Method of determination of forest fire danger

FIELD: agriculture, physics.

SUBSTANCE: moisture content of the forest combustible materials (FCM) is determined by sounding the underlying surface in the SHF-range in the wave length allowing the electromagnetic radiation to pass through the FCM surface layer, forming the image matrix by means of a multi-beam antenna with the adjustable count digitisation in the scan band and the separate reception path in every beam, calculating the image matrix signal parameters, i.e. M1 making mathematical waiting, σ being mean square departure, Sp being the relief shape, S0 being the processed matrix geometrical area. It also includes separating the outlines on the image by the methods of spatial differentiation and FCM moisture content (W) inside the said outlines by the calibration function, i.e. W,%=Sp/S0·exp(M1/σ)·100%, where Sp is the image matrix signal relief area, S0 is the processed matrix geometrical area, M1 is the signal mathematical waiting, σ is the signal mean square departure.

EFFECT: fast determination of forest fire danger over vast territory.

2 cl, 5 dwg


The invention relates to forestry, in particular to remote operational assessment humidity of forest combustible materials) on large areas.

Forest fires have been and remain the dominant factor in determining the structure and dynamics of boreal forests. The scale of impacts on forests they exceed all other factors. Timely forecast of forest fire danger in advance allows to concentrate the available resources and to introduce regimes in fire zones.

The known method biologicheskii assessment of forests in an integrated indicator (KPO) of the wildfire Vgikesetiraa (see, for example, forest Fire indices of drought, in the collection "Biologicheskie zoning in the taiga zone" Sofronov M.A., Volokitina A.V., USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian branch, Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1990, p.37-38 - equivalent). The method is analogous to the calculation of KPO is based on the data of the ground meteopole the following dependencies:

where T° - air temperature at 12 o'clock local time, °C

tp- dew point, °C

∑ - the amount of temperature difference for all the days τithe dry period from the date of the follow-up days of precipitation greater than 3 mm.

After precipitation of more than 3 mm account is set to zero, and the calculation KPO begins anew from the day of establishing escorteboy weather. The amount of KPO are classes of fire danger on Vgeneral: class I - up to 300; class II - 300...1000; class III - 1000...4000; class IV - 4000...8000; V the class of extreme danger is over 8,000.

Isolated areas of different classes put on the map Leskhoz (forestry) on the integrated units and paint over red weights.

The disadvantage of analog are:

- significant errors in the resulting estimates for irregular rainfall on the area of surveillance,

- low accuracy in sparse network of meteopole,

- inadequate (indirection) the criterion characterizing arid weather condition, and not fire the maturity of forest combustible materials.

The susceptibility of forest mortality and litter to the fire depends on their moisture content. The most reliable method for predicting fire danger would be the direct measurement of humidity LGM.

In most national systems of forest monitoring for the prediction of forest fire hazards using remote sensing data of aerospace assets in the IR range.

The closest analogue to the technical nature with the proposed technical solution is the Method of control forest fire danger". Patent RU No. 2.147.253, CL AS, 3/02, 2000

The way the closest analogue is before the registration of the self-radiation of the underlying surface in the IR range, corresponding to the maximum thermal radiation (9-12 Ám), calibration tract sensing measurements of the reference sites, the conversion functions are registered in the electrical signal into a digital matrix counts the dependence of the amplitude A(x, y) spatial coordinates, the selection methods of the spatial differentiation of circuits on two-dimensional images of the forest, the calculation of the moisture content (W) of forest combustible materials within the selected paths for regression dependencies:


and is the correction factor taking into account the parameters of the tract sensing, geographical area, forest type;

σ2L2- power variable and constant component of the signal of the image area within the analyzed circuit.

Disadvantages closest are:

the dependence of the integral indicator of forest type, i.e. the need to introduce a correction factor (a), the values of which are unknown;

since infrared radiation shielded canopy, it provides only indirect information about humidity LGM;

- the inadequacy of the used regression according to the physical process of increasing fire maturity LGM.

The problem solved by the claimed method is rapid detection and tracking Le is pozarnej risk on large areas by sensing of forests in the microwave range space vehicles with a wide swath on the wavelength, ensuring the passage of the upward radiation through the surface layer of forest combustible materials and the tree canopy.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method for determining fire danger, including the sensing of the underlying surface of the forest space tools to identify and analyze indicator of forest fire danger - moisture of forest combustible materials, obtaining images of the underlying surface in the form of a matrix according to the amplitude signal A(x,y) of the upward radiation from the spatial coordinates, and processing matrices to highlight the boundaries of the contours of the forest fire hazard depending on the parameters of the signal, further probing is carried out in the microwave range at a wavelength of ensuring the passage of electromagnetic radiation through the surface layer of forest combustible materials, for forming matrices using multibeam antenna with adjustable discretization of samples in the scan bar and individual reception path in each beam, and the moisture content (W) of forest combustible materials within the borders of the paths found from the relation:

W,%=Sp/So·exp(-M1/σ)·100%, where

Sp- the area of the relief signal matrix image;

S0the geometric area of the image matrix;

M1the mathematical expressions, the practical expectation signal;

σ - standard deviation of the signal;

the geometric area of the image matrix is equal to the product of the number of rows and number of columns and the area of one pixel, and the area of the relief signal matrix image is calculated as the integral of the ratio:


m - number of signal lines of the matrix image;

n is the number of columns of signal matrix image;

x, y - coordinates function of the signal A(x, y);

σ - standard deviation of the signal.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

figure 1 - dependence of the moisture content of forest combustible materials from the complex index (KPO) method closest analogue;

figure 2 - dependence of the flow of the upward radiation from the complex index;

figure 3 - calibration function based humidity LGM from the parameters of the signal matrix;

4 is a printout from the boundaries of the classes of fire danger on the contour map of the region;

5 is a functional diagram of the device that implements the method.

The technical essence of the method consists in the following. Known methods and tools to measure indirect signs of forest fire danger, namely the increase of metatemplates near-surface layer, and the infrared radiation shielded canopy. Radio waves in the microwave range can penetrate p is d canopy vegetation and deep soil layer [see for example, Krapivin V.F., Kondratyev KYA "Global environmental change: ecoinformatics", SPbSU, St. Petersburg, 2002, Theoretical foundations of radiophysical sensing, str-670]. Therefore, the rising of microwave radiation contains information about the moisture content of forest combustible materials: moss, lichen, grass rags, dead needles, leaves, pruning, shrubs. Using the microwave range provides control of the process of increasing fire maturity LGM. Along with the obvious advantage of the microwave range has the disadvantage of restricting its technical applicability - low power rising radiation. In accordance with the law of Planck radiation power at the same temperature of an object decreases inversely proportional to the fifth degree of the wavelength (˜1/λ5) [see, for example, "Physical encyclopedic dictionary," edited by Amerkhanov, Owls. encyclopedia, 1983, Planck's law of radiation, str]. Therefore, when moving in the microwave range have difficulties in providing the necessary energy capacity of the radio channel sounding. As follows from the dimension of the power of the rising radiation [W/m2], the energy potential of the radio channel can be provided by receiving radiation from a large area. For example, when one is about pixel 10 km, the energy potential of the channel increases (10·1000)2≈108time. However, if you increase the size of the pixel dimensions, the problem of formation of the image matrix of the underlying surface, adequate measured physical process in the scan bar.

In the present method are listed contradictory terms are implemented through the use of multibeam antennas, each beam which, to increase the sensitivity attached to a reception path. In this case, the scanning of the underlying surface to form a measurement matrix samples, perform: along the route due to the movement of the carrier (meter) by adjusting the sampling interval times, and across the tracks - multi-beam antenna, as illustrated by figure 5. Hidden information about humidity LGM contained in the signal register of the matrix samples. Drying of combustible material accompanied by the following physical phenomena:

- reduction of humidity leads to an increase of the apparent temperature and emissivity of combustible materials, which is equivalent to increasing the amplitude of the DC component of the signal M1(M1- the expectation of the signal matrix);

the increase in the average surface temperature is accompanied by a decrease once the dew temperature between elements of the underlying surface, in different biologicheskikh conditions (upland, lowland, sun, shade), which is equivalent to decreasing the amplitude of the variable component of the signal σ (σ - standard deviation of the signal matrix);

drought, as a rule, covers a large spatial area, which is accompanied by a reduction in the rate of fluctuations of the signal in the spatial coordinates, i.e. the reduction in the degree of indentation (roughness) of the signal matrix and the reduction of the area of its relief (Sp).

The deposition of fire maturity LGM is determined by the combined, simultaneous change of all three of these factors. The function changes the flow of the upward radiation from the complex index of fire danger is illustrated by the graphs of figure 2. The dependence of the moisture content of forest combustible materials from the tone settings of the image matrix (M1that σ, Sp/S0) (calibration function) is illustrated in figure 3. Quantitative assessment of humidity LGM from measurements of the microwave radiometer carried out by the calibration function of the transition process. Of mathematics known [see, for example. Piskunov NS, "Differential and integral calculus for technical Colleges, volume 1, 5th edition. Nauka, M., 1964, str-458]that the function itself and its velocity changes associated differential equation of the first order is a, the General solution of which is the exponent. The initial conditions for the solution of the differential equation is found from the statistical data presented in table 1 [see, for example, analog, p.106-117]

