Method and system for refined fuel thermal processing

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method and system for refined fuel thermal processing with solid heat carrier, can be used in fuel processing, chemical industries and power engineering. Fuel is dried in gas pipe, heated up in adsorbing exchanger by mixing with gas-vapour mixture and low-temperature coke; gas-vapour mixture and solid phase are separated in cyclone separator. Solid phase from adsorbing exchanger and from cyclone separator is mixed with solid heat carrier in mixing hopper of pyrolysis reactor and supplied to pyrolysis. Fuel is pyrolysed in air-fluidised bed with solid heat carrier in pyrolysis reactor designed as two base-connected cones with concave curvilinear generating. Activated carbon is produced by low-temperature coke fractionation 1-6 mm in separation unit consisting of louvre dust-concentrator, cyclone separator and ejector. Residual low-temperature coke is supplied with gas-vapour mixture to adsorbing exchanger. Gas-vapour mixture processed in cyclone separator is supplied to additional cyclone separator with low-temperature coke delivery. Solid heat carrier is delivered to coke heater with air-fluidised bed equipped with muffle with burners, in-built cyclone separators and bypasses, and returned to pyrolysis. Combustion gas containing dust-like particles is exhausted by bypass to gas pipe for adjustable drying of fuel. Allows for higher efficiency of fuel processing and for production of dust-free low-temperature coke.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of fuel processing and production of dust-free low-temperature coke.

7 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to thermal treatment of fine-grain fuel and can be used in toplivoprovoda and chemical industries and energy.

A known method of thermal processing of fine coal, including drying coal flue gases coming from axonogenesis, pyrolysis of the coal in the fluidized bed of solid heat carrier with getting vapor-gas mixture and char. The coke is served in carsonariel in which it is heated by the partial combustion with the formation of solid heat carrier supplied to the stage of pyrolysis, and ready-to-char. Trademark coke is removed from axonogenesis (see A.S. USSR №794063, publ. 07.01.1981,, CL SW 49/00).

The disadvantages of this method are uneven conditions of pyrolysis height of Pyrolyzer due to uneven height psevdoozhizhennogo layer of the conditions of fluidization of the material in pyrolizer. In the lower layers of the fluidized bed is insufficient intensive mixing of the solid carrier with the fuel. Conditions of pyrolysis are also violated in the case of using fuel of high humidity, such as peat, due to the lack of regulation of the drying process. Discharging carbon product is conducted from axonogenesis, which leads to the loss of solid carrier. Heavy is Roccia resin does not undergo pyrolysis and withdrawn from the process in the composition of the gas mixture, which lowers the yield of char and light fractions of resin.

The closest technical solution to the claimed method and the installation process is patent RF №2183651, CL SW 49/16, SW 49/22, SW 1/04, SW 31/08, publ. 20.06.2002, the method includes drying the solid fuel from the source of moisture ˜30% to a moisture content of 10-20% by using waste gases of axonogenesis. Regulation of the drying process is carried out by supplying untreated waste gases containing dust particles, through the bypass flue. Dried fuel is separated from the drying agent, is heated by mixing with the gas-vapor mixture in the heat exchanger-adsorber and subjected to pyrolysis in a reactor with a fluidized bed of solid heat carrier with the receipt of char and gas mixture directed into the heat exchanger-adsorber. In carsonariel solid heat carrier is heated in the presence of flue gases in the fluidized bed. The finished carbon product is removed from axonogenesis and used as activated carbon. Solid heat carrier return to the stage of pyrolysis. Gas-vapor mixture is burned in the furnace of the recovery boiler and in the muffle of axonogenesis.

In addition, the above patent known device for thermal processing of fine-grained fuel containing the dryer with cyclone for separation of dry fuel, heat exchanger-desorber, with cyclone for separating a gas mixture, the reactor of pyrolysis and carsonariel, fluid layers which are connected peritonei pipelines. The pyrolysis reactor equipped with a built-in cyclone connected to the heat exchanger to the absorber, to output vapor-gas mixture and return pulverulent fraction of char in the pyrolysis process. Device for introducing fuel into the reactor of pyrolysis installed in peritonei tube feeding solid heat carrier into the reactor and connected with the lower outlet of the cyclone for separating a gas mixture. Carsonariel provided with a muffle burner, built-in cyclones, the outputs are connected to the dryer, and the bypass pipe with a butterfly valve to control the drying process.

