Method for producing of cabtilever of scanning probe microscope

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of manufacture of micromechanical devices, namely to methods of formation of scanning probe microscope probes, in particular, cantilevers consisting of console and needle. In method of cantilever manufacture that includes formation of KDB on top surface of single-crystal silicic wafer with orientation (100) of cantilever needle by method of local anisotropic etching of silicon, formation of p-n transition on top side of wafer, local electrochemical etching of wafer from the back side to p-n transition with creation of silicic membrane, formation of cantilever console from the saidmembrane by means of local anisotropic etching of membrane from both sides of plate with application of mask that protects needle and top part of console, needle of cantilever is formed prior to formation of p-n transition. Depth of n-layer amounts to doubled thickness of console, and mask for local anisotropic etching of membrane is received by method of lift-off lithography with application of bottom "sacrificial" layer and top masking layer from chemically low-activity metal.

EFFECT: obtaining of cantilever with reproduced geometric parameters of console and higher resolution of needle.

3 cl, 15 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of micromechanical devices, and in particular to methods of forming probes of a scanning probe microscopes, in particular cantilevers, which includes the console and the needle.

A known method of manufacturing the cantilever [1]. It includes: forming on the upper side of the silicon substrate 100 orientation, needle-like protrusion anisotropic etching of silicon through local nitride mask, forming on the upper side of the substrate of the p-diffusion layer by diffusion of boron selective with respect to the p-diffusion layer anisotropic etching of silicon from the bottom side of the substrate through the local mask silicon nitride, the subsequent formation of cantilevers cantilever.

The disadvantages of this method is that to obtain good selectivity when etching silicon with different conductivity type, the diffusion of boron needed to high degrees of doping (not less than 1020cm-3). A high degree of alloying leads to the appearance in the crystal lattice of silicon uncompensated boron and, consequently, defects in subsequent operations oxidation of silicon, which negatively affects the quality of the tops of the needles of the cantilever. On the point of the needle appear the so-called "horns" (double top) and "screwdriver" (bevels vertices). In addition, when fo is the formation of the p-layer formed needle is a mask for the diffusion of boron. Because of this, on a reflective surface above the needle hole is formed, which leads to losses in the reflection.

The closest technical solution is the method of manufacturing the cantilever [2], which includes: forming on the bottom side of the silicon substrate protective coating of silicon nitride, phosphorous diffusion from the front side of the substrate forming a deep p-n junction, the depth of which is set equal to the sum of the length of the needle and the thickness of the console, remove the protective coating on the reverse side of the substrate, forming on the upper and lower sides of the silicon substrate protective coating of silicon nitride, forming on the upper side of the substrate local nitride mask, anisotropic etching of silicon from the top side of the substrate before the formation therein of an acicular protrusion, the formation of a local mask silicon nitride on the bottom side of the substrate for deep etching of silicon and local mask silicon nitride on the upper side of the substrate to protect the needle and the console of the cantilever, the formation of the silica membrane of the n-layer by electrochemical etching from the reverse side of the plate with a stop at the p-n junction, forming a console cantilever from the specified membrane by local anisotropic etching of the membrane on both sides of the wafer using a mask which protects the needle and the upper part of the console, subsequent removal of the mask.

In this way stop the process of deep etching of silicon is carried out automatically, as used electrochemical etching which is stopped when reaching the p-n junction due to the resulting surge [3]. A sufficient degree of alloying is equal to 1015-1016cm-3that allows the formation of active structures.

The disadvantages of this method include the lack of an automatic thickness control console, which leads to the dispersion characteristics of the cantilevers over the plate, the need for a process of diffusion of phosphorus at great depths (15-20 microns), and the absence of reliable protection of the needle cantilever (as in photolithography, the tip of the needle is not completely closed by the photoresist), affect the quality of the top of the needle, which reduces the resolution of the cantilever.

The purpose of the invention is to obtain cantilever with reproducible geometrical parameters of the console and in the resolution enhancement needle cantilever.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a cantilever, comprising forming on the upper surface of the monocrystalline silicon substrate KDB with orientation (100) needle cantilever using local anisotropic etching of cu is mnia, local electrochemical etching of the substrate from the back side to the p-n junction with the formation of the silicon membrane, the formation of the console cantilever from the specified membrane by local anisotropic etching of the membrane on both sides of the wafer using a mask that protects the needle and the upper part of the console, provides for the following differences: the tip of the cantilever is formed before forming the p-n junction, while the depth of the n-layer is twice the thickness of the console, and the mask for the local anisotropic etching of the membrane produced by the method of "explosive" lithography using bottom "sacrificial" layer and an upper mask layer of a chemically inactive metal.

When the formation of a local mask for the needle and console method "explosive" lithography as a "sacrificial" layer using the polycrystalline silicon, and as chemically inactive metal use platinum.

The proposed method of manufacturing a cantilever of a scanning probe microscope based on the electrochemical stop etching includes forming on the upper side of the monocrystalline silicon wafer (KDB) with orientation (100) local mask for anisotropic etching of silicon, the formation of needle cantilever anisotropic etching of silicon through vysheupomjanutoe the local mask to remove a local mask. The height of the needle is determined by the size of the local masks and has a value of from 14 to 16 microns. Further diffusion of phosphorus from the upper side of the plate is formed of the p-n junction. The degree of alloying is equal to 1015-1016cm-3. The depth of the p-n junction corresponds to double the size of the console of the cantilever. Then on the top side of the substrate is formed a protective mask for the needle and the console. At the same time protective mask is deposited on the lower side of the plate for subsequent deep etching of silicon. Lokalnoy mask of the protective layer for the needle and the console was formed by the method of explosive lithography. On the upper side of the silicon wafer is deposited polysilicon, which serves as the bottom, the "sacrificial" layer when the explosive lithography. Next, polysilicon is formed local mask on which is deposited chemically inactive metal and held the explosive process of lithography. Then on the top side of the wafer obtained through the mask of the metal is formed local mask of the protective layer for the needle and the console of the cantilever. At the same time on the bottom plate form a local mask for anisotropic etching of silicon, conduct thermal deposition of aluminum on the upper side of the plate to create ohmic contact to n-silicon, carry out electrochemical stop-tra is of silicon from the bottom side of the plate. The etching stops automatically when the n-layer. This forms a silicon membrane of a given thickness (double the thickness of the console). The formation of the console cantilever carry out anisotropic etching of the silicon membrane on both sides of the plate, then remove metals and two-layer masks with a needle and consoles cantilever.

In the proposed invention the objective is achieved by using in the process method explosive lithography, allowing through an intermediate metal mask to get on the needle and console cantilever local protective mask for anisotropic etching of silicon. Direct photolithography cannot be reliably protect the tip of the cantilever, since the photoresist does not close the needle tip, which podraschivaetsya further etching steps. The homogeneity of the geometric dimensions of the console of the cantilever in this way is achieved by the thickness control of the console when the anisotropic etching from both sides of the plate are pre-manufactured silicon membrane of a specified thickness.

A method of manufacturing the cantilever is illustrated in figure 1-15, which shows the cross patterns at different stages of the formation of the cantilever.

Figure 1 shows the cross section of the plate (1) after applying a two-layer mask on the oxide basis (2) and is of Frida silicon (3) on both sides of the plate.

Figure 2 presents the cross-section of the plate (1) formed on the upper side of the local two-layer mask of the oxide (2) and silicon nitride (3).

Figure 3 presents the cross-section of the plate (1) after the formation of needle cantilever (4).

4 shows the cross section of the plate (1) after the process of diffusion of phosphorus (5).

Figure 5 presents a cross-section of the plate (1) after removal of the lower side plate of silicon nitride (3).

Figure 6 presents a cross-section of the plate (1) is coated on the upper side of the protective two-layer mask of the oxide (2) and silicon nitride (3) and a layer of polysilicon (6).

Figure 7 presents a cross-section of the plate (1) with the local mask of polysilicon (6).

On Fig presents a cross-section of the plate (1) with a spray on the upper side of the metal (7).

Figure 9 presents a cross-section of the plate (1) after the process of explosive lithography.

Figure 10 presents a cross-section of the plate (1) after removal through a metal mask (7) a protective layer of oxide (2) and silicon nitride (3) with the upper side of the plate and the local mask from the bottom side of the plate.

Figure 11 presents a cross-section of the plate (1) with thermally deposited aluminum (8).

On Fig presents a cross-section of the plate (1) after the process of electrochemical stop etching and formation of the membrane (5).

On Fig presents behold the giving plate (1) after removal of the metal layers.

On Fig presents a cross-section of the plate (1) after removal of the membrane anisotropic etching of silicon on both sides of the plate.

On Fig presents a cross-section of the plate (1) with the obtained needle (4) and the console (5) of the cantilever after removing the protective mask.

