Method and device for thermostatic control of spatial objects and booster compartments

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: essence of suggested method consists in the fact that before filling a booster with fuel components, thermal conditioning of spatial object and booster compartments is performed by ambient air compressed, dried, cooled or heated to required values of pressure, temperature and dew point temperature, and that before start to fill the booster with liquid hydrogen, liquid hydrogen is supplied into spatial object and booster compartments instead of air. At that, liquid hydrogen has the same values of pressure, temperature and dew point temperature providing required temperature-humidity conditions and neutral medium which ensures fire and explosion safety for launch facilities in the presence of hydrogen leak. The method is implemented by thermostating device which includes compressor for ambient air compression, filter, air coolers and electric air heater. Air cooling is performed in two flows of refrigerating medium supplied by pumps to air coolers from reservoirs, at that, refrigerating medium of the first flow has temperature 5 to 7°C and of the second flow - temperature -1 to -3°. Air heating is performed in the electric air heater, then the air is supplied to spatial object, manifold and further to booster compartments. Before starting to fill booster with liquid hydrogen, air supply is stopped and gaseous nitrogen supply starts. Gaseous nitrogen is obtained from liquid nitrogen stored in special reservoir by means of its gasification in gasifier and heating to required temperature in electric air heater.

EFFECT: increase of reliability, safety and improvement of operating characteristics in the launch preparation phase and during launch of carrier boosters.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to rocket and space technology, in particular to ground means of temperature control and fire safety of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, loaded with liquid oxygen and hydrogen, while preparing them to start at the launch complexes at any time of the year when depending on the ambient temperature there is a necessity for drying, heating or cooling heating and cooling gas (air, nitrogen).

The known method and device providing a consumer drained, heated or cooled air by author's certificates SU№799584, №803591, №915524, №980997, №1740911 and no 1561622, IPC F25B 29/00, including collecting unit, filter, compressor, water cooler, recuperative heat exchangers, moisture separators, the turboexpander and the adsorber.

The disadvantages of this method and device according to the above author certificates are:

1. Limited time of operation, additional drying air in the canister, due to the volume of the adsorber and the time of its saturation with moisture.

2. The need for regeneration of the adsorber after saturation by feeding him dry air heated to a temperature of 250°With over 8 to 10 hours, due to the large additional energy consumption and waste production what about the air.

In the device according to the author's certificate SU # 1749653, IPC F25B 29/00 for additional air drying instead of the adsorber membrane apparatus used, the disadvantages of which are:

1. For a limited time, as in the process of air drying is the clogging of pores of a semi-permeable membrane of the smallest aerosol particles less than 5 microns, which are not recovered by the filter installed on the suction of the compressor, which reduces the performance of the membrane system and leads to the necessity of replacement of the membrane in 10-12 hours.

2. The need for regeneration of contaminated membranes in a special solution at a temperature of from 80 to 90°C for 3 hours, which worsens the conditions of operation of the device.

3. When working membrane apparatus together with pairs of moisture vacuum pump removes the atmosphere up to 8% of the production of air, which reduces thermodynamic efficiency of the device by approximately 10-15%.

In the devices according to the patents of the Russian Federation No. 2190165, F24F 5/00, 3/14, 64D 13/00, 27.09.2002, and # 2201384, B64G 5/00, 1/50, G01N 21/00, 27.03.2003, to provide consumers drained, cooled or heated air is used, the drying method air by cooling in two stages.

In the first stage, the air is cooled to a temperature of 3°With the air cooler with continuous drainage of condensed drip VL is GI, in the second stage, the air is cooled to the desired negative temperature vymorazhivaniem moisture in the regenerative air coolers, working together: one in the cooling mode, the other in the defrost mode zamorojennoi moisture. For air cooling uses a liquid coolant (freon), cooled vapor compression refrigerating machines.