The disadvantages of this setup is that:

is not provided with the same height fluidized bed conditions thermoperiod raw materials: mixing with solid heat carrier heating and pyrolysis;

- solid heat carrier output together with the finished product from axonogenesis that leads to its loss;

- regulation of the drying process is not effective;

- char, intended for obtaining sorbent, there is a large proportion of pulverulent fraction.

The invention aims to remedy these disadvantages and to solve the problem above the Oia efficient processing of solid fuel by ensuring dust-free char, intended for production of granular sorbent.

To achieve these objectives, the method for thermal processing of fine-grained fuel includes adjustable drying fuel flue gases with dust particles and subsequent separation from them, pyrolysis of the solid fuel cooled in the fluidized bed with the receipt of char and gas mixture, the output from the carbon fractions 1-6 mm to obtain active carbon, the direction of the remaining char in conjunction with the gas-vapor mixture in the heat exchanger-canister mixing with dried fuel with obtaining a solid phase, separating the solid phase and the vapor-gas mixture, the flow of the solid phase of the heat exchanger-adsorber and phase separation in a mixture with solid heat carrier and pyrolysis, the removal of solid coolant in carsonariel, its heating in the presence of flue gases in the fluidized bed and the return on pyrolysis, the flow of flue gases with dust-like particles from axonogenesis for drying fuel separation from the gas-vapor mixture neozhidannoy solid phase and its withdrawal from the process as a char.

In this fluidized bed at the stage of pyrolysis create by filtering the resulting gas mixture through a solid phase.

Dust particles for drying the fuel is removed from fluidized bed of axonogenesis the use of water vapor, supplied to the zone selection powdered particles.

Also for the decision of tasks in the system for thermal processing of fine-grained fuel contains a means for drying cyclone for separation of dry fuel, the heat exchanger-adsorber with consistently defined cyclones for separation of gas mixture and solid phases and connected to the cyclone for separating dust, the reactor of pyrolysis fluidized bed, made in the form of two cones with a curved concave generatrix, United at their bases, and is equipped with a mixing funnel and separating device, comprising sequentially installed along the gas flow louver filecontentstore located in the outlet duct of the pyrolysis reactor, a cyclone for output fractions 1-6 mm char and ejector, exit through the flue of the pyrolysis reactor is connected to the heat exchanger to the absorber, a device for introducing fuel into the reactor of pyrolysis, connected to the mixing funnel to the bottom outlet of the first cyclone for separating gas mixture and the solid phase and to the lower pipe of the heat exchanger-adsorber, carsonariel fluidized bed equipped with a muffle burner, built-in cyclones, the outputs of which are connected to the means for drying the fuel, and the bypass duct with butterfly valve, the output end of which is connected to the means for drying the fuel, peritonea the solid carrier pipelines connecting the fluid layers of the pyrolysis reactor and axonogenesis, connecting peritoneo pipeline solid carrier, fed into the pyrolysis reactor to the mixing funnel.

This means for drying the fuel in the form of flue. The input end of the bypass duct of axonogenesis is located at the level of the fluidized bed of axonogenesis.

Carsonariel equipped with a steam collector placed at the input end of the bypass duct.

Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of thermal processing of fine-grained fuel.

Figure 2 shows the separation device of the pyrolysis reactor.

