponent. The initial conditions for the solution of the differential equation is found from the statistical data presented in table 1 [see, for example, analog, p.106-117]
The relationship between KPO and humidity LGM
|Fire hazard class||KPO By Nesterov||Humidity LGM,%||Fire risk LGM|
more than 8,000
|Do not burn|
+Data from table 1 follows that an extremely dangerous level of wildfire LGM corresponds to the moisture content of 7-10%, and the level of nagarkoti ≈70%. Presenting the function of the transition process from drying LGM in the form of exhibitors: W=k·exp(-x), expressing the indices (k, x) through the parameters of the signal matrix of counts, with the initial conditions table. 1, the obtained calibration feature for the calculation of the humidity LGM in the form:
W,%=Sp/S0·exp (- M1/σ)·100%.
S0geometrical size of the matrix |m×n|, is equal to the product of the number of rows and number of columns and the area of one pixel;
Sp- the area of the relief of the signal matrix of the samples, calculated as the integral of the ratio:
Integral square calculate programmatically, the estimated variance of the signal σ2[see, for example, "Method of determination of the area of terrain. Patent RU No. 2.255.357, G01V, 9/01, G01C 7/00, 2005].
An example implementation
The inventive method can be implemented according to the scheme 5. Functional diagram of the system figure 5 contains the orbital station 1 (MKC) installed on it microwave radiometer 2 (RK-21-8), which take the upward radiation from the underlying surface in the scan bar 3 multibeam antenna 4, each narrow beam 5 which is connected to the input of a separate receive path 6. Output path 6, the signal of each beam, protanomaly in the standard scale 0...256 levels, in digital form, synchronously recorded on a separate track on-Board recorder 7 (type "field"). The inclusion of a microwave radiometer scan mode over the predetermined regions of the planet carry out programs or one-time commands, put in the onboard control (BC Prov.) 8 via a radio link 9 from mission control center (MCC) 10. Sequence captured radiometric complex 2 images of the underlying surface in the session visibility of the ISS from the ground stations transmit telemetry system 11 (COMPLETE-2) for auxiliary channel 12 in points of reception of information (FDI) 13, where record on the VCR 14 ("Arcturus"). At user request or agreed protocols for sharing information, images forest fire regions together with service information (time, region, round orbits, label Board time) is distilled in regional centres 15, which create a permanent archive 16 of all the captured frames. Thematic processing of the obtained images is performed on the personal computer 17 in the standard set of elements: processor 18, a RAM 19, a hard disk 20, a display 21, a printer 22, a keyboard 23, plotter 24. Radio complex RK-21-8 allows you to adjust the sampling interval times from 0.1 to 1 sec. Table 2 presents the results of control measurements and software processing matrices of images obtained during ground testing of radio engineering complex on the aircraft carrier.
|Region||Local KPO||The characteristics of the signal||Humidity LGM, %|
The edge detection circuits forest fire danger implement a software method, using the standard calculation procedures operators spatial differentiation Roberts or Sobel [see, for example, Duda P.O., P.E. HART, "pattern Recognition and scene analysis", whatever that is. from English., M., Mir, 1976, § 7.3 Spatial differentiation, pages 287-288]. The result of a software edge contours classes forest fire hazard is illustrated in figure 4.
The effectiveness of the proposed method is characterized by such indicators as efficiency, reliability, accuracy, globality. Exercising daily update of information and its automatic processing, it is possible adequately, reliably and accurately track the status of LGM large areas.