Heat of dry air, if necessary, is performed in an electric heater, established after the regenerative air coolers. The disadvantages of this method and device for its implementation are:

1. The need for frequent switching of the regenerative cooling air from the cooling mode to the defrost mode and Vice versa, because freezing ice and snow on the edges of the mains supply liquid coolant increases the gas-dynamic resistance of the cooling air, which reduces the pressure and flow production of air supplied to the consumer.

2. The presence of additional equipment for feeding and heating of the ambient air used for defrosting of the cooler air, which leads to an increase in electricity consumption during operation of the device.

3. A large number of valves and valve operating in the switching mode, which reduces the overall reliability of the work device.

Conducted patent research has shown that the technical nature closest to the proposed application for the invention is a method of temperature control of space objects used in the device according to the patent of Russian Federation №2184912, F25B 29/00, 19/00, 10.07.2002, selected as a prototype of the proposed method and device.

The device according to the patent of Russian Federation №2184912 contains line feed air, which has been consistently found: compressor, air filter, air receivers, compressed air, gear, remote control, air cooler and its associated liquid manifolds with shut-off and control valves vessel with cooled to subzero temperatures liquid, the pump and the refrigeration machine, the heater air and connected with it by a line feed nitrogen, which has been consistently found to capacity with liquid nitrogen, the gasifier and the heater of nitrogen.

For drying and cooling of the air in the device is used the following way: the ambient air is compressed in the compressor to a pressure of 40 MPa, while at the same time he dried up the dew point temperature minus 30°C. Supply of compressed air stored in the receiver, and when the operation of the device the air supplied from the receiver, cooled to the desired temperature in the cooler air or heated in the heater, and then served in aerostatically object. Before filling the rocket with liquid hydrogen instead of air cooled object serves gaseous nitrogen, which is produced by gasification of liquid nitrogen and subsequent heating to the desired temperature in the heater.

The disadvantages of this method and device are:

1. In order to reduce the required number of receivers for storing the compressed air receivers need to fill to maximum allowable pressure (40 MPa), which entails the use of a compressor that compresses the air to the pressure reducer for reducing the pressure to the desired value (7 MPa) during device operation.

2. For stable operation the pressure in the receivers must not fall below the limit values (10 MPa). This leads to the presence in the receivers of ballast gas, the amount of which is about 20%.

3. Limited time of operation of the device due to the high cost of receivers (receiver volume 400 l at a pressure of 40 MPa, manufactured BY "Barricades" Volgograd, costs 150 rubles).

Due to these shortcomings is reduced by approximately 25% thermodynamic efficiency of the temperature control of the space object, decreases the reliability of the device and substantially increase the cost of manufacture of the device and the ex is loitation costs.

The task of the invention is to remedy these disadvantages, increasing thermodynamic efficiency of the temperature control of space objects, reducing the cost of construction and operation of devices for temperature control by avoiding the use of expensive receivers for storing the compressed air, as well as providing a temperature compartments generated from a single device which allows you to refuse the creation of special systems for temperature control compartment of the rocket as it takes place in existing launch systems. For example, at the launch site P-6 for launch vehicles such as "Union" and "Soyuz-2" for the temperature control of the air space objects has a thermostating system G, and for a temperature compartments launch a similar system G.

The solution of this problem in the proposed method of temperature control of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen, provided that the ambient air is compressed up to the pressure value that provides the desired dew-point temperature if the air temperature is 2.5°With and determined by the graphical dependence of the dew point temperature of the drying air is in the range from 0 to minus 30°With the magnitude of the required pressure is of the compressed air, shown in figure 1. This ensures continuous air drying to the desired dew point temperature with constant drainage of condensed moisture and does not require the use of solid sorbents or regenerative cooling air from the freezing of moisture.

In order to reduce the power consumption when operating the vapor compression refrigerant chillers, cooling capacity that decreases with decreasing temperature of the coolant (for example, serial chillers MKT 20-2-0 cooling when the temperature of the liquid coolant 7°is 40 kW, and at the temperature of liquid coolant minus 3°C - 30 kW, i.e. at 25% below), for air cooling using two streams of liquid coolant: one with a positive temperature from 5 to 7°With that cools production air to a temperature of 12°With, and the other with a negative temperature from minus 1 to minus 3°With cooling production air to the required temperature for 2.5°C. This allows you to reduce power consumption by 25% compared with the same flow of coolant at a temperature of from minus 1 to minus 3°C.

