Method of liquid hydrocarbon production using fischer-tropsch method

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to advanced method of hydrocarbon gas conversion to liquid hydrocarbons using Fischer-Tropsch method. And specified method implies that liquid hydrocarbons and residual gas are produced, and the latter contains at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons of carbon number not more than 6. Residual gas is PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) separated, using PSA separator. Additionally at least one gas flow is performed containing mainly hydrogen and resulting in: at least one gas flow containing methane, for which hydrogen and carbon monoxide extraction level is equal to at least 60%, at least one gas flow containing methane, for which carbon dioxide extraction level is equal to at least 40%, and at least one additional gas flow containing mainly hydrocarbons with carbon number at least 2. Method allows for considerable reduction of CO2 atmospheric emission.

EFFECT: reduction of CO2 atmospheric emission.

18 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a new method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons using one of the known methods for production of synthesis gas and the Fischer-Tropsch process and, in particular, the stage of processing residual gas obtained when carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process.

The transformation of the original gaseous or solid hydrocarbon compounds in the liquid hydrocarbon products of interest to the petrochemical industry, refineries or in the transportation industry, is known. Indeed, some large natural gas fields are located in desert and remote from the consumer, so they can be used by creating units conversion, called "gas to liquid" or "gas to liquid" (GtL), in places that are close to these sources of natural gas. The conversion of gases in liquids allows easier transportation of hydrocarbons. This type of GtL conversion is usually performed by transformation of the original gaseous or solid hydrocarbon compounds in the synthesis gas, containing mainly H2and CO (partial oxidation using an oxidizing gas and/or reaction with water vapor or CO2), then the processing of the synthesis gas for the Fischer-Tropsch process to obtain a product,which after condensation leads to the desired liquid hydrocarbon products. In the process of condensation is the residual gas. This residual gas contains hydrocarbon products with a low molecular weight and unreacted gases. Subsequently, the residual gas is typically used as fuel in one of the processes GtL plants, for example in a gas turbine or combustion chamber, related to a steam turbine, or in the expansion turbine, related to the compressor GtL plants. However, often the amount of residual gas for combustion far exceeds the need of the installation of GtL fuel. In addition, the residual gas contains CO2that reduces the combustion efficiency of hydrocarbon products and which is released into the atmosphere, which leads to environmental pollution. Finally, the residual gas usually contains some amount of unreacted H2and CO., to burn which is uneconomical.

Given the environmental limitations on CO2it was proposed to handle the residual gas to eliminate CO2. In the patent US 5621155 described, for example, a method in which part of the residual gas obtained when carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process, was processed to remove carbon dioxide and then returned to the stage of the Fischer-Tropsch process. However, another part of the residual gas containing H2and CO, is always subject to burning, which is not I who is cheap. In addition, CO2always emitted into the atmosphere.

In patent WO 01/60773 described the way in which the residual gas obtained when carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process, is processed for elimination of CO2. Residual gas having a low content of CO2used as fuel in various locations.

In the patent US 6306917 described the way in which carbon dioxide is removed from the residual gas received when carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process. This patent also describes the residual processing gas to extract the hydrogen through the membrane and the return of the hydrogen in the reactor Fischer-Tropsch process. Connection CO to be burning.

The present invention is to develop a method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons using the Fischer-Tropsch process, in which the residual gas obtained when carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process, is processed in order to avoid economic damage from the simple burning of H2and CO.

Another task is to develop a method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons using the Fischer-Tropsch process, in which the residual gas is treated simultaneously to avoid economic losses from the simple burning of H2and CO and significantly reduce emissions of CO2in the atmosphere by recycling the low carbon chains.

An advantage of the invention is its adaptation to all types of residual gases. In addition, it allows you to reuse in the GtL process, the hydrocarbons contained in the residual gas. A significant advantage of the invention is the provision of redistributive role of the various components of the residual gas on several gas streams, which can be used at different stages of the whole process of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons.

To solve this problem is proposed a method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons, which used the Fischer-Tropsch process, and in this way receive liquid hydrocarbons and a residual gas containing at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons with a carbon number not more than 6, and in which the residual gas is subjected to a separation process to obtain at least one gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%; at least one gas flow, for which the level of extraction of carbon dioxide equal to at least 40%, and at least one additional gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2.