1. The method for determining fire danger, including the sensing of the underlying surface of the forest space means to the op is edeline and analysis of indicator of forest fire danger the moisture content of forest combustible materials, obtaining images of the underlying surface in the form of a matrix according to the amplitude signal A(x,y) of the upward radiation from the spatial coordinates and processing matrices to highlight the boundaries of the contours of the forest fire hazard depending on the parameters of the signal, characterized in that the sensing is carried out in the microwave range at a wavelength of ensuring the passage of electromagnetic radiation through the surface layer of forest combustible materials, for forming matrices using multibeam antenna with adjustable discretization of samples in the scan bar and individual reception path in each beam, and the moisture content (W) of forest combustible materials within the boundaries of the contours are ratio
where Sp- the area of the relief signal matrix image;
S0the geometric area of the image matrix;
M1- the expectation signal;
σ - standard deviation of the signal.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the geometric area of the image matrix is equal to the product of the number of rows and number of columns and the area of one pixel, and the area of the relief signal matrix image is calculated as the integral of the ratio
where m is the number of rows of the signal matrix image;
n is the number of columns of signal matrix image;
x,y - coordinates function of the signal A(x,y);
σ - standard deviation of the signal.
FIELD: protection means.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for localisation of fire originating in unclosed openings, for example, on paining large-size objects or on theatre stage by means of an elastic fire-protection screen. To shut off unclosed opening, the screen is divided into two panels, one of which facing the evacuation zone being used to provide for dust and gas protection of the unclosed opening and to seal a gap between it and the carcass, while the other one facing the zone of fire ensures protection against fire of the said unclosed opening. After evacuation of people from the dangerous zone and formation of dust and gas protection of the said unclosed opening, the space formed by the aforesaid panels is filled with inert gas. The device using the aforesaid method incorporates a kantledge arranged on the protective screen front part made up of a movable system of drums separating the said screen into two panels on its lowering to form a space after evacuation of people and a complete shutting off of the unclosed opening. The said space, with gap between the screen panel facing the evacuation zone and the carcass sealed, is filled with inert gas, for example, carbonic acid. The screen panel facing the evacuation zone is made from a dust and gas impermeable material, while the other screen panel is made from fire resistant material.
EFFECT: higher efficiency protection of unclosed openings and fire localisation.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly equipment for forest fire extinguishing by fire site isolation with metal mesh and fire-extinguishant spraying.
SUBSTANCE: method involves simultaneously delivering rolled metal mesh and fire-extinguishant to fire site with the use of airborne vehicle; dropping mesh as airborne vehicle reaches fire site for mesh unfolding and fire-site covering; spraying metal mesh with fire-extinguishant onto fire site from airborne vehicle or with the use of throwing devices arranged in safe locations or with the use of solid long-range jets. Mesh perimeter has ruby color to facilitate precise device dropping area determination from patrolling airborne vehicle or from other observation means.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of fire-extinguishant spraying, increased fire-extinguishing efficiency due to improved fire spread suppression and water cooling.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguishing method involves delivering flame-suppression agent into fire site inside thin-walled closed vessels, where flame-suppression agent is heated to generate steam-and-gas mixture; isolating burning surface to prevent oxidizing agent ingress along outer surfaces of thin-walled closed vessels along with heat removing from fire site by provision of heat-exchange through thin wall and heating flame-suppression agent to create steam-and-gas mixture with hot gases generated in fire site. In fire-extinguishing device no additional flame-suppression agent heating source is required. Fire-extinguishing device includes thin-walled closed vessel filled with flame-suppression agent, which may be heated by heat-exchange through thin wall of the vessel. Flame-suppression agent heating results in multiple flame-suppression agent volume increase to generate steam-and-gas mixture.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating vertical curtain filled with non-combustible material; additionally forming closed lower horizontal curtain with the use of two crossing vertical wells; filling lower horizontal curtain with non-combustible material, for instance with clay mud, over total area defined by closed outline so that the material passes into waterproof layer. To protect upper horizontal peat-bog part upper horizontal curtain joined with vertical curtain is created. Upper horizontal curtain is continuous along area outline and across the area and is created by peat-bog covering with water-resistant ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of peat-bog fire prevention and localization.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to prevent natural-source and industrial-source fires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining critical peat-fog or lignin humidity by deep prospecting thereof along with trench digging-out and filling with non-combustible material, wherein the trenches are made as slots having depths equal to distance for peat layer with critical humidity; creating shielding wall of non-combustible material to be supplied in trenches, wherein the non-combustible material is flowable weakly-hardening gel-forming solution. Peat-fog or lignin humidity is determined on pitch selected from distance to fire-site. Slot-like trenches are formed with the use of cable-laying means. The gel-forming solution comprises clay-based and cement-based mineral components mixed with structure-forming agent.