Before fueling of the rocket with liquid hydrogen terminate the air supply and start the flow of nitrogen gas produced by gasification of the stock W is Drago nitrogen and then heated to the desired temperature.

Thus the proposed method for the temperature control of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen, eliminates the use of expensive receivers for the storage of compressed air.

The proposed device for the temperature control of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen, which implements the above described method, containing the line of air flow, which has been consistently found: compressor, filter, remote control valves, air cooler and its associated liquid manifolds with shut-off and control valves vessel with cooled to subzero temperatures liquid, pump, chiller and heater air and nitrogen, which are sequentially installed: tank with liquid nitrogen, the gasifier and the heater nitrogen, is connected through the valve to the supply line of the air with one hand between the filter and remote control valves, and on the other hand through the valve after the heater of the air, and through another gate with the environment, provided with an additional air cooler installed after the remote control valves, and associated fluid lines with shut-off and control valves of the tank, the pump and the source of cold, and the annular reservoir, located on the starting device and connected to the supply line of gas (air or nitrogen) after a place of connection with the line of nitrogen supply and piping gas (air or nitrogen) from a header in the compartments of the rocket, at the entrance to each compartment of the rocket and space object set spending goals.

Comparative analysis of the characteristics of the known technical solutions contained in these analogues, the prototype and the proposed method and the device have shown that the proposed set of features of the proposed method and device for temperature control of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen, meets the criteria of the invention "inventive step". The essence of the proposed device is illustrated in the drawing, is shown in Figure 2.

Device for temperature control of a space object 1 and compartment 2 rocket set for launch device 3 contains a source of air supply in the form of a compressor 4, a filter 5, the air supply line 6, which has consistently set the remote control valve 7, the air coolers 8 and 9, the heater air 10. Air cooler 8 is connected with the liquid container 11 lines 12 running: source holoda, valves 14 and pump 15. If the coolant is water, as cold source can be used in cooling tower, located in the environment, or the tower and installed after refrigerating machine. If the cooling fluid is freon, antifreeze or brine, as a source of cold refrigerating machine is used. Air cooler 9 is connected with a storage capacity of 16 highways 17, which has a refrigerating machine 18, the valves 19 and pump 20. Additionally, the structure of the device includes a container of liquid nitrogen 21 connected through the valve 22 with the air supply line 6, the gasifier liquid nitrogen 23 and the heater nitrogen 24, connected by a line nitrogen supply 25 through the valve 26 with the air supply line 6, after the heater air 10, and through the valve 27 with the environment. Pipeline gas (air or nitrogen) 28 in the space the object is located on the cable mast 29 and the pipe feeding the gas (air or nitrogen) 30 with the reservoir 31 - starting device 3. From the collector 31 of the gas (air or nitrogen) through the piping 32 is supplied to the compartments of the rocket, at the entrance and at the entrance to the space object 1 is installed consumable washer 33.

The operation of the device begins with the installation of the rocket on the launch pad condition is the device 3, summing up the cable mast 29 and connecting pipelines supply gas to a space object 1 to compartment 2 of the rocket and ends at the time of launch of the rocket.

Before operating the device lead to readiness:

- compressor 4 adjust the pressure of the compressed air, providing the desired dew point temperature in accordance with the schedule depending on the temperature of the dew point pressure of the air is shown in figure 1 (so, if you want to be productive air with a dew point of minus 25°With, the required air pressure will be 1.2 MPa);

- the tank 11 and 16 is filled with liquid coolant;

the tank 21 is filled with liquid nitrogen.