The relationship between KPO and humidity LGM

Table 1
Fire hazard classKPO By NesterovHumidity LGM,%Fire risk LGM
Green mossLitter








more than 8,000








Do not burn

Burn poorly,


Fire risk


Fire risk


Fire risk



+Data from table 1 follows that an extremely dangerous level of wildfire LGM corresponds to the moisture content of 7-10%, and the level of nagarkoti ≈70%. Presenting the function of the transition process from drying LGM in the form of exhibitors: W=k·exp(-x), expressing the indices (k, x) through the parameters of the signal matrix of counts, with the initial conditions table. 1, the obtained calibration feature for the calculation of the humidity LGM in the form:

W,%=Sp/S0·exp (- M1/σ)·100%.

S0geometrical size of the matrix |m×n|, is equal to the product of the number of rows and number of columns and the area of one pixel;

Sp- the area of the relief of the signal matrix of the samples, calculated as the integral of the ratio:

Integral square calculate programmatically, the estimated variance of the signal σ2[see, for example, "Method of determination of the area of terrain. Patent RU No. 2.255.357, G01V, 9/01, G01C 7/00, 2005].

An example implementation

The inventive method can be implemented according to the scheme 5. Functional diagram of the system figure 5 contains the orbital station 1 (MKC) installed on it microwave radiometer 2 (RK-21-8), which take the upward radiation from the underlying surface in the scan bar 3 multibeam antenna 4, each narrow beam 5 which is connected to the input of a separate receive path 6. Output path 6, the signal of each beam, protanomaly in the standard scale 0...256 levels, in digital form, synchronously recorded on a separate track on-Board recorder 7 (type "field"). The inclusion of a microwave radiometer scan mode over the predetermined regions of the planet carry out programs or one-time commands, put in the onboard control (BC Prov.) 8 via a radio link 9 from mission control center (MCC) 10. Sequence captured radiometric complex 2 images of the underlying surface in the session visibility of the ISS from the ground stations transmit telemetry system 11 (COMPLETE-2) for auxiliary channel 12 in points of reception of information (FDI) 13, where record on the VCR 14 ("Arcturus"). At user request or agreed protocols for sharing information, images forest fire regions together with service information (time, region, round orbits, label Board time) is distilled in regional centres 15, which create a permanent archive 16 of all the captured frames. Thematic processing of the obtained images is performed on the personal computer 17 in the standard set of elements: processor 18, a RAM 19, a hard disk 20, a display 21, a printer 22, a keyboard 23, plotter 24. Radio complex RK-21-8 allows you to adjust the sampling interval times from 0.1 to 1 sec. Table 2 presents the results of control measurements and software processing matrices of images obtained during ground testing of radio engineering complex on the aircraft carrier.

Table 2
RegionLocal KPO The characteristics of the signalHumidity LGM, %
Primorsky Krai

Chita oblast

Rep. Buryatia











The edge detection circuits forest fire danger implement a software method, using the standard calculation procedures operators spatial differentiation Roberts or Sobel [see, for example, Duda P.O., P.E. HART, "pattern Recognition and scene analysis", whatever that is. from English., M., Mir, 1976, § 7.3 Spatial differentiation, pages 287-288]. The result of a software edge contours classes forest fire hazard is illustrated in figure 4.

The effectiveness of the proposed method is characterized by such indicators as efficiency, reliability, accuracy, globality. Exercising daily update of information and its automatic processing, it is possible adequately, reliably and accurately track the status of LGM large areas.

1. The method for determining fire danger, including the sensing of the underlying surface of the forest space means to the op is edeline and analysis of indicator of forest fire danger the moisture content of forest combustible materials, obtaining images of the underlying surface in the form of a matrix according to the amplitude signal A(x,y) of the upward radiation from the spatial coordinates and processing matrices to highlight the boundaries of the contours of the forest fire hazard depending on the parameters of the signal, characterized in that the sensing is carried out in the microwave range at a wavelength of ensuring the passage of electromagnetic radiation through the surface layer of forest combustible materials, for forming matrices using multibeam antenna with adjustable discretization of samples in the scan bar and individual reception path in each beam, and the moisture content (W) of forest combustible materials within the boundaries of the contours are ratio


where Sp- the area of the relief signal matrix image;

S0the geometric area of the image matrix;

M1- the expectation signal;

σ - standard deviation of the signal.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the geometric area of the image matrix is equal to the product of the number of rows and number of columns and the area of one pixel, and the area of the relief signal matrix image is calculated as the integral of the ratio

where m is the number of rows of the signal matrix image;

n is the number of columns of signal matrix image;

x,y - coordinates function of the signal A(x,y);

σ - standard deviation of the signal.


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