EFFECT: possibility of preventive possible fire site localization and increased speed of existent fire site suppression by rapid delimitation thereof with shielding walls made of non-combustible material, which may be converted from fluid into still state.
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to extinguish peat fires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating trench-like barrier line extending for the full peat thickness and filling the trench with mineral soil. Trench is excavated by forming two spaced apart vertical slots from face with the use of ground excavation plant. Distance between vertical slots is equal to trench width. Slot depth exceeds peat layer thickness. The slots are filled with inert material (foam or clay mortar) and peat is burnt between the slots. Then the obtained trench is filled with mineral soil.
EFFECT: increased protection efficiency and ability, possibility to create wide and deep barrier lines.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly fire-extinguishing or fire-protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves delivering water saturated with carbonic acid to fire site. Water is saturated to obtain 2-6% gas saturation. After that gas-and-liquid mixture is frozen to -15÷-20°C and blocks are created of frozen gas-and-liquid mixture. Each block has 4-12 kg weight. Fire site is covered with the blocks.
EFFECT: increased fire-extinguishing efficiency due to possibility of volumetric gas-and-liquid mixture action on fire site and increased duration of gas-and-liquid mixture action due to retarded gas-and-liquid mixture evaporation.
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly forest and peat fire extinguishing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating base fire-fighting centers including early warning stations, which inform about fire initiation. The early warning stations are distal one from another and are in radio communication with base fire-fighting centers. The base fire-fighting center comprises acting water-intake water pools having depths to provide amphibious aircraft filling with water. Water is continuously added to water-intake pools from natural or artificial source. The water-intake pools have elongated rectangular shapes in plane view, wherein long water pool sides facing into prevailing wind. Amphibious aircrafts charged with water are used for fire suppression. Early warning station includes balloon linked to ground and provided with surveillance camera.
EFFECT: decreased time from fire initiation to fire extinguishment beginning.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly immediate forest fire extinguishment without the use of counterfire, water, chemical agents and mechanisms.
SUBSTANCE: method involves beginning fire extinguishment from fire site from inner edge side thereof towards fire front usually in wind direction so that workers are out of smoke spreading zone for a long time and are prevented from being caught by fire. At the beginning of fire extinguishment workers beats back fire from burning ground litter, stumps and fallen trees with branches. Then remainder smoking areas are covered with earth by means of spades. After that workers inspect extinguished areas and locations outside fire site edge. If workers are sure that fire is fully suppressed they may leave extinguished fire site.
EFFECT: decreased time of fire suppression, reduced forest fire areas and possibility to conserve forest ecosystem.
FIELD: forestry, particularly forest fire fighting, namely ground fire spread prevention.
SUBSTANCE: method involves simultaneously cutting two parallel grooves in ground and filling the grooves and passes, which are formed during disc working tools raising, with mixture of ground and combustibles present on ground surface. Mixture volume may be varied by changing of working tool submersion depth. Length of pass filled part may be varied by device movement velocity change. Device for above method realization comprises frame and disc working tools installed on posts hinged to the frame so that concave working tool sides face forwards. Device is provided with side walls mounted on frame and with two coverers located behind disc working tools. The posts are fastened one to another by means of pivotally connected turnbuckle to provide depth of working tool travel measurement.