After receiving the command on the start temperature of the space object 1 and compartment 2 rocket launch compressor 4 and open the appropriate valves on the control panel 7. Air through the filter 5 through the supply pipe 6 enters the air cooler 8 where it is cooled with a constant separation of the condensed moisture to a temperature of 12°when heat exchange with a cooling medium supplied through the highways 12 pump 15 of the tank 11. Adjust the flow of coolant is shut-off and control valves 14, and cooling to a temperature of from 5 to 7° - in the cold source 13.

Next, the air enters the air cooler 9 where it is cooled permanently Department of condensed moisture to a temperature of 2.5° When the heat exchange with the coolant supplied through the highways 17 by the pump 20 from the container 16. Adjust the flow of coolant is shut-off and control valves 19, and cooling to a temperature of from minus 1 to minus 3°in the refrigeration machine 18.

The result is air at a temperature of 2.5°With the dew point temperature of minus 25°C. Heating the air to produce the desired temperature in the heater air 10 and the pipe 28 serves it in a space object 1, and the pipe 30 into the reservoir 31, which, according to the piping 32 serves in bays 2 rocket. Dimensions expenditure washers 33 set depending on the desired flow rate of gas (air or nitrogen) in the object space 1 and in each compartment 2 rocket.

Before fueling of the rocket with liquid hydrogen to start training for the gaseous nitrogen. Open the valve 22, the air pressure of 1.2 MPa and comes in a container with liquid nitrogen 21 and displaces it in the gasifier 23, where it is gasified, when the heat exchange with ambient air and enters the heater nitrogen 24, and then the supply of nitrogen through the valve 27 is discharged into the environment. After reaching the desired temperature gaseous nitrogen (equal to the temperature of the air supplied to a space object and bays rakatan is sites), the valve 27 to close and open the valve 26, while on the remote control 7 simultaneously block valves air supply and stop of the compressor 4. As a result, in object space compartments 1 and 2 of the rocket serves heated to the desired temperature gaseous nitrogen, which creates a neutral environment, preventing the possibility of fire in case of leakage of liquid hydrogen, which evaporates and together with gaseous nitrogen is removed from the compartments in the environment and provides the required temperature within a space object and compartments launcher that are necessary for reliable and safe functioning of the devices.

Thus, the proposed method and device for temperature control of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen, thanks to the essential features set forth in the claims, provide preset temperature of the space object and compartments of the rocket since the installation of the rocket on the launch pad device and prior to start-up, high efficiency, reliability and safety of operations at the launch site at the fueling of the rocket with liquid oxygen and hydrogen when the rocket on the launcher, launch and flight of the rocket until the Otdelenia from him space object.

The proposed method and device are planned to use in developing the system, the temperature control of space objects and compartments of the rocket type "Hangar" on the created joint Kazakh-Russian launch complex "Baiterek".

1. The method of temperature control of space objects and compartments launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen, which consists in compressing, drying to the desired dew point and flow into the object space and compartments of the rocket before filling it with hydrogen gas of the ambient air, cooled or heated to the desired temperature, and since the beginning of the fueling of the rocket with liquid hydrogen and until you start filing in object space and compartments generated nitrogen gas obtained by gasification of liquid nitrogen in heat exchange with ambient air and subsequent heating to the desired temperature, wherein the ambient air is compressed up to the pressure, providing getting the desired dew point temperature when the air temperature is 2.5°and for air cooling to this temperature using two streams of liquid coolant: one with temperature from 5 to 7°With, the other with temperatures ranging from -1 to -3°C.

2. Device for temperature control of space objects and cov launch vehicles, filled with liquid hydrogen containing line air supply, which has been consistently found: compressor, filter, remote control valves, air cooler and its associated liquid manifolds with shut-off and control valves the liquid reservoir, the pump and chiller, heater, air pipeline gas supply in object space and line feed nitrogen, which sequentially installed: tank with liquid nitrogen, the gasifier and the heater nitrogen, connected to the supply line of air through the valve with one hand between the filter and remote control valves, on the other hand, after the heater air and through a third valve with the environment, characterized in that it is provided with an additional air cooler installed after the remote control valves, and associated fluid lines with shut-off and control valves, a liquid reservoir, the pump and the cold source and the annular collector connected to the supply line of the gas in the space object after locations for connecting thereto a supply of nitrogen and pipelines supply gas from the reservoir into compartments of the rocket, at the entrance to each compartment of the rocket and space object set spending goals.