The installation includes a fuel container 1, the flue gas duct 2 for drying the fuel, the cyclone 3 for separation of dry fuel, the heat exchanger-adsorber 4, connected to toplevelitem outlet of the cyclone 3. The heat exchanger-adsorber 4 is equipped with two serially fitted cyclones 5 and 6 to separate the solid phase and gas-vapor mixtures. The pyrolysis reactor 7 fluidized bed is made in the form of two cones with a curved concave generatrix, United at their bases, and is equipped with a mixing funnel 8 and the separating device. The latter consists of successively installed along the gas flow blinds is logo of filecontentstore 9, located in the outlet duct of the pyrolysis reactor 7, the cyclone 10 for removal of fractions 1-6 mm char and ejector 11. The output of the ejector 11 through the flue of the pyrolysis reactor 7 is connected to the heat exchanger to the absorber 4. The device 12 to enter the fuel in the pyrolysis reactor is made in the form of a screw and connected to the mixing funnel 8 pyrolysis reactor 7, to the lower outlet of the cyclone 5 and the lower pipe heat exchanger-adsorber 4. Carsonariel 13 fluidized bed equipped with a muffle 14 with burners, built-in cyclones 15, the outputs of which are connected to the gas duct 2 for drying the fuel, and the bypass duct 16 with the rotary valve 17. The output end of the bypass duct 16 is connected to the gas duct 2 for drying the fuel, and the input end is at the level of the fluidized bed of axonogenesis 13. Peritonei pipelines solid carrier 18 and 19 connect the fluid layers of the rector of the pyrolysis 7 and axonogenesis 13. Peredachny line 19 solid carrier, fed into the pyrolysis reactor, connected to the mixing funnel 8. Carsonariel 13 is equipped with a steam manifold 20, located in the fluidized bed under the input end of the bypass duct 16.

The device operates as follows.

Fine fuel with a particle size 0-6 mm is supplied from the hopper 1 by the feeder into the flue gas duct 2, in which it podas who live by the heat of the flue gases, coming from axonogenesis 13. Regulation of the drying process when the humidity changes in the range of 10-15% 50-60% is carried out by change of enthalpy of the exhaust gases due to changes in the content of the solid phase in the bypass duct 16. The amount of the gas duct 16 for drying neobespechenii gases is regulated by means of valve 17, and the concentration in the solid phase using steam header 20. The steam manifold is installed in the fluidized bed of axonogenesis 13 and contributes to the output of pulverized CATIC in the area of the input end of the duct 16.

Precipitated in the cyclone 3 dried fuel serves to heat the adsorber 4, where it douchivaetsia to a moisture content of ˜5% due to the heat of the vapor-gas mixture and char coming from the pyrolysis reactor 7. When this gas-vapor mixture is purified from resinous substances due to their adsorption on the solid particles and cooled to ˜150°S. Solid phase, consisting of fuel and char with adsorbed on them resinous substances, enters through the bottom outlet of the heat exchanger-adsorber 4 and through the device 12 to enter the fuel emailnow funnel 8 pyrolysis reactor 7. Gas-vapor mixture with the remaining solid phase is removed from heat exchanger-adsorber and separated in the cyclone 5, where the captured solid phase is directed through the device 12 to enter the top of the willow in cmielow funnel 8 pyrolysis reactor 7. Gas-vapor mixture from the cyclone 5 is served in the cyclone 6, which produce marketable coke and gas-vapor mixture coming for treatment.

In a mixing funnel 8 mixed solid phase coming from the heat exchanger-adsorber solid phase coming from the cyclone 5, and the solid heat carrier flowing through peritonea pipe 19 from axonogenesis 13. This provides a fast and effective mixture fed into the pyrolysis reactor 7 raw materials with solid heat carrier and creates optimum conditions for pyrolysis.

The pyrolysis of the fuel in the pyrolysis reactor 7 is carried out at 500-600°in the fluidized bed, obtained by filtering gases of thermal decomposition of the fuel (autoridade layer). To ensure the same rate of filtration of the resulting gas mixture on the layer height and to achieve the same conditions, the boiling point of the material of the lower portion of the pyrolysis reactor 7 is made in the form of a cone with a curvilinear generatrix extending from the bottom up. To ensure a stable output from the pyrolysis reactor 7 char and automatically maintain the level of the fluidized bed at a certain height, the upper portion of the pyrolysis reactor 7 is made in the form of a cone with a curved concave generatrix extending from top to bottom.