EFFECT: increased reliability of fire-protection strip forming and, as a result, improved fire safety of forests.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for suppression of stubs contains frame, basic wheels, tank for arboricide mix and mix feeder. On the bottom part of the frame axis with racks, leaning along edges on two basic wheels and containing some feeders of the arboricide mix, mounted on axis racks are fixed. Each mechanism consists of delivery cylinder and sawtooth knife. Inlet and final valves are located in the case of the delivery cylinder, spring-actuated piston of pressure stabilization in cylinder cavities, the delivery piston connected to rod in which the supply channel of arboricide mix to sprays executed in the bottom part of rod is made. The cavity of the delivery cylinder is connected with the supply channel of the arboricide mix through the diverter valve. The rod of the delivery cylinder is pivotally connected to sawtooth knife, pivotally fixed on rack of axis and spring-actuated against it. The sawtooth knife is supplied by the terminator for interaction with stopper placed on rack of axis, and on lateral surfaces of sawtooth knife the tube forming channels of giving of a mix, passing in the central channel executed in a trailer part of sawtooth knife is fixed. Central channel is locked by elastic plate fixed on sawtooth knife and having needle copying the bottom of the saw cut on the bottom end.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of biological impact of arboricide mix due to its application directly on surface of stubs and in saw cuts from sawtooth knife.
SUBSTANCE: draft hitch for gathering of brush wood contains rotary frame from hydrocylinders with directing with shock-absorbers fixed on it, collecting teeth with clamps, board-protection. Collecting teeth and guide are executed by straight lines, cylindrical and are located to soil surface under an angle α<αlim, where αlim - limit angle. Contact roller is pivotally connected on free end of each collecting tooth, with radius size r corresponding to condition: where RK - resistance to rolling coefficient of contact roller on stub, mm; fn - resistance to rolling coefficient of collecting tooth which does not have contact roller touching stub; rineff - inefficient radius of contact roller, mm. The collecting teeth having contact roller on the end are located at an angle to the soil surface: where r - radius of contact roller, mm; RK - resistance to rolling coefficient of contact roller on stub, mm; fn - resistance to rolling coefficient of collecting tooth with the guide; αlim - a limit angle. Longitudinal groove of the semicircular form is executed on the back side of each collecting tooth for prevention of collecting teeth rollover in the guide. From the back side of each guide the aperture with carving which is combined with groove on collecting tooth is executed. Blocking ball which part is placed in the given aperture and other part in groove of collecting tooth is fixed by means of fixing bolt in an aperture made in the guide.
EFFECT: facilitation of a device operating mode at avoidance of obstacles by collecting teeth and increase of durability and reliability of collecting teeth.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forest management. The method involves burning woody materials in the access of oxygen producing heat and carbon dioxide containing gas mixture. Then carbon dioxide is extracted out of the mixture and dry ice is obtained. The dry ice is delivered to forest area, regasified, distributed over the area by mixing with air till excessive average daily concentration of carbon dioxide reaches 0.005% to 0.2% by volume. Further carbon dioxide is absorbed in the photosynthesis process by the trees which are burnt later.
EFFECT: removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and providing for fast forest growth.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves severing of tree stems near the place of latent buds lodgement at the bottom of butt end of a tree or shrub at improvement cutting or rejuvenation, place formation of sprouting by means of cutting of paternal tree roots while making holes at a depth of 20...25 cm, at an angle of 25...45° to direct axis of plants lines and at an interval of 1,5...2,0 m. The treatment of places where tree roots or stubs of shrubs are severed by a mixture of chemical components is carried out. The spots of new regrowth are formed by dusting paternal tree roots and cut stubs of shrubs with a powder of colloidal sulphur in the mixture with powder of naphthyl acetic acid potassium salt at the following % weight ratio of the components: powder of colloidal sulphur 65...75; powder of naphthyl acetic acid potassium salt 25...35.
EFFECT: enhancement of the method efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: operating unit of the machine for cutting bushes and scrubs includes a case, a cutter drive and a cutting tool in the form of circular cutters. The case of the device is in a u-shaped form. Inside of the case on the bearings there is a planetary gear train made in the form of bevel gear speed reducer. The driving shaft of the reducer is connected with the power transfer. On the free ends of the driven shafts by means of bevel gears the disk knifes are established. On the case of the reducer, the pulley connected by means of the belt drive with the brush cutter drive is mounted.