3. The device according to claim 2, from causesa fact, what a cold source is a cooling tower located in the environment.

4. The device according to claim 2, wherein the cold source is a refrigerating machine.

5. The device according to claim 2, wherein the cold source is a cooling tower and installed after refrigerating machine.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: suggested thermal conditioning system contains compressed air feed lines (1) and compressed nitrogen feed lines (7), control pneumatic shield and pressure reduction unit. Pneumatic shield includes two pairs of parallel lines with electropneumatic valve (18, 19) installed in each of it, pressure indicator (20, 21) and one-way valve (22, 23). Pressure reduction unit contains two parallel lines (26) with electropneumatic valve (27) installed in each of it, gas-pressure reducer (29), pressure indicator (31), safety relief valve (32) and one-way valve (33). Safety relief valve (32) is linked with drain pipeline (34) which is equipped with pressure indicator (35) electrically connected with each electropneumatic valve and one-way valve (36). According to suggested method, after filling carrier booster with fuel components, compressed air pressure up to 40 MPa is reduced to 8-10 MPa, and not later than in 15 min. before "Lift-off contact" command compressed air supply is shut off and compressed nitrogen with pressure up to 40 MPa is supplied, which pressure is also reduced to 8-10 MPa. When safety relief valve of one of the pressure reducing unit lines actuates, compressed gas supply over given line is shut off and supply over parallel line of this unit is opened. Likewise, when failure is detected in one of the pneumatic shield feeding lines, compressed gas supply over this line is shut off and it's supply over parallel line is opened.

EFFECT: increase of reliability and operating characteristics in the launch preparation phase and during launch of carrier boosters.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transportation.

SUBSTANCE: suggested thermal conditioning system contains compressed air feed line (1), controlled device (pneumatic shield) (3) and reducing device (pressure reduction unit) (4). Pneumatic shield includes two parallel lines (7) with electropneumatic valve (8) installed in each of it, pressure indicator (9) and one-way valve (10). Pressure reduction unit also includes two parallel lines (16) with electropneumatic valve (17) installed in each of it, gas-pressure reducer (19), pressure indicator (21), safety relief valve (22) and one-way valve (23). Safety relief valve (22) is linked with drain pipeline (24) which is equipped with pressure indicator (25) electrically connected with each electropneumatic valve and one-way valve (26). According to suggested method, compressed air pressure of 40 MPa is reduced to 6-10 MPa after filling the carrier booster with fuel components. When safety relief valve of one of the lines of pressure reducing unit is actuated and/or when failure is detected in one of the feeding lines of controlled device, compressed air supply over given line is shut off and supply over parallel line of specified unit and/or device is opened.

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FIELD: engineering of steam compression systems and heat exchangers.

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Heat exchanger // 2299382

FIELD: heat exchanger for liquid cooling with the use of the method of evaporation and adsorption.

SUBSTANCE: the device for liquid cooling includes a heat exchanger and facilities for pumping out. The heat exchanger has a cavity with cooling liquid that can evaporate under the action of rarefaction, and with the vapors of the mentioned liquid under a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The facilities for pumping out are made for pumping out of the vapors of the mentioned cooling liquid for maintenance of rarefaction in the cavity. The cavity of the heat exchanger has at least the first wall made practically in the form of a cone at which its cross-section area decreases from the foot to the vertex, and at least one second wall forming the foot of the mentioned cone. The first wall of the cone is intended for contact with the cooled liquid, and the second wall includes the facilities of communication with the facilities of pumping out.

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FIELD: refrigeration industry; production of the cryogenic cooling refrigeration plants.

