Method of radioluminescent separation

FIELD: technological processes; mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exciting irradiation of minerals, luminescence filtration, registration of filtered luminescent light flux part and useful component separation according to a given light flux value. Light flux registration is performed in the zone of spectral luminescence density minimum of separated minerals. During light flux filtration blue-green spectral zone within the range of 450-550 nm is separated, e.g. through a couple of SZS-3 and SS-20 filters or interference filter with maximum permeability at 520-530 nm.

EFFECT: increased process selectivity.

3 cl, 9 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of enrichment and sorting of minerals, namely x-ray separation diamonds, and can be used in beneficiation of diamond ores.

Known method of separation, which consists in the irradiation of the partial minerals exciting radiation (x-ray) and the extraction of useful component, if the magnitude of the light flux luminescence useful component exceeds a certain (threshold) value (Gomon GO Diamonds. M: "engineering", 1966).

The disadvantage of this method is that along with the useful component, the luminous flux of the luminescence of the same size and give a number of other minerals that are not useful components. These minerals are extracted in the concentrate together with the useful component (diamonds), therefore, the selectivity of this method is not high enough.

There is also known a method of separation, which includes the partial irradiation of minerals exciting radiation (x-ray), filtering, spectral range luminescence, which has the maximum energy of the light flux luminescence, registration filtered part of the luminous flux of the luminescence, the decision to extract, if the magnitude of the light flux corresponds to the luminous flux of the useful component. For example, a maximum of lights is on stream luminescence of diamond is in the blue region of the spectrum (440-460 nm), therefore, to improve the selectivity of the separation, the registration of luminescence are in the blue region of the spectrum. To highlight this region of the spectrum using the appropriate filters (Technical description of the x-ray separator CDX116VE, DEBEX (Pty) Ltd, 1996, technical description of the separator LS-D-50-03 SPE "Thunderbird").

The known method partially eliminates the disadvantages of analogue, because it allows to get rid of the luminous flux of the luminescence in the red region of the spectrum, characteristic, for example, carbonate minerals group. However, the selectivity of this method is also not high enough. This drawback is due to the fact that in the region of the maximum luminous flux of the luminescence useful component number separated minerals also has a maximum luminous flux of the luminescence. For example, some minerals from kimberlite: zircon, halite, some varieties of quartz, minerals polevoshpatnyj groups have a strip of rentgenolyuminestsentnye in the blue region of the spectrum, the luminous flux which exceeds the luminous flux of rentgenolyuminestsentnye diamond in the same area. When using separation by filtering the blue region of the spectrum which has a maximum luminous flux of the luminescence of diamond, the detachable part of the minerals extracted in the concentrate together with diamond. And in kimberlites such m is neralu significantly (10-1000 times) more than diamonds. To improve the extraction subaluminous diamonds tend to increase the sensitivity of the separator, but it dramatically increases the flow in the concentrate separated minerals. This reduces the selectivity of separation, has a negative impact on the decline and reduces the efficiency of the enrichment in General. Thus, part of the diamonds with a weak luminescence cannot be separated from the other minerals in this way, namely, fluorescent separation with filtration area maximum luminous flux luminescence useful component (blue region of the spectrum), so the selectivity of this method is insufficient. Figure 4. shows the spectral density of the luminescence of diamond in comparison with the spectral density of a number of detachable minerals within the concentrate fluorescent separation after separation by the method prototype. Integral threads luminescence are equal and normalized so that the area enclosed between the spectral curve and the x-axis equal to one. The light fluxes equality means equality of received signals from them, so these samples are inseparable the method of the prototype.

The purpose of the invention is to increase the selectivity of the process by choosing the area in which differences in the spectral density of the luminescence of diamonds and OTDELA what's minerals maximum.

This goal is achieved by a method involving irradiation of minerals stimulating radiation, filtering luminescence, registration filtered part of the luminous flux of the luminescence and the separation of the useful component of a given value of light flux in which the registration of the luminous flux of the luminescence are in the area of the minimum of the spectral density of luminescence detachable minerals.

And when you filter the light flux emit blue-green region of the spectrum, for example, by using filters SES-3 and SS-20.

When filtering the light flux using an interference filter with maximum transmission at 510-530 nm.

Moreover, the irradiation of minerals voltage x-ray tube is maintained at 34-36 kV.

During the development of this method came from the following considerations.

It is known that radiation is characterized by the flow of energy that it takes, or just a light flux that is, the energy Distribution of the light flux at wavelengths λ referred to as the spectral energy density of the light flux or simply spectral density ΔE/Δλ (j/nm). It is obvious that the energy of the transmitted luminous flux, equal to

The integration is performed over the wavelength λ and across the spectrum. Check CBE is a new flow sensor without special measures is to convert the energy of the entire light flux E (within the range of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector into an electric signal, therefore, such sensors are called integral.