For the selection from the mass of the produced char large f the shares of 1-6 mm in the outlet duct of the pyrolysis reactor 7 has a louvred filecontentstore 9. Gas-vapor mixture with coke enters the louvered filecontentstore 9, which through the cyclone 10 from the main thread display large fraction of char. To ensure normal operation of the Louvre filecontentstore 9 is installed in the discharge duct of the pyrolysis reactor 7, the ejector 11. Large granular carbon is used for obtaining a sorbent for environmental and social issues: sewage treatment, industrial waste gases and drinking water.

After separation of the coarse fraction of coke gas-vapor mixture with the remaining char through the discharge duct of the pyrolysis reactor 7 is supplied together with dried fuel in the heat exchanger-adsorber 4. However pylones from the reactor pyrolysis almost 7 consists only of particles of char, as in the gas volume of the pyrolysis reactor 7 is separation of lighter and sailing char particles and their separation from the particles of the solid carrier. Run the top of the pyrolysis reactor 7 in the form of a tapering upward cone with curvilinear concave generatrix will contribute to the increase of gas flow speed in the upward direction, carrying particles of char and introducing pulverized coke out of the machine.

Solid heat carrier on peritonea pipe 18 serves to carsonariel. Circulation tvergorteploenergo on peritonism pipelines is carried out in a fluidized state by filing them in water vapor.

In carsonariel 13 is heated particulate heat carrier to 600-700°in the fluidized bed in the presence of flue gases produced by the partial combustion of the solid heat carrier. The heated solid heat carrier on peritonea pipe 19 enters the pyrolysis reactor 7. For dedusting of flue gases axonogenesis 13 it has built cyclones 15, the gas which enters the gas duct 2 fuel drying and is used as a drying agent along with neobespechenie flue gases going through the bypass duct 16.

The proposed thermal processing of fine-grained fuel allows the separation of solid particles in the reactor of pyrolysis fluidized bed with internal circulation of solid substance removing heat from solid particles and to obtain a dustfree char, intended for the production of the sorbent.

1. The method for thermal processing of fine-grained fuel, including adjustable drying fuel flue gases with dust particles and subsequent separation from them, heating the dried fuel is mixed with steam and gas mixture in the heat exchanger of the adsorber, the separation of the gas mixture and the solid phase, the pyrolysis of the solid fuel cooled in the fluidized bed with the receipt of char and parogazovoj the mixture, the removal of solid heat carrier in carsonariel, heat in the fluidized bed in the presence of flue gas and return the heated particulate heat carrier to the pyrolysis, the flow of flue gases with dust-like particles from axonogenesis for drying, characterized in that at the stage of pyrolysis of char allocate a fraction of 1-6 mm to obtain active carbon, the remaining char is sent together with the gas-vapor mixture mixing with dried fuel in the heat exchanger-adsorber, the solid phase of the heat exchanger-adsorber and phase separation serves on mixing with a solid carrier and sent for pyrolysis is separated from the vapor-gas mixture neozhidannuju solid phase and make it from the process as a char.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the fluidized bed at the stage of pyrolysis create by filtering the resulting gas mixture through a solid phase.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the output of pulverulent particles for drying the fuel from the fluidized bed of axonogenesis carried out by means of water vapor supplied to the zone selection powdered particles.

4. Installation for thermal treatment of fine-grained fuel containing means for drying cyclone for separation of dry fuel, the heat exchanger-adsorber with a cyclone for separating a solid phase and parogazovymi, connected to the cyclone for separation of dry fuel, reactor pyrolysis fluidized bed equipped with a separating device, a device for introducing fuel into the reactor of pyrolysis, United with the lower outlet of the cyclone for separating a solid phase and gas-vapor mixtures, carsonariel fluidized bed equipped with a muffle burner, built-in cyclones, the outputs of which are connected to the means for drying the fuel, and the bypass duct with butterfly valve, the output end of which is connected to the means for drying the fuel, and peritonea the solid carrier pipelines connecting the fluid layers of the pyrolysis reactor and axonogenesis, characterized in that the apparatus comprises an additional cyclone connected in series to the cyclone for separating a solid phase and gas-vapor mixture, the lower pipe heat exchanger-adsorber is connected with a device for introducing fuel into the reactor of pyrolysis, the pyrolysis reactor is made in the form of two cones with a curved concave generatrix, United at their bases, and is equipped with a mixing funnel connected to peritonea pipeline solid carrier, fed into the pyrolysis reactor, and to a device for introducing fuel in the pyrolysis reactor, and separating device consists of successively installed along the gas flow MS is usinage of filecontentstore, located in the outlet duct of the pyrolysis reactor, a cyclone for output fractions 1-6 mm char and ejector, the output of which through the flue of the pyrolysis reactor is connected to the heat exchanger to the adsorber.