An example implementation of the method

For the fabrication of the cantilever was used monocrystalline silicon wafer KDB-12 (1 in figure 1) with orientation (100). Thermal oxidation on both sides of the plate were formed protective oxide layer of a thickness of 0.3 microns (2 to 1). At his deposition in the gas phase deposited silicon nitride (3 in figure 1) with a thickness of 0.1 μm. The photolithography of the two-layer coating was formed local mask on the upper side of the plate. In a supersaturated solution of potassium hydroxide at a temperature of 130°was carried out With anisotropic etching of silicon with the upper side of the plate to the etched oxide silicon (lower layer local mask). When this silicon nitride upper layer (local mask slips obtained with needle height of not less than 12 microns (4 figure 3.). Further diffusion of phosphorus from the upper side of the plate in silicon was formed n-layer depth phosphorus 4 μm and a surface concentration of 1016cm-3(5 in figure 4). Then liquid etching in phosphoric acid with the lower side of the plate was removed, a protective layer nitri is and silicon (figure 5). Thermal oxidation at a temperature of 1100°on the upper side of the wafer was formed a silicon oxide layer with a thickness of 0.3 μm (2 to 6). Deposition in the gas phase under reduced pressure on both sides of the plate formed a layer of silicon nitride with a thickness of 0.1 μm (3 to 6). Deposition in the gas phase by a double-layer mask on the top side of the wafer was formed a layer of polysilicon with a thickness of 0.6 μm (6 on 6).

By photolithography on the upper side of the plate formed local mask of polysilicon (6 7). Magnetron sputtering on the upper side of the plate was applied a layer of platinum with a thickness of 0.2 μm. (7 Fig). Chemical etching in 30% solution of potassium hydroxide on the top side of the wafer was formed a local mask of platinum (7 figure 9). Plasmochemical through local mask on the upper side of the plate was exposed n-silicon (removed the nitride layer and oxide silicon) (5 figure 10), and simultaneously with the lower side of the plate was removed, the nitride and the oxide silicon (figure 10) (opening Windows for deep etching of silicon). Next, on the upper side of the plate was thermally deposited aluminum to obtain ohmic contact with the electrochemical etching of p-silicon (8 to 11). Electrochemical stop etching in 30% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide at a temperature of 90°formed of silicon membranes with the thickness of 4 μm (5 Fig). The metal layers on the top side of the plate was removed by chemical etching in solutions of hydrochloric and nitric acid (Fig). Through the obtained two-layer mask of oxide and silicon nitride on the cantilever tip was carried out anisotropic etching of the silicon membrane on both sides of the plate at the same time a 30% solution of potassium hydroxide until the open holes (Fig). Then the liquid by the first etching in phosphoric, then in a solution containing hydrofluoric acid, deleted local two-layer mask with two sides of a silicon wafer (Fig).

The result is a cantilever with a needle having a radius less than 10 nm, the angle at the vertex of not more than 22°and precisely reproducible geometrical parameters of the console. The cantilever with these parameters has a good resolution, which greatly expands the possibilities of application of scanning probe microscopes, including research facilities for nanotechnology, molecular electronics, and biological systems.

Literature

1. Patent RU No. 2121657, CL G01 15/00, H01J 37/28.

2. Bykov V.A. Micromechanics for scanning probe microscopy and nanotechnology. Microsystem engineering, N1, 2000, 21-32.

3. Ehipassiko, Ubido. Microsystem engineering, N1, 2000, 16-20.

1. A method of manufacturing a cantilever for scanning zondo the CSOs microscope, including the formation on the upper surface of the monocrystalline silicon substrate KDB with orientation (100) needle cantilever using local anisotropic etching of silicon, forming on the upper side of the substrate p-n junction, the local electrochemical etching of the substrate from the back side to the p-n junction with the formation of the silicon membrane, the formation of the console cantilever from the specified membrane by local anisotropic etching of the membrane on both sides of the wafer using a mask that protects the needle and the upper part of the console, characterized in that the tip of the cantilever is formed before forming the p-n junction, while the depth of the n-layer is twice the thickness of the console, and the mask for the local anisotropic etching of the membrane produced by the method of "explosive" lithography using bottom "sacrificial" layer and an upper mask layer of a chemically inactive metal.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when forming the local mask for the needle and console method "explosive" lithography as a "sacrificial" layer using the polycrystalline silicon.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that as a chemically inactive metal use platinum.



 

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