Radiation, which is fluorescent radiation, have significant non-uniformity of the energy distribution in the spectrum. In particular, time-resolved emission spectra of gases consist of fairly narrow (Δλ≈1 nm) thin lines. In these lines focuses almost all portable radiation energy. Spectra of crystals, such as diamonds and detachable minerals, represent one or more wide enough (Δλ≈50-100 nm) bands, usually bell-shaped form. The spectral density of luminescence in these bands also distributed unevenly, the lines have a maximum spectral density and "wings": the short wavelength wing - the part of the spectrum with wavelengths smaller than the wavelength band maximum, and the long-wavelength wing - the part of the spectrum with wavelengths greater than the wavelength of maximum spectral bands (figure 1). If the spectral bandwidth of the useful component and separated minerals do not overlap, it is advisable to select (filter), using, for example, filters, a part of the spectrum near the maximum of the spectral density of luminescence band of the useful component, as is done in the method prototype. Such filtering can suppress, for example, luminescence carbonate p. the genus in the red region of the spectrum. But if time-resolved emission spectra overlap, then this filter will not be effective enough. At that time, the allocation of spectrum in which the maximum observed differences in the spectral density luminescence useful component and alienate minerals, allows you to get the maximum differences in the signals of the photodetectors and, thus, to increase the selectivity of the separation.

To determine the area of maximum differences of the spectral density of the light fluxes of the luminescence of diamonds and detachable minerals regularities in the spectra of minerals from concentrates and tails of x-ray separation carried out on one of the concentrators AK "ALROSA" without using the filter. Mineralogical analysis showed that the concentrate separation together with diamonds contain carbonate minerals group (calcite, dolomite), minerals polevoshpatnyj group (plagioclase, microcline), zircon, halite. In the tails of separation, along with detachable minerals are diamonds.

The study of the spectra of rentgenolyuminestsentnye diamonds from concentrate separation showed that these diamonds give a large luminous flux luminescence, the luminescence spectra of diamonds is known As the strip, which has a maximum in the range 440-460 nm (figure 1) Diamonds from the tailings separation have less light output luminescence, compared with diamonds from concentrate, with a maximum of their luminescence is located in a green area of the spectrum at 520-530 nm (figure 2).

In the spectra of separated minerals from concentrate separation maximum luminescence is either in the blue spectral region (350-450 nm)or yellow-orange (550-600 nm) region of the spectrum or the intensity of the stream has highs in both these areas (figure 3). All these minerals were extracted in the concentrate separation together with diamonds as integral luminous flux of their luminescence was close to or exceeded the amount of luminous flux luminescence of diamonds.

As follows from figure 3, the set of spectra of separated minerals has a minimum intensity of luminescence in the blue-green region, namely, in the range 450-550 nm, where the spectral density of the luminescence of diamond exceeds the spectral density of the luminescence detachable minerals. In this area there are long-wavelength wing of the luminescence of diamonds that do not contain the maximum energy of radiation, but there is a minimum energy luminescence detachable minerals. Therefore, in this area there are the maximum differences in the intensity of luminescence of diamonds and detachable minerals, therefore, the use of registration of this spectral region, preferably for selective separat and diamonds. This region of the spectrum can be selected, for example, a combination of filters SES-3 and SS-20 or an interference filter with a maximum of 510-530 nm.

The technical solution is illustrated by figure 1-9 where:

1) spectra of rentgenolyuminestsentnye diamonds satisfactorily extracted by the method prototype;

2) spectra subaluminous diamonds, which are not retrieved by the method prototype;

3) spectra of a number of detachable minerals extracted in the concentrate separation together with diamonds on the method prototype;

4) is the spectral density of rentgenolyuminestsentnye diamond and several detachable minerals without filtering. Here and below: Gal - halite (rock salt), Cirk - zircon, Dol - dolomite, Cat - calcite Plag - plagioclase, D - diamond;

5) is the spectral density of rentgenolyuminestsentnye diamond and several detachable minerals after filtering region of the minimum of the spectral density detachable minerals;

6) flows radiation after filtering by the method prototype (not shaded) and the claimed technical solution (shaded);

7) is the spectral density of the luminescence of diamond (upper curve) and separated minerals after the interference filter with maximum transmission at 520 nm. Light flows to the filter are equal to each other;

Fig) streams radiation diamonds and detachable minerals after use the output of the interference filter;

Fig.9) - dependence of extraction separator of a number of minerals with variations in the intensity of the excitation (voltage x-ray tube to filter the blue-green region of the spectrum.

Specific example

Received at the concentrator concentrate fluorescent separation of the collected sample material consisting of diamond, halite (rock salt) and zircons. All these minerals extracted in the concentrate together with diamonds, because of their integral luminous flux (square shapes made between the spectral curve and the x-axis) is close or equal. Equality of light fluxes (figure 4) means equality of received signals from them, so these samples are inseparable the method of the prototype.

Conducted registration of luminescence spectra of the same minerals through the filters SES-3 and SS-20, which highlighted region of the spectrum, in which differences in the spectral density of the luminescence of diamonds and detachable minerals maximum. Spectra obtained through the filters, shown in figure 5. When this filtered luminous flux luminescence of diamond was about 0.45 from the stream without filtering, and the filtered light luminescence detachable minerals amounted to 0.22-0.28 from their stream without filtering.

Figure 6 shows the comparative values of light flux is s luminescence of diamond and detachable minerals when filtering according to the method prototype (figure 4) and the claimed technical solution (figure 5). Thus, after filtering the flow of luminescence of diamond was almost twice exceed the flow luminescence detachable minerals, hence, the received signal from the diamond was almost two times larger than the signals from the separated minerals. If you set the threshold separation, for example, at the level of 0.7 from the stream luminescence of diamond, when filtering according to the method prototype in the concentrate will extract all minerals, with the exception of calcite. And when you filter according to the claimed technical solution in the concentrate will be extracted only diamonds. Thus, the filtering area of the minimum of the spectral density of luminescence detachable minerals increases the difference between the signals received from diamonds and detachable minerals, therefore, allows to increase the selectivity of the separation process.

The maximum selectivity is achieved by recording the luminescence in a narrow spectral range (about 20 nm) at 510-530 nm. This range is allocated, for example, the use of interference filters. Figure 7 shows the spectra of the samples obtained with the use of this filter, and Fig - correlation between signals from luminescense diamond and minerals that you want to separate. As follows from Fig, this interference filter has a sufficiently high efficiency the efficiency, allowing to significantly increase the ratio between the signals from the luminescent diamonds and detachable minerals.

Experiments with this breakdown continued use of the separator for laboratory processing of samples. In the separator before the sensors were installed with the same filters (SES-3 and SS-20 or interference filter). Filters the selected area of the spectrum, in which differences in the spectral density of the luminescence of diamonds and detachable minerals maximum.

Because the filters partially suppress the amount of light luminescence of diamonds and luminous flux separated minerals, the sensitivity of the separator was changed. To determine the selective mode of operation of the separator is required to obtain the dependence of the extraction of the cage from its sensitivity. The sensitivity of the separator in the experiment was controlled by the variation in the intensity of excitation (the change of the voltage U on the x-ray tube of the separator, Fig.9).

As follows from figure 9, when the high sensitivity of the separator (voltage x-ray tube over 40 kV) selectivity of separation is not observed when installing filters. But when the x-ray tube voltage of the order 34-36 kV extraction of diamonds remains at 100%, and removing the separated minerals decreases, i.e. the selectivity is apararii increases. In the concentrate separation gets about 65% of the zircons and about 70% of rock salt. When the voltage on the x-ray tube up to 34 kV extraction of diamonds is not out of the permissible limits and is about 98%. The concentrate is extracted about 60% of the zircons and about 50% of the crystals of rock salt. Thus, when carrying out the separation with filtration area of the minimum of the spectral density of luminescence detachable minerals, based on removing the separator from its sensitivity has selective separation mode at a given extract (98-100%). Therefore, the filtering area of the minimum of the spectral density of luminescence detachable minerals can improve the selectivity of the separation upon extraction of the useful component.

This method of separation is highly efficient, as it requires minimal additional costs and alterations in the separators, but reduces the output luminescent detachable minerals in the concentrate by 40-50%.

1. The method of x-ray separation of minerals, including the irradiation of minerals stimulating radiation, filtering luminescence, registration filtered part of the luminous flux of the luminescence and the separation of the useful component of a given value of light flux, characterized in that the registration of the luminous flux of lumines is entii are in the area of the minimum of the spectral density of luminescence detachable minerals, when filtering the light flux luminescence emit blue-green region of the spectrum in the range of 450-550 nm.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the filtering of the light flux luminescence using a couple of filters SES-3 and SS-20.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the filtering of the light flux luminescence using an interference filter.



 

Same patents:

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EFFECT: the invention ensures electrical safety of a separator and reliability of its operation with simultaneous decrease of weight and dimensions of a power supply source for an X-ray tube.

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The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, containing y under the influence of radiation minerals

The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, containing y under the influence of radiation minerals

The invention relates to the field of mineral processing, containing y under the influence of radiation minerals

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SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to mining industry, in particular, to diamonds mining. The technical result of the invention is increase of electrical safety of a separator and reliability of its operation with simultaneous decrease of weight and dimensions of a power supply source for an X-ray tube. The separator contains a device of loading of a feed stock, a chute for delivery of the feed stock in a zone of detection of a required product, an X-ray tube connected to a source of its power supply, a photomultiplier, a block of control and data processing, a device for separation of a target product and a device for separate collection of the target and the end products. The source of power supply for the X-ray tube contains a transducer of mains voltage into low-voltage high-frequency voltage, a high-voltage transformer and a voltage multiplier. At that the high-voltage transformer and the voltage multiplier and also the X-ray tube are placed in a hermetic body filled in with a high-voltage insulating substance. One wall of the body has an opening, in which there is a fixed anode of the X-ray tube, which window for pass of the X-rays protrudes beyond the limits of the body.

EFFECT: the invention ensures electrical safety of a separator and reliability of its operation with simultaneous decrease of weight and dimensions of a power supply source for an X-ray tube.

1 dwg

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