5. Installation according to claim 4, characterized in that the means for drying the fuel is made in the form of a duct.

6. Installation according to claim 4, characterized in that the input end of the bypass duct of axonogenesis placed at the level of the fluidized bed.

7. Installation according to claim 4, characterized in that carsonariel equipped with a steam reservoir, located under the input end of the bypass duct.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and facility for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels and may be used in coal-processing, oil and chemical, shale-processing industries. Solid fuel is supplied to facility and is milled there. After that, fuel is dried and supplied to preliminary preparation chamber for gross raw material to be subjected to pyrolysis. Tar oil or bitumen and black oil fuel in liquid state are supplied to the same chamber through oil waste preparation units. Tar oil, bitumen and black oil fuel are sprayed to the surface of dried milled fuel. Part of high-sulfur wastes are supplied to process boiling bed furnace to neutral or oxidising zone with temperature 600-750°C. Other part of sulfur-free wastes are supplied to restoration zone of boiling bed reactor where pyrolysis takes place at 400-500°C. Generated steam and gas mixture is cleaned and condensed with the production of valuable liquid and gas products. Solid carbonic residue - semi-coke is incinerated in process furnace where solid coolant is produced. Excess of semi-coke are discharged for further use as raw material.

EFFECT: utilisation of liquid hydrocarbon wastes in high-ash low-calorie solid fuel processing in boiling bed with solid coolant and increase of liquid and gas hydrocarbons output.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: pyrolysis and gasification of solid organic agents or mixtures of organic agents.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of raw materials in one or several drying and pyrolysis reactors with one or several reactors with movable bed or one or several rotating reactors or one or several rotating reactors and reactors with movable bed for contact with material of fluidized combustion bed containing only ash of organic agent or unburnt carbon residues of organic agents and additional material of fluidized bed for contact with material of fluidized bed and reactor wall of fluidized combustion bed. As a result, water vapor and pyrolysis products containing condensable components and solid carbon residues are formed. Solid carbon residues or solid carbon residues and part of water vapor and pyrolysis gas with condensable components and material of fluidized bed are returned to fluidized combustion layer where carbon reside of organic components is burnt. Material of fluidized bed is heated and is again directed to pyrolysis reactor where pyrolysis residues performing function of stationary fluidized bed are burnt. After drying, water vapor and pyrolysis gases with condensable components are subjected to treatment in additional reaction zones of indirect heat exchanger at addition of vapor, oxygen and air or their mixture to pyrolysis gas or to heat exchanger in order to obtain gaseous product at high calorific power. Device proposed for realization of this method includes pyrolysis reactor, fluidized combustion bead for pyrolysis residue and reaction zone for pyrolysis gases.

EFFECT: increased calorific power.

15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

The invention relates to a method and installation for thermal treatment of fine-grained fuels production of carbon sorbents and can be used in a number of industries requiring active charcoal, and can improve their quality and quantity

The invention relates to a thermal decomposition of various solid carbonaceous materials: solid fuels (brown coal, shale, lignite, peat), solid household and industrial waste (lignin, paper, wood, polymeric materials) using solid heat carrier (ash fuel, lime, river sand) in order to obtain a high-calorie gas mixture, which is used as energy fuel or as a source of valuable chemical products through further processing, energy (high temperature flue gases) for use in steam boilers or waste heat boilers and obtain a solid product for use as building materials or adsorbents for the purification of oil-contaminated wastewater

FIELD: pyrolysis and gasification of solid organic agents or mixtures of organic agents.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of raw materials in one or several drying and pyrolysis reactors with one or several reactors with movable bed or one or several rotating reactors or one or several rotating reactors and reactors with movable bed for contact with material of fluidized combustion bed containing only ash of organic agent or unburnt carbon residues of organic agents and additional material of fluidized bed for contact with material of fluidized bed and reactor wall of fluidized combustion bed. As a result, water vapor and pyrolysis products containing condensable components and solid carbon residues are formed. Solid carbon residues or solid carbon residues and part of water vapor and pyrolysis gas with condensable components and material of fluidized bed are returned to fluidized combustion layer where carbon reside of organic components is burnt. Material of fluidized bed is heated and is again directed to pyrolysis reactor where pyrolysis residues performing function of stationary fluidized bed are burnt. After drying, water vapor and pyrolysis gases with condensable components are subjected to treatment in additional reaction zones of indirect heat exchanger at addition of vapor, oxygen and air or their mixture to pyrolysis gas or to heat exchanger in order to obtain gaseous product at high calorific power. Device proposed for realization of this method includes pyrolysis reactor, fluidized combustion bead for pyrolysis residue and reaction zone for pyrolysis gases.

EFFECT: increased calorific power.

15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and facility for thermal processing of high-ash and low-calorie solid fuels and may be used in coal-processing, oil and chemical, shale-processing industries. Solid fuel is supplied to facility and is milled there. After that, fuel is dried and supplied to preliminary preparation chamber for gross raw material to be subjected to pyrolysis. Tar oil or bitumen and black oil fuel in liquid state are supplied to the same chamber through oil waste preparation units. Tar oil, bitumen and black oil fuel are sprayed to the surface of dried milled fuel. Part of high-sulfur wastes are supplied to process boiling bed furnace to neutral or oxidising zone with temperature 600-750°C. Other part of sulfur-free wastes are supplied to restoration zone of boiling bed reactor where pyrolysis takes place at 400-500°C. Generated steam and gas mixture is cleaned and condensed with the production of valuable liquid and gas products. Solid carbonic residue - semi-coke is incinerated in process furnace where solid coolant is produced. Excess of semi-coke are discharged for further use as raw material.

EFFECT: utilisation of liquid hydrocarbon wastes in high-ash low-calorie solid fuel processing in boiling bed with solid coolant and increase of liquid and gas hydrocarbons output.

5 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method and system for refined fuel thermal processing with solid heat carrier, can be used in fuel processing, chemical industries and power engineering. Fuel is dried in gas pipe, heated up in adsorbing exchanger by mixing with gas-vapour mixture and low-temperature coke; gas-vapour mixture and solid phase are separated in cyclone separator. Solid phase from adsorbing exchanger and from cyclone separator is mixed with solid heat carrier in mixing hopper of pyrolysis reactor and supplied to pyrolysis. Fuel is pyrolysed in air-fluidised bed with solid heat carrier in pyrolysis reactor designed as two base-connected cones with concave curvilinear generating. Activated carbon is produced by low-temperature coke fractionation 1-6 mm in separation unit consisting of louvre dust-concentrator, cyclone separator and ejector. Residual low-temperature coke is supplied with gas-vapour mixture to adsorbing exchanger. Gas-vapour mixture processed in cyclone separator is supplied to additional cyclone separator with low-temperature coke delivery. Solid heat carrier is delivered to coke heater with air-fluidised bed equipped with muffle with burners, in-built cyclone separators and bypasses, and returned to pyrolysis. Combustion gas containing dust-like particles is exhausted by bypass to gas pipe for adjustable drying of fuel. Allows for higher efficiency of fuel processing and for production of dust-free low-temperature coke.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of fuel processing and production of dust-free low-temperature coke.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: technological processes, fuel.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drying of solid fuel, its pyrolysis in reactor in fluidizated layer with solid coolant with preparation of steam-gas mixture and coal char, their discharge from reactor and separation. Steam-gas mixture is cleaned, and part of it is burned in combustion chamber of gas turbine with generation of electric energy and utilization of exhaust gases. Coal char is separated into coal char separator into two flows by fractions. Coarse fraction is sent to activator for production of activated coal, and the fine one - into gas generator for preparation of generator gas, which is then cleaned and conditioned together with remaining part of cleaned steam-gas mixture to prepare synthesis-gas, which is supplied to reactor for synthesis of liquid carbohydrates. Solid coolant is heated in technological furnace by its partial combustion with production of smoke gases and returned to pyrolysis reactor. At that prepared activated coal is directed as sorption material for purification of steam-gas mixture and generator gas, and spent activated coal is returned back to gasification stage.

EFFECT: maximum possible amount of high-quality liquid fuels of wide purpose with simultaneous efficient power generation by application of gas tube installation.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method of complex thermochemical solid fuel processing consists in drying and grinding of fuel to dusty condition. Pyrolysis is carried out to produce a steam and gas mixture and coal char. The steam and gas mixture is exposed to multistage division. At the first stage products are released, which are not exposed to further decomposition, such as di- and triphenyl methane, pyrene, diphenyl, phenanthren, chrysene. At the second stage naphthalene and hydroxynaphthalene is released, which make it possible to produce coal oil and are sent to a system of steam and gas mixture cleaning from benzol. At the third stage a light resin fraction is released. After multistage separation a coke gas is cleaned from hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and benzol. The cleaned coke gas is burnt in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine. Steam is produced, and combustion products are recycled in a recovery boiler. The produced steam is used during steam-oxygen gasification of a part of coal char. Activated carbon is produced from the remaining part of coal char, which is used as a sorbent. Also a plant is proposed for complex thermochemical processing of solid fuel.

EFFECT: complex processing of solid fuel with serial discharge of division products.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an apparatus for producing a pyrolysis product. The apparatus includes: a pyrolysis reactor (2) for forming pyrolysis product fractions from raw material by fast pyrolysis, a separating device (4) for separating fractions from pyrolysis product fractions after pyrolysis, a condensing device (3) for condensing gaseous pyrolysis product fractions to mainly liquid pyrolysis product fractions, a combustion boiler (1) arranged in conjunction with the pyrolysis reactor, a heat carrier which is heated in the combustion boiler and is used to transfer energy, and feeding devices (5, 6, 22) for feeding raw materials into the pyrolysis reactor and the combustion boiler. The apparatus is characterised by that the separating device (4) is arranged substantially in conjunction with the pyrolysis reactor (2) for separating fractions, different from the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions, from the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions after pyrolysis, wherein fractions different from gaseous pyrolysis product fractions also include a heat carrier, and said apparatus has means (13) for feeding fractions different from the gaseous pyrolysis product fractions the from the separator (4) to the combustion boiler (1), and said apparatus has means of feeding a by-product stream, a residue stream and/or a waste stream into the combustion boiler, said streams being selected from the following streams: non-condensible gases (10) from the condensing device, gaseous combustion product fraction (19), waste stream (23) from the feed material of the pyrolysis reactor and solid substances (21) from the condensing device, and said apparatus has means (9) of feeding heat carrier from the combustion boiler (1) into the pyrolysis reactor (2), and said apparatus has means of feeding carrier gas (14) into the pyrolysis reactor (2), and said apparatus has means of preparing a mixture of feed material (6) for the pyrolysis reactor and carrier gas (14) and means of feeding heated heat carrier (9) into the mixture of feed material for the pyrolysis reactor and the carrier gas.

EFFECT: apparatus enables to avoid the need to feed additional fuel into a pyrolysis reactor, and also enables to use different process streams, streams of by-products and undesirable intermediate/end products efficiently.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of conducting pyrolysis using a bubble fluidised layer boiler involves feeding solid fuel into a pyrolysis apparatus (4) having means (5) of feeding fluidising gas and one or more outlet openings (6) for removing condensed gaseous substances separated from the pyrolysed fuel into a condenser (8) through a line (7). The means (5) of feeding fluidising gas are arranged such that they form crossing streams of fluidising gas towards the direction of feeding the fluidised layer material and fuel. The fluidised layer material is fed from the furnace (1) of the boiler through an adjoining wall into the pyrolysis apparatus (4).