The other is their distinguishing features and advantages of the invention are given in the following description, covering embodiments of the invention, given as non-limiting examples and accompanied by references to the drawings figures, in which:

1 and 2 depict schematic GtL plants, including the Fischer-Tropsch process, according to the prior art,

Figure 3 depicts a diagram illustrating the method according to the invention.

The invention relates also to a method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons, which used the Fischer-Tropsch process, and in the specified method are the liquid hydrocarbons and a residual gas containing at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons with a carbon number not more than 6, and in which the residual gas is subjected to a separation process, which receive at least one gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%, at least one gas flow, for which the level extraction of carbon dioxide is at least 40%, and at least one additional gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2.

The invention applies to all types of method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons using a process of the Fischer-Tropsche these hydrocarbon gases are transferred during the test produce a hydrocarbon synthesis gas (for example, partial oxidation using an oxidizing gas and water vapor). This synthesis gas contains hydrogen and CO. It is usually supplied with the unit to produce synthesis gas from natural gas or associated gas or coal. According to the method according to the invention, this synthesis gas is subjected to the reaction of the Fischer-Tropsch process by bringing into contact with the catalyst of this reaction.

During the reaction of the Fischer-Tropsch hydrogen and CO turn into hydrocarbon compounds with different chain length according to the following reaction:

CO+(1+m/2n)H2→(1/n)CnHm+H2About.

This reaction is also obtained WITH the2for example , by the following parallel reactions:

CO+H2About→CO2+H2

2CO→CO2+C.

At the exit of the reactor, using the Fischer-Tropsch process, the temperature of products usually decreases with temperature of about 130°C to a temperature of about from 90 to 60°C, so get on the one hand, condensate, mainly containing water and liquid hydrocarbons with carbon number greater than 4, and, on the other hand, the residual gas containing at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons with a carbon number not more than 6, carbon dioxide and, in addition, usually nitrogen.

The present invention relates to the processing of the obtained what about the residual gas. According to the method according to the invention, this residual gas is subjected to a separation process, which receive at least one gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%, at least one gas flow, for which the level of extraction of carbon dioxide is at least 40%, and at least one additional gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2. According to the invention the level of extraction of compounds in the gas stream received after the process of separation corresponds to a volumetric or molar amount of the compounds present in the residual gas, which is separated from the specified residual gas and which is obtained in the specified gas flow received from the separation process, divided by the volumetric or molar amount of this compound present in the residual gas. In the case of gas flow, in which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%, condition extraction of 60% is applied simultaneously to the connection CO, in relation to the amount of CO present initially in the residual gas, and to the connection H2in relation to the number of H2attending PE is initially measures them in the residual gas. According to the invention under a gas stream containing predominantly one connection"means a gas stream in which the concentration of this compound exceeds 50% by volume. According to the invention, the separation process has the task to handle the residual gas is preferably the process is pressure swing adsorption or PSA separation process ("Pressure Swing Adsorption"). This PSA separation process is carried out using a separation plants, PSA, allowing you to get at least three main gas flow:

at least a first gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%,

at least a second gas stream, for which the level of extraction of carbon dioxide is at least 40%, and

at least a third additional gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2. Usually for the first stream fetch level of carbon monoxide is lower than the level of hydrogen extraction (extraction is from about 60 to 75% for carbon monoxide and from about 75 to 85% for hydrogen), while the rate of methane recovery remains at a level of from about 55 to 65%, and the level of extraction of CO2remains below 1%. The level of extraction of CO2 in the second thread above 40%, preferably above 50%. A third thread is the additional flow, and therefore, he can have the level of extraction of CO2no more than 60%, preferably not more than 50%. The second gas stream may contain methane.

The separation process also allows you to get at least one gas stream containing primarily hydrogen. According to the first variant of the method according to the invention, the same separation unit PSA separation process intended for treatment of residual gas, allows to obtain at least one gas stream containing primarily hydrogen. This thread may have a hydrogen concentration above 98% by volume. According to a variant, an alternative first embodiment of the method according to the invention, in the separation process produced for processing residual gas can be applied to the second separation unit PSA designed to produce at least one gas stream containing primarily hydrogen. This thread may have a hydrogen concentration above 98% by volume.

The residual gas may also contain at least nitrogen, and in the process of separating the residual gas can be obtained at least one stream of gas containing at least nitrogen. Typically this stream of gas containing nitrogen corresponds to a gas flow containing predominantly uglev Dorada with carbon number of at least 2.

Preferably each adsorber separation plants, PSA contains at least three layers of adsorbent:

the first layer containing aluminum oxide,

the second layer containing silica gel, and

- the third layer containing at least one adsorbent selected from either the zeolite or carbon molecular sieves with an average pore size from 3.4 to 5E, preferably from 3.7 to 4,4E, or from titanosilicate with an average size of the pores constituting from 3.4 to 5E, and preferably from 3.7 to 4,4E.

Depending on the different cycles of pressure, the PSA separation process allows to obtain successively:

one stream of gas under high pressure, containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%, then

one stream of gas, for which the level of extraction of carbon dioxide is at least 40%, then

one additional gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2.

Alumina allows you to remove the water present in the residual gas, and hydrocarbon compounds with carbon number equal to or higher than 5. Silica gel allows to adsorb hydrocarbon compounds and, in particular, hydrocarbon compounds with carbon number of at least 3. Preferably used with micahel has a concentration of aluminum oxide (Al 2About3below 1% wt. On the contrary, aluminum oxide and silica gel help pass H2, CO and CH4and CO2and N2if they were in the residual gas. Zeolites or carbon molecular sieves with the same pore size, as defined previously, can adsorb carbon dioxide and even some nitrogen. The choice as an alternative of titanosilicate and a third layer of zeolite or carbon molecular sieves also allows you to provide a delay of CO2. The order of the three layers of the adsorbent preferably the following, according to the direction of circulation of the residual gas in adsorber: the first layer, then the second layer, then the third layer.

According to the first variant of the invention, each adsorber separation plants, PSA may also include a fourth layer of the adsorbent according to the direction of circulation of the residual gas in the adsorber; this fourth layer may be a zeolite or activated carbon, if the third layer is a carbon molecular sieves. If you use an alternative first embodiment of the method according to the invention, the adsorber of the second separation plants, PSA, producing at least one stream of relatively pure hydrogen (hydrogen concentration above 98% by volume)contains a layer of adsorbent containing at least activated carbon. In this case, in this second condition is the time of adsorption of introducing at least a portion of the first stream, received from the first installation of adsorption.

Each adsorber separation plants, PSA may also include a fourth or fifth layer containing at least one titanosilicate or one zeolite; this allows you to delay, at least partially, nitrogen. Preferably titanosilicate and zeolite have an average pore size of about 3,7E, or preferably from 3.5 to 3,9F; they preferably are exchanged for lithium, sodium, potassium or calcium, or a combination of these elements. The structure of the zeolite is preferably selected from the following structures: LTA, CHA, AFT, AEI-AIP018, KFI, AWW, SAS, PAU, RHO.

According to the first variant implementation of the after treatment of the residual gas, the gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%received after the process of separation can be processed in a cryogenic installation to get either according to the first variant:

at least one stream containing primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and

at least one stream containing predominantly methane,

or the second option:

at least one stream containing primarily hydrogen,

at least one stream containing primarily carbon monoxide, and

at least one stream containing cos the main methane.

Under the "stream containing mostly" one connection, you see a stream containing at least 85% by volume of this compound, and preferably at least 95%. Thus, according to the first embodiment after removal of carbon dioxide and cooling the gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%, you can use the column separation of liquid condensed phase from the steam phase, and vapor phase consists mainly of hydrogen and CO, whereas the condensed phase consists mainly of methane. According to the second variant, after removal of carbon dioxide and cooling at least up to -150°C of the gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%, you can apply the wash column methane to CO adsorption is carried and get on top of the column in the vapor phase, one stream containing primarily hydrogen, and at the bottom of the column is condensed phase, containing mainly methane and CO, which is held on the distillation column CO/hydrocarbon for education at the top of column one stream containing mainly CO, and at the bottom of column one stream containing mainly methane.

According to the second variant of implementation after processing residual gas in topicsi after the process of separation of the gas stream, containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%, can also be subsequently processed by way of PSA to obtain:

at least one stream containing primarily hydrogen, and

at least one stream containing primarily carbon monoxide and methane.

The value of different gases received after the process of separating the residual gas may then be raised in different places GtL plants. Thus, at least part of the gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%received after the process of separating the residual gas can be used as the gas-reactant in the plant producing a synthesis gas containing H2and CO, if any, and/or gas reactant in the Fischer-Tropsch process. Also at least part of the gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2, received after the process of separating the residual gas can be used as fuel and/or gas reactant in the production of synthesis gas. At least part of the gas stream containing primarily hydrogen, received after the process of separating the residual gas can primantis the process for hydrocracking, this, which allows processing of liquid hydrocarbons with carbon number higher than 4, received after carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process. Finally, at least part of the gas flow, for which the level of extraction of carbon dioxide is at least 40%, received after the process of separating the residual gas can be used as a gas-reagent in the plant producing a synthesis gas containing H2and CO, if any, or as gas-reagent in the Fischer-Tropsch process. This last method is useful when a catalyst Fischer-Tropsch process produces CO2of CO; in this case, the reaction can be equilibrium and the overproduction of CO2is prevented. Remove methane from certain threads allows to avoid its accumulation in the recycling of these flows, in particular in the stream, which is recycled to the Fischer-Tropsch process.

The figure 1 shows the method according to the prior art, implemented at the manufacturing site type GtL. The source gas (1) is processed at the facility (A) the generation of synthesis gas to produce synthesis gas (2)containing hydrogen and CO. This synthesis gas (2) is injected into the installation of the Fischer-Tropsch (B)where it undergoes the reaction of the Fischer-Tropsch process, and then condensing, for example, in the camera decanting. Products coming from the installation of the Fischer-Tropsch process, the two which are:

- condensate (3)released from condensation, which contains mainly water. This condensate is removed from the production area GtL;

liquid hydrocarbon compounds (4) with carbon number higher than 4. These compounds are usually treated (C), allows you to break their long chain and receive chain length of at least 6 carbon atoms, for example, by using hydrogen. Hydrocarbon compounds (8) with a smaller number of carbon atoms are used as fuel in the plant (D) power production;

residual gas (5)containing a mixture of H2, CO, CO2and light hydrocarbons with a carbon number not more than 6, which can be either partial (6) again introduced into the reactor Fischer-Tropsch or partially (7) to be used as fuel in the plant (D) produce electricity or to produce steam.

Figure 2 repeats the method used in figure 1, with the difference that the residual gas (5) is processed at the facility (E) removal of CO2. Retrieved CO2(9) is pumped into the plant (A) synthesis gas production.

Figure 3 illustrates the method according to the invention. Unlike methods of the prior art described by figures 1 and 2, the residual gas (5)containing a mixture of H2, CO, CO2and light hydrocarbons with a carbon number not more than 6, is processed at least astice (10) in the separation process (F), leading to receive:

gas (11), containing mainly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2, which may in part (11a) to be re-entered into the production of the synthesis gas, or in part (11b) is used as fuel in the plant (D) electricity production

gas (12), containing mainly hydrogen. This gas (12) can be used in the processing (C) to break the chains of liquid hydrocarbon compounds (4), received after carrying out the Fischer-Tropsch process,

- gas (13), containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, with the share of extracting at least 60% of methane, which is re-injected into the reactor (B) Fischer-Tropsch, and

gas (14)containing CO2with the level of extraction of carbon dioxide of at least 40%, which is introduced in the setting of (A) obtaining synthesis gas.

1. The method of converting hydrocarbon gases to liquid hydrocarbons, which used the Fischer-Tropsch process, and in the specified method are the liquid hydrocarbons and a residual gas containing at least hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons with a carbon number not more than 6, characterized in that the residual gas is subjected to a process of separation by PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption)using the PSA separation unit, and additionally produce at least one gas stream containing preimushestvenno hydrogen, as a result of which receive:

at least one gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%,

at least one gas flow, for which the level of extraction of carbon dioxide is at least 40%, and

at least one additional gas stream containing predominantly hydrocarbons with carbon number of at least 2.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of separating the residual gas used in the second separation unit PSA producing at least one gas stream containing primarily hydrogen.

3. The method according to one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the residual gas contains at least nitrogen, and in the process of separating the residual gas receive at least one stream of gas containing nitrogen.

4. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that each adsorber separation plants, PSA consists of at least three layers of adsorbents, and

the first layer consists of aluminum oxide,

the second layer consists of silica gel and

the third layer consists of at least one adsorbent selected or zeolites or carbon molecular sieves with an average pore size of 3.4 to 5Å, preferably from 3.7 to 4.4Åor titanium-silicate with the average pore size of 3.4 to 5Å , preferably from 3.7 to 4.4Å.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the order of the three layers of adsorbents next, according to the direction of circulation of the residual gas in adsorber: the first layer, then the second layer, then the third layer.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that each adsorber separation plants, PSA has a fourth layer of the adsorbent according to the direction of circulation of the residual gas in the absorber is selected from a zeolite or activated carbon, if the third layer is a carbon-containing molecular sieves.

7. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the adsorber of the second separation plants, PSA, producing at least one stream of gas, which is relatively pure hydrogen is composed of one layer of adsorbent containing at least activated charcoal.

8. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that each adsorber has a fourth layer containing at least one titanium-silicate or one zeolite.

9. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that each adsorber contains a fifth layer containing at least one titanium-silicate or one zeolite.

10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the treatment of the tail gas is received after the process of separating a gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is m what Nisha least 60%, process for the cryogenic installation, to obtain:

at least one stream containing primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and

at least one stream containing predominantly methane.

11. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the treatment of the tail gas is received after the process of separating a gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%, process for the cryogenic plant to obtain:

at least one stream containing primarily hydrogen,

at least one stream containing primarily carbon monoxide, and

at least one stream containing mainly methane.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the treatment of the tail gas is received after the process of separating a gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%, treated according to the method PSA to obtain:

at least one stream containing primarily hydrogen, and

at least one stream containing primarily carbon monoxide and methane.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least part of the received after carrying out the process of separating the residual gas of the gas flow, containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is at least 60%, is used as the gas-reactant in the process of synthesis gas containing H2WITH.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least part of the received after the process of separating the residual gas of the gas stream containing methane, and for which the level of extraction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide equal to at least 60%, applied as of a reagent gas in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

15. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least part mainly containing hydrocarbons with the carbon number of at least 2 of the gas flow is received after the process of separating the residual gas is used as fuel.

16. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least part mainly containing hydrocarbons with the carbon number of at least 2 of the gas flow is received after the process of separating the residual gas is used as gas-reagent in the production of synthesis gas.

17. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least part mainly containing hydrogen gas flow is received after the process of separation of the residual gas, is used in hydrocracking processes.

18. The method according to claim 1, otlichayushiesya, that at least part mainly containing carbon dioxide gas flow is received after the process of separating the residual gas is used as gas-reagent in the synthesis process gas containing H2WITH.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves reaction of raw material containing organic component with a catalyst composition. Processing method is selected out of alkylation, acylation, hydrotreatment, demetallisation, catalytic deparaffinisation, Fischer-Tropsch process and cracking. Catalyst composition includes mainly mesoporous silicon dioxide structure containing at least 97 vol.% of pores with size in the interval from ca. 15 Å to ca. 300 Å, and at least ca. 0.01 cm3/g of micropores. Mesoporous structure features at least one catalytically and/or chemically active heteroatom in amount of at least ca. 0.02 mass %, selected out of a group including Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zn, Fe, Sn, Mo, Ga, Ni, Co, In, Zr, Mn, Cu, Mg, Pd, Ru, Pt, W and their combinations. The catalyst composition radiograph has one 0.3° to ca. 3.5° peak at 2θ.

EFFECT: highly efficient method of organic compound processing in the presence of catalyst composition without zeolite.

20 cl, 31 ex, 17 tbl, 22 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves reaction of raw material containing organic component with a catalyst composition. Processing method is selected out of alkylation, acylation, hydrotreatment, demetallisation, catalytic deparaffinisation, Fischer-Tropsch process and cracking. Catalyst composition includes mainly mesoporous silicon dioxide structure containing at least 97 vol.% of pores with size in the interval from ca. 15 Å to ca. 300 Å, and at least ca. 0.01 cm3/g of micropores. Mesoporous structure features at least one catalytically and/or chemically active heteroatom in amount of at least ca. 0.02 mass %, selected out of a group including Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zn, Fe, Sn, Mo, Ga, Ni, Co, In, Zr, Mn, Cu, Mg, Pd, Ru, Pt, W and their combinations. The catalyst composition radiograph has one 0.3° to ca. 3.5° peak at 2θ.

EFFECT: highly efficient method of organic compound processing in the presence of catalyst composition without zeolite.

20 cl, 31 ex, 17 tbl, 22 dwg

FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves reaction of raw material containing organic component with a catalyst composition. Processing method is selected out of alkylation, acylation, hydrotreatment, demetallisation, catalytic deparaffinisation, Fischer-Tropsch process and cracking. Catalyst composition includes mainly mesoporous silicon dioxide structure containing at least 97 vol.% of pores with size in the interval from ca. 15 Å to ca. 300 Å, and at least ca. 0.01 cm3/g of micropores. Mesoporous structure features at least one catalytically and/or chemically active heteroatom in amount of at least ca. 0.02 mass %, selected out of a group including Al, Ti, V, Cr, Zn, Fe, Sn, Mo, Ga, Ni, Co, In, Zr, Mn, Cu, Mg, Pd, Ru, Pt, W and their combinations. The catalyst composition radiograph has one 0.3° to ca. 3.5° peak at 2θ.

EFFECT: highly efficient method of organic compound processing in the presence of catalyst composition without zeolite.

20 cl, 31 ex, 17 tbl, 22 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical technology of purification of disperse media and colloid solutions. The method of purification of solutions is claimed. It contains disperse and colloid particles, using superhighmolecular element-organic floculant or inter-polymer complexes based on it, general formula where m=1-9; Radicals: R1=(CH2)nPol, where n=2-4; R2 and R3 are selected from H; CH3; C2H5; C3H5; C3H7; C4H9; R4 and R5 are selected from CH3; C2H5; C3H5; C3H7; C4H9; C6H5; OH; OM; M=Na; K; Cs; R6=(CH2)k, O; where k=1-4; R7=R4; [NR1R2R3]O; Pol=Organic polymer, for instance, polyacrilate. Invention can be used for purification of liquid vegetable, mineral and synthetic oils, purification of sugar-containing solutions, preparation and purification of sewage waters, as well as in all industries, where it is necessary to purify solutions from disperse and colloid components.

EFFECT: simplification and increase of effectiveness of the process of purification of disperse media and colloid solutions with reduction of power expenditure.

3 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is used in propellant production for transport, which has low impurity level of sulphur and/or azote. Hydrocarbon material in oxidation zone is engaged with immiscible phase which contains acetic acid, water and oxidising agent that contains hydric dioxide and hydrogen acid. After separation, hydrocarbon phase containing oxygenated impurities are delivered to infusion zone in which part of remaining oxygenated impurities are extracted with the help of acetic acid aqueous solution. Infusion flow is delivered to separation zone for acetic acid reduction and, optionally, for the second delivering into oxidation and infusion zones.

EFFECT: simplification of the method and degree increase of cleaning.

13 cl, 9 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is used in propellant production for transport, which has low impurity level of sulphur and/or azote. Hydrocarbon material in oxidation zone is engaged with immiscible phase which contains acetic acid, water and oxidising agent that contains hydric dioxide and hydrogen acid. After separation, hydrocarbon phase containing oxygenated impurities are delivered to infusion zone in which part of remaining oxygenated impurities are extracted with the help of acetic acid aqueous solution. Infusion flow is delivered to separation zone for acetic acid reduction and, optionally, for the second delivering into oxidation and infusion zones.

EFFECT: simplification of the method and degree increase of cleaning.

13 cl, 9 tbl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention covers the catalyst of purification of oil, gas condensate and oil fractions from mercaptan, namely to catalyst of oxidising sweetening of the specified products. The description of the new catalyst of oxidising alkali-free oil sweetening and the method for its producing are provided, which contains 1-5% of derivative transitional metal and 95-99% of layer aluminium silicate produced by application of cuprous chloride from ammonia containing water or water-alcohol solution on aluminum silicate from groups of illite or layer silicates.

EFFECT: improved catalyst for oxidising oil purification is produced.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry; oil refinery industry.

SUBSTANCE: tar is mixed with a light hydrocarbon solvent in a mixture. After mixing, the tar and the solvent are passed through homogeniser, consisting of a distributor plate with 7 to 11 openings each with diameter of 20-30 mm, and are then extracted in the extractor. Asphalt solutions and asphalt-free oil are obtained, with subsequent recovery of the solvent from the solutions and its return for mixing with tar.

EFFECT: increased asphalt-free oil output.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: petroleum chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to petroleum chemistry, gas chemistry, coal chemistry. It refers to synthetic petroleum, that features the following content of the components: content of alkanes - at least 80 W%, C5-C10 fractions- at least 50 W%, content of aromatic compounds - not over 0.5 W%.The catalyst to produce synthetic petroleum was also applied for containing a carrier and an active component. Zeolite HBETA is used as a catalyst containing 1-2 W% of extralattice aluminium while the active component is represented by cobalt with the content of 10-60 W% of the catalyst weight The invention refers also to the method of catalyst production, and to that of synthetic petroleum production.

EFFECT: invention relates to petroleum chemistry, gas chemistry, coal chemistry.

8 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: organic chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydrocarbon raw materials decontamination from sulphur compounds and can be applied in oil-processing industry. Described hydrocarbon raw materials decontamination from sulphur and sulphur compounds includes oxidation at contact of hydrocarbon raw materials with process reagent, mixture separation resulted from this contact with decontaminated hydrocarbon raw materials, before oxidation hydrocarbon raw materials are treated with, negative electromagnetic field and after oxidation with oxygen as process reagent hydrocarbon raw materials flow goes heavily stirred water containing reagent in proportions to hydrocarbon raw materials within 1:50. Then mixture flow is dispersed and soothed before separation and additional selection of released gas and sediment. Technological effect is simplification of hydrocarbon raw materials decontamination process.

EFFECT: simplification of hydrocarbon raw materials decontamination from sulphur and sulphur compounds.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: description of the elongated mould particles is provided, the particles have two asperities which start from and end at the central position where it aligns the longitudinal axis of the particle, and the cross-section of the particle takes the space, that is surrounded by peripheral edge of six circles which are located around the central circle; each of the six circles contacts two adjacent circles, while two interlacing circles are located at the equal distance from them the central circle and can be connected to the central circle; at that, two circles adjacent to the interlacing circles (but not the common circle) contact the central circle, except for the space taken by four remained external circles, and four remained interstitial areas; the elongated mould particles have complementary one to four asperities which are connected, preferably one or two, to the existing end asperity in a way specified above, and the complimentary asperity is specified as described above, while existing end asperity becomes a new central circle and the initial central circle becomes another asperity; also, the description is provided for the mould catalyst or its precursor for hydrocarbon synthesis by Fischer-Tropsch, mould carrier, method for producing the mould carrier, matrix disk, method for producing the hydrocarbons and method for producing the fuel and basic oil from hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: method for producing hydrocarbons is improved.

14 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is described, with metal from group VIII of the periodic table as an active component and carrier containing the oxide constituent and scale shaped metallic aluminum. The method for preparation of catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is also described which consists in application of the active component upon the carrier by use of pipette; the carrier is prepared from paste by extrusion, the extrudates are exposed to air, dehumidified and baked and the used paste contains the oxide constituent, scale shaped metallic aluminium, binding agent and plasticiser.

EFFECT: catalyst's activity and selectivity in regard to high molecular hydrocarbons are increased.

15 cl, 1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: petroleum chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to petroleum chemistry, gas chemistry, coal chemistry. It refers to synthetic petroleum, that features the following content of the components: content of alkanes - at least 80 W%, C5-C10 fractions- at least 50 W%, content of aromatic compounds - not over 0.5 W%.The catalyst to produce synthetic petroleum was also applied for containing a carrier and an active component. Zeolite HBETA is used as a catalyst containing 1-2 W% of extralattice aluminium while the active component is represented by cobalt with the content of 10-60 W% of the catalyst weight The invention refers also to the method of catalyst production, and to that of synthetic petroleum production.

EFFECT: invention relates to petroleum chemistry, gas chemistry, coal chemistry.

8 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry; petrochemistry; gas chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst for Fischer Tropsch synthesis and its carrying agent are described. Said catalyst contains metal of VIII group of Periodic Table as active component; said carrying agent contains oxide component and carbon fiber. Method of aforesaid catalyst preparation is also described, it consists in infiltration of active component to carrying agent. The carrying agent is produced by extrusion of the paste and then extrudates are exposed on the air, dried and calcinated. The processed paste contains oxide component, binder, plastifier and carbon fiber.

EFFECT: increasing of catalyst selectivity.

17 cl, 1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: catalytic gas treatment.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes catalyst for treating hydrogen-rich gas mixtures to remove carbon monoxide via methanation of carbon monoxide, said catalyst containing nickel-cerium oxide system. Catalyst is prepared by reaction of nickel compounds with cerium compound. Methanation of carbon monoxide is conducted at temperature not below 20°C and pressure not below 0.1 atm in presence of above-indicated catalyst.

EFFECT: enhanced removal of carbon monoxide to level below 10 ppm.