EFFECT: device provides the possibility of cutting bushes and scrubs of various thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method of open work forest strips creation includes preplant soil treatment, planting of woody plants in alternate blocks and treatment. Hollow air drains are set up across the strip between woody plants and their ends are located outside of the tree-planting. Open reservoirs are created and filled with water during the whole growing season in the lower internal part of the air drains.
EFFECT: decrease of labour cost for maintaining the open work of the forest strip and improvement of field microclimate in the effective area of the forest strip.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: universal harvesting machine includes driving chassis with the operator's compartment, hydroset which is mounted behind the compartment, shield, bolsters, chipping unit which consists of drum type tanker, outrigger, chips ejector. The chipping unit is installed on the dismountable frame which has the device for fixing it on the driving chassis.
EFFECT: decreased prime cost of processing and chopping of raw materials, increased productivity and enhanced technical capabilities.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes drawing on the cut circles of marks about a North side, calculation of number and width of annual rings concerning the centre of annual layers. Circles of wood with a bark cut at trunk root neck level of a modelling tree or at height of 1.3 m. Then in separate radial directions saw cut radiuses in a bark or without a bark are measured, angles from northern direction to vertical axes of trunks of the next trees are measured. Further on circles center-to-center lines of the next trees arrangement are put. Under preliminary executed diagramme of prevailing winds distribution, made on long-term meteorological data, on a fronts line circle the effect of prevailing winds are put. From the general number of prevailing wind front lines are excluded those on what center-to-center lines with a modelling tree of the next trees line have appeared in a zone of. On the prevailing wind front lines not shaded by the next trees the saw cut radiuses in a bark and without a bark are measured, and also annual rings and their groups. Then on a difference of contour radiuses of the saw cut form in a bark or without a bark and a circles of the prevailing wind front lines not protected by the next trees a wood gain is defined with a bark or without it depending on influence of power effect of prevailing winds getting to modelling tree.
EFFECT: quality improvement of tree gain definition.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: separator concerns separating devices of machines for soil separation from stones, and can be used for ground separation from stubs, and also for a screening of loose materials in other branches of a national economy. The separator contains a number of parallel shaft with fixed on them blocked and contiguously located disks of the bow-shaped form with naves which are placed opposite to an end face of each disk with a backlash to the last and have the form similar to a disk. Bow-shaped surface of disks is executed dentate. Face surface of naves is executed from the elastic material which thickness is defined under the formula: t≥h+z, where t - a thickness of an elastic material; h - a disk tooth height with a bow-shaped contour; z - a thickness of an elastic material at its maximum possible admissible deformation.
EFFECT: process of separation is intensified and reliability of work is increased.
SUBSTANCE: method involves taking cores of wood and separation part of it for the ultrasound measurements. The ultrasound measurements are carried out on the entire length of the working core by consecutive cutting of annual rings, starting from the end of the working core on the tree trunk periphery. Then the values of the ultrasound speed are ranged on the time scale beginning with the period of tree growth and further on year rings counting from the core to the periphery of the tree trunk. After that the ultrasound speed dynamic statistical regularities during tree growth and development are revealed that characterises the quality of wood and predict the dynamics of the ultrasound speed.
EFFECT: quality of integrated environmental testing of adult wood increases.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: timber industry, forestry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manipulator-type loggers, namely, to their slewing circles. In proposed slewing circuit with inclined design leveling device turntable is mounted on frame of self-propelled chassis for tilting forward and backward under action of hydraulic cylinders which are installed in X-like manner, viewing from side, and are hinge-connected to leveling device. Front and rear surfaces of leveling device in contact with frame are made to the same radius of turning as inner surfaces of frame. Stops are rigidly installed on upper surface of frame before and after leveling device. Rear surface of front stop and front surface of rear stop form angles of 90o plus angle of tilting of leveling device with upper horizontal surface of frame. Proposed design of slewing circle makes it possible to tilt turntable forward and backward, and X-shape arrangement of hydraulic cylinders provides reduction of height of device and contact of leveling device and frame over surface improves reliability.
EFFECT: reduced height of device, improved reliability in operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg