Thermo stabilised superconductor

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: thermo stabilised superconductors are implemented in the shape of matrix from metal or alloy, containing fibers of superconducting material and combination of rare-earth metals with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures. At that superconductor contains at least two metallic tubes of unconditioned cross-section filled by combination of rare-earth metals and distance between tubes is not less then two tube linear dimensions. Superconductor has external envelope made from metal with high conducting properties. Tubes with combination of rare-earth metals can be distributed either by section of conductor as in matrix or by envelope.

EFFECT: extension of superconductor capabilities by means of increasing of its heat-absorbing abilities.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of applied superconductivity and can be used in the manufacture of superconductors for highly mechanically loaded superconducting winding (with manual voltage of the conductor is greater than 100 MPa at work), and superconducting windings and devices operating in variable modes, for example a superconducting inductive energy storage, dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators.

Known superconductor, in which the fiber or multiple fibers are arranged in a matrix of highly conductive metal or alloy, see Foner S., Schwartz B. the Science and technology of superconducting materials, metallurgy, 1987, p.64.

A disadvantage of the known superconductor is limited ability to work in variable modes at speeds of change of magnetic field is greater than or of the order of 1 T/s In these modes, the superconductor will stand out heat that must be absorbed either by the superconductor due to its own heat, if the winding is tight with no channels for the passage of refrigerant, or refrigerant. Since the absorption capacity of the superconductor is limited up to the critical temperature of the superconductor, and the refrigerant in the channels, respectively, critical phenomena in heat transfer surface is heated is of verpovanija, especially in narrow channels (crisis mode boil with sharp, in tens of degrees, increasing temperature), hence there are temporary restrictions on the operation of modern superconductors in variable modes.

The closest technical solution is depletability superconductor made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy with a high conductive properties, containing fibers of superconducting material and a compound of rare earth metals with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures (for example, CeAl3, CeCu6, HoCu2, PrB6, Gd2O3, Gd2O2S, U6Fe, Ube13, UZn17). The compound of the rare earth metals can be dispergirovannom (distribution) throughout the matrix in the form of small particles. The compound of the rare earth metals can be distributed in the matrix in the form of veins with a substantially smaller cross-sectional dimension than the superconducting fibers, and these veins pass through the superconductor in parallel superconducting fibers. Also, these compounds can be in the form of an annular layer surrounding the matrix with one superconducting fiber, either in the form of concentric layers interleaved with the metal matrix. Actually the matrix can be made of compounds of rare earth metals and contain superconducting the fiber (US Patent 4623862, 1986, CL H01F 7/22).

Introduction compounds of rare earth metals with extremely high heat capacity (for example, when the boiling point of liquid helium at 4.2 K the heat capacity of intermetallic HoCu2450 times greater than that of copper, and ceramics, Gd2O2S, respectively, at 650 times) in superconductors with volume fractions 3÷6% 5÷10 times increases their average volumetric heat capacity. Accordingly increases their heat-absorbing ability and the ability to work in variable modes, as well as under high mechanical stresses superconductor, when necessary, the ability to resist the impulse to the local thermal mechanical origin (for example, the movement of the coils, the binder cracking coils of material, and so on).

The disadvantages of the known depletability superconductor are almost insurmountable difficulties in its manufacture. It is impossible to ensure uniform dispersion (distribution) of the fine powder of the compounds of rare earth metals by volume of the matrix superconductor because of the impossibility of uniform mixing of the powder in the melt of copper, because it is much easier for her.

Due to the fact that the compounds of rare earth metals, intermetallic compounds, such as PrB6or ceramics, for example Gd2O2S) about the rush to the class of chemical compounds, the distinguishing feature of which is a complex structure of the crystal lattice, they lose the ability to plastic deformation. In this respect, it is difficult to provide the necessary to achieve the specified parameters of the deformation of the composite billet in the presence vysokoenergoemkikh elements. It is therefore impossible to provide a standard operation seamless transfer pullback mandatory for superconducting wires by twisting preform wires to the desired cross sectional dimensions and the step of twisting when compounds of rare earth metals, as well as the superconducting material, for example, in the copper matrix in the form of rods, due to the significant difference of mechanical properties. It is also impossible to ensure a seamless transfer advance procurement superconductor, but without twisting, when the compound of the rare earth metals are placed in a matrix, for example, copper, in the form of one or more concentric layers, or itself performs the function of a matrix.

The technical result is to increase functionality.

To achieve a technical result of the proposed depletability superconductor made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fibers of superconducting material and a compound of rare earth metals with extremely high heat capacity at low the perature, when the superconductor further comprises at least one metal tube of arbitrary cross-section, filled with a compound of rare earth metals, the distance between the tubes is at least two linear dimensions of the tube, while the superconductor has an outer shell of metal with high conductive properties.