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18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transmission of thermal energy to vacuum dehydration and drying machines, vacuum driers, evaporation machines and low-temperature dehydration of materials; reworking and utilization of wastes of poultry farms and pig-breeding farms; food-processing, medical and microbiological industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading the staring material, evacuation of chamber to pressure below atmospheric, mixing the starting material, collection, drainage and removal of condensate, conductive supply of heat to starting material at simultaneous heating it within temperature range whose low level is limited by water evaporation temperature at working pressure in technological space and upper level is limited by conditions ensuring avoidance of losses of useful properties of starting material and destruction of living cells which is necessary for retaining proper properties of final product. The process is completed by discharge of dehydrated product. Thermal energy of water steam released in the course of dehydration of starting material in vacuum chamber is returned to heating system of starting material due to compression of steam to pressure not below atmospheric, after which compressed steam is delivered to hermetic cavities of technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit where starting material is kept. Superheated steam is condensed inside unit and thermal energy released at this is transferred to material being dehydrated which moves over surface of unit. Condensate is continuously drained from hermetic cavities of heat exchanger-evaporator via pipe line connected to heat exchanger which is used for delivery of cold starting material to vacuum chamber. Thermal energy of condensate is transmitted to cold starting material. Device proposed for realization of this method includes vacuum chamber where technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit is mounted , loading/unloading system, starting material heating system, chamber evacuation system, condensate receiver; it is additionally provided with compressor connected with collector through which used hot water-and-steam mixture is discharged into technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit and then to heat exchanger used for heating the starting material for delivery of it to loading system.

EFFECT: reduction of heat losses.

3 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to gas industry and can be used at the compressor (pumping) stations

The invention relates to cryogenic technique and can be used when conducting experimental research in the field of low temperatures

The invention relates to systems of distribution pipelines for the transportation of liquefied compressed natural gas under a pressure of about 1035 - 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123 to about -62oWith

The invention relates to systems of inland transportation of pressurized liquefied natural gas at a pressure of about 1035 kPa to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of about -123oWith up to about -62oWith

The invention relates to the storage of liquefied natural gas under pressure (SPGD-fuel) from about 1035 to about 7590 kPa and at a temperature of from about to about -123 -62oWith and feed evaporating SPHD-fuel for combustion in the engine

The invention relates to rocket and space technology, in particular to ground means of temperature control, and is designed to provide and automatically maintain the desired temperature regimes of space objects on the starting position by filing them in the heating and cooling of gases (air and nitrogen) high pressure in a wide temperature range under all climatic and meteorological conditions, at any time of year and day

FIELD: transmission of thermal energy to vacuum dehydration and drying machines, vacuum driers, evaporation machines and low-temperature dehydration of materials; reworking and utilization of wastes of poultry farms and pig-breeding farms; food-processing, medical and microbiological industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading the staring material, evacuation of chamber to pressure below atmospheric, mixing the starting material, collection, drainage and removal of condensate, conductive supply of heat to starting material at simultaneous heating it within temperature range whose low level is limited by water evaporation temperature at working pressure in technological space and upper level is limited by conditions ensuring avoidance of losses of useful properties of starting material and destruction of living cells which is necessary for retaining proper properties of final product. The process is completed by discharge of dehydrated product. Thermal energy of water steam released in the course of dehydration of starting material in vacuum chamber is returned to heating system of starting material due to compression of steam to pressure not below atmospheric, after which compressed steam is delivered to hermetic cavities of technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit where starting material is kept. Superheated steam is condensed inside unit and thermal energy released at this is transferred to material being dehydrated which moves over surface of unit. Condensate is continuously drained from hermetic cavities of heat exchanger-evaporator via pipe line connected to heat exchanger which is used for delivery of cold starting material to vacuum chamber. Thermal energy of condensate is transmitted to cold starting material. Device proposed for realization of this method includes vacuum chamber where technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit is mounted , loading/unloading system, starting material heating system, chamber evacuation system, condensate receiver; it is additionally provided with compressor connected with collector through which used hot water-and-steam mixture is discharged into technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit and then to heat exchanger used for heating the starting material for delivery of it to loading system.

EFFECT: reduction of heat losses.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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