8 cl, 5 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; natural gas industry; methods of production of the hydrocarbons out of the gaseous hydrocarbon raw materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method of production of the hydrocarbons out of the gaseous hydrocarbon raw with usage of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst including the following phases: i) transformation by means of the partial oxidization of the gaseous hydrocarbon raw material and the oxygen-containing gas into the synthesis gas at the heightened temperature and pressure; ii) the catalytic conversion of the synthesis gas of the phase (i) with usage of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst on the basis of cobalt on zirconium oxide into the stream containing the hydrocarbon; iii) division of the hydrocarbons-containing stream of the phase (ii) into the stream the hydrocarbon product and the recycling stream; and iv) withdrawal of the carbon dioxide from the recycling stream and return of the carbon dioxide depleted recycling stream into the phase (i).

EFFECT: the invention ensures effective production of the hydrocarbons out of the gaseous hydrocarbon raw materials.

6 cl, l tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: synthesis gas reaction catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalyst for producing hydrocarbon from synthesis gas, which is suitable for hydrogenating carbon monoxide and obtaining hydrocarbon from carbon monoxide. Catalyst is composed of carrier, on which metal compound is deposited, catalyst containing impurities within a range from 0.02 to 0.15 wt %. Preparation of catalyst comprises preliminarily treating catalyst support to reduce concentration of impurities followed by depositing metal on support. Catalytic production of hydrocarbon from synthesis gas is also described.

EFFECT: increased activity, strength, and abrasion resistance of catalyst.

59 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical process and catalytic reactors suitable for carrying out the process. In particular, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is described involving compact block of catalytic reactor (10) forming passages wherein gas-permeable catalyst structure (16) is present, said passages extending between manifolds (18). Synthesis is performed in at least two steps since reactor block provides at least two consecutive passages (14, 14a) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process interconnected through manifold wherein gas flow velocity in the first passages is high enough to limit conversion of carbon monoxide to 65%. Gases are cooled in manifold between two steps so as to condense water steam and then passes through the second passage at flow velocity high enough to limit conversion of the rest of carbon monoxide to 65%.

EFFECT: reduced partial pressure of water steam and suppressed oxidation of catalyst.

17 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: disproportionation reaction catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing cobalt and zinc, to a method for preparation thereof, and to Fischer-Tropsch process. Catalyst according to invention containing co-precipitated cobalt and zinc particles, which are characterized by volume-average size below 150 μm and particle size distribution wherein at least 90% of the catalyst particle volume is occupied by particles having size between 0.4 and 2.5 times that of the average particle size and wherein zinc/cobalt atomic ratio within a range of 40 to 0.1. Catalyst is prepared by introducing acid solution containing zinc and cobalt ions at summary concentration 0.1 to 5 mole/L and alkali solution to reactor containing aqueous medium wherein acid solution and alkali solution come into contact with each other in aqueous medium at pH 4-9 (deviating by at most 0.2 pH units) at stirring with a speed determined by supplied power between 1 and 300 kW/L aqueous medium and temperature from 15 to 75°C. Resulting cobalt and zinc-including precipitate separated from aqueous medium, dried, and further treated to produce desired catalyst. Employment of catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch process is likewise described.

EFFECT: enhanced strength and separation properties suitable for Fischer-Tropsch process.

13 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: production of pigments and catalysts based on titanium dioxide, in particular, process for treatment of titanium dioxide for removal of sulfur, in particular sulfates.

SUBSTANCE: method involves treating calcined titanium dioxide at elevated temperatures using aqueous solution containing one or more ammonium compounds; separating titanium dioxide from aqueous solution and drying titanium dioxide. Ammonium compounds preferably used in treatment process are ammonium acetate or ammonium chloride.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in cleaning of titanium dioxide from sulfur, in particular sulfates.

9 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: hydrocarbon manufacturing.

SUBSTANCE: natural gas is brought into reaction with vapor and oxygen-containing gas in at least one reforming zone to produce syngas mainly containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide and some amount of carbon dioxide. Said gas is fed in Fisher-Tropsh synthesis reactor to obtain crude synthesis stream containing low hydrocarbons, high hydrocarbons, water, and unconverted syngas. Then said crude synthesis stream is separated in drawing zone onto crude product stream containing as main component high hydrocarbons, water stream, and exhaust gas stream, comprising mainly remained components. Further at least part of exhaust gas stream is vapor reformed in separated vapor reforming apparatus, and reformed exhaust gas is charged into gas stream before its introducing in Fisher-Tropsh synthesis reactor.

EFFECT: increased hydrocarbon yield with slight releasing of carbon dioxide.

7 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

Up!