EFFECT: invention improves efficiency and provides longer dwell time of material in pyrolysis conditions.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of conducting pyrolysis involves feeding first starting material into a burning boiler and feeding second staring material into a pyrolysis reactor (a). Energy is obtained from the first starting material in the burning boiler and then transferred from the burning boiler to the pyrolysis reactor by a heat carrier (b). The heat carrier is heated in the burning boiler (c). Gaseous and liquid product fractions are obtained in the pyrolysis reactor from the second starting material via fast rapid pyrolysis (d). The second starting material is mixed with a carrier gas to obtain a mixture, and the heat carrier heated in the burning boiler is fed into said mixture (e). The heat carrier is pumped in a closed system from the burning boiler to the pyrolysis reactor and from the pyrolysis reactor to the burning boiler through a separation step (f). Most of the streams of by-products, residues and wastes are fed into the burning boiler (g).

EFFECT: invention enables to simultaneously obtain heat energy and pyrolysis products using an environmentally safe method.

11 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises recycling carrier material obtained at combustion 1 in the boiler fluidised bed to combustion process in pyrolysis 4b. Here, said material is mixed with solid propellant to extract condensable gaseous substances by heat released by hot carrier material incidental to offgas. Then, it is separated from offgas in separator 3 and forced by gravity between said separator 3 and combustion process in pyrolysis 4b. Wherein condensed gases are separated by fluidisation from said carrier mix and propellant. Now gases are separated from gas flow 7 of pyrolysis and converted into fluid as so-called pyrolysis oil. This method differs from known processes in that pyrolysis 4b is staged in boiler combustion chamber with circulating fluidised bed wherefrom carrier material coke and other combustibles mixed with carrier are forced via one or more return outlet pipes into combustion chamber. Invention covers the device for pyrolysis including combustion chamber 1 for combustion in fluidised bed, pyrolysis reactor 4 for circulation of carrier material in combustion in fluidised bed between combustion chamber and pyrolysis reactor. Note here that it additionally comprises fuel feed means 4, fluidising gas feed means 5 arranged in pyrolysis reactor and outlet 6 to extract condensable gases fro aid reactor 4 and gases condenser 8. Note that carrier material is circulated in combustion chamber simultaneously with hot offgas flow. Separator 3 is located above pyrolysis reactor 4. Said separator can separated carrier material from offgas. Circulation circuit comprises connection pipeline 11, 12 between separator 3 and pyrolysis reactor 4 to transfer carrier material by gravity to reactor 4 and return pipe 12, 12' between reactor 4 and combustion chamber 1 to feed carrier material to combustion chamber 1. Note that outlet 6 is made in pyrolysis reactor chamber 4, at its top section over the mix of carrier material fluidised bed with propellant, to discharge condensed gases from said reactor. Proposed device differs from known designs in that pyrolysis chamber is confined by combustion chamber 1 communicated via one or more return outlet 12` With combustion chamber 1.

EFFECT: simplified circulation circuit.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to obtain synthesis-gas from biomass performed is preliminary processing of biomass, including biomass crushing until particles with size 1-6 mm are obtained and drying raw material to moisture 10-20 wt %. After that, pyrolysis of biomass is carried out by means of fast pyrolysis technology, with temperature of pyrolysis layer being 400-600°C, and time of location of gaseous phase on pyrolysis layer being 0.5-5 s. Product of pyrolysis layer is pyrolysis gas and coal powder. Pyrolysis gas is separated from coal powder and solid heat carrier by means of cyclone separator. After that, coal powder and solid heat carrier are separated in separator to separate solid phases, coal powder is charged into coal powder bin for accumulation, solid heat carrier is heated in chamber of boiling layer heating and solid heat carrier is supplied to pyrolysis layer for re-use. After that, pyrolysis gas is supplied to condensate accumulator to condense aerosol and condensation of condensable part of pyrolysis gas is carried out to form bio-oil, after that formed bio-oil is pumped by high pressure oil pump and supplied to gasification furnace for gasification. One part of non-condensed pyrolysis gas is supplied on combustion layer for combustion with air, and the other part of non-condensed pyrolysis gas is supplied on pyrolysis layer as fluidising medium.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase gasification effectiveness, stability and reliability of installation for obtaining synthesis gas from biomass.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

Up!