Tube connection of the rare earth metals can be distributed over the cross section of the superconductor.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 presents the cross-section of the superconductor based on Nb-Ti, in the centre of which is placed a tube with a compound of the rare earth metals, in particular ceramics Gd2About2S; figure 2 presents the cross-section of the superconductor on the basis of Nb3Sn in the matrix of which there are 10 tubes with a compound of rare earth metals, in particular intermetallic PrB6. The cross-section of the tubes need not be circular, it may be rectangular, trapezoidal, etc. 3 shows the electrical scheme of the experiment with the longitudinal electromagnetic perturbations applied to the samples made of superconductors (induction heating ring eddy currents), and figure 4 presents the dependencies stored in the capacitor energy electromagnetic who is umenia, when the sample of Nb-Ti enters the normal state (critical energy dissipation in the samples always proportional) from the current sample, which is placed in an external transverse magnetic field with induction b=3 T (critical current Iwith=515).

Using technological schemes and modes of production of superconductors based alloy Nb-Ti and connections Nb3Sn were obtained two experimental superconductor length of 500 m In the first superconductor compound of the rare earth metals (Gd2O2S) 1 (see figure 1) is concentrated in a single tube 2, tube diameter ˜0.4 mm), located in the center of the matrix 3, carrying fibers of the superconducting material of the Nb-Ti 4; the matrix is enclosed in an outer shell of copper 5. In the second superconductor (see figure 2), the compound of the rare earth metals (PrB6) 1 was concentrated in few tubes 2, (pipe diameter ˜0.05 mm),arranged in a matrix of bronze 3, containing fibers of Nb - 4. The superconductor Nb3Sn is obtained during high-temperature annealing, when the tin from the matrix diffuses into the fiber Nb. The matrix surrounded by a stabilizing copper outer casing 5.

Comparative tests for immunity to electromagnetic disturbances two samples of the first superconductor Nb-Ti (see figure 1). In one of them the presence of the light tube with ceramic Gd 2O2S, and in the other, the control, the tube is replaced with brass rod. The samples were superconducting wire diameter 0,72 mm, containing each 4242 fibers of Nb-Ti with a diameter of 6 μm, twisted with a pitch of 17 mm in the copper matrix. Samples of superconductors 6 (see figure 3) was placed in an insulating mandrel 7 to simulate adiabatic conditions. The mandrel 7 has been reeling the excitation coil 8 of copper wire with a diameter of 0.125 mm, containing 600 turns. Longitudinal electromagnetic disturbance was simulated discharge of the capacitor 9 through the switch 10 to the excitation coil 8. When this occurred electromagnetic oscillation frequency of 320 Hz, which led to the induction heating of the sample circular eddy currents with a characteristic time of damping of 1.1 MS. Figure 4 compares the dependence of energy of the perturbations, which converts the samples in the normal state (critical energy) on the magnitude of the transport current, for a sample containing vysokoenergoemkoe additive - ceramics Gd2O2S and the sample that did not contain. It is seen that the use of ceramics Gd2O2S with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures significantly increases the resistance of superconductors to pulse disturbances (see figure 4).

The concentration of compounds of rare earth metals in one or some of the metal tubes, which are distributed over the cross section of the superconductor, allows you to create conditions that will provide crushing and move relative to each other and the alignment of the crystallites in a line parallel to the superconducting fibers without breakages as the wire and separate the fibers.

The main method of receiving wires of a large construction length - drawing. This method of pressure treatment involves reducing the thickness of the peripheral and Central layers are almost the same size, but this occurs at loads of different types. Peripheral layers significantly ufonauts in the radial direction under the action of radial compressive stresses and to a lesser extent under the action of longitudinal tensile stresses. The Central layers, on the contrary, are much thinner in the radial direction under the action of axial tensile stresses and to a lesser extent under the action of radial compressive stresses. Under certain conditions, the radial compressive stresses in the Central layers are negligible. In this case: plastic shell - matrix, low-viscosity core connection of the rare earth metals (intermetallic or ceramic); there are additional tensile stresses associated with more intensive deformation of the shell. Under certain conditions who is causee in the Central layers of tensile stress can cause integrity stretch metal. Undesirable fact for plastic materials can play a positive role in forming compounds of rare earth metals. For designs with a Central location of material with high heat deformation by drawing created favorable conditions for the grinding of crystalline compounds of rare earth metals, their movement relative to each other, without causing destruction of the fibers. This can be explained by the fact that there is a loosening of the middle part or even the gap, creating a void into which rush crystallites from the periphery, thereby contributing to the redistribution of intermetallic in the process of plastic deformation of the optic zone and the shell of the highly conductive metal.

The need to ensure the distance between the tubes with a compound of rare earth metals, at least two linear dimensions of the tube ensures the integrity of the superconductor as a composite. Tube with rare-earth connection can be distributed in the matrix and in the shell of the superconductor.

The presence of the outer shell of metal with high conductive properties allows to compensate for the loss of part of the cross-section of the matrix occupied by tubes with a compound of rare earth metals. To eliminate electrical breakdown and burn Explorer sverkhprovodyashchikh magnets portion of its cross section (˜ 50%) should be occupied by metal with high conductive properties (e.g., copper, aluminum). In addition, when a superconducting material requires high-temperature annealing (Nb3Sn, Nb3Al, Nb3Ge), it is often convenient to place the tube with the compound of the rare earth metals in the outer shell.

Thus, the invention allows to obtain a superconductor, which by its characteristics can be used in the manufacture of superconductors for highly mechanically loaded superconducting windings operating in variable modes, for example a superconducting inductive energy storage, dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators.

Depletability superconductor made in the form of a matrix of metal or alloy containing fibers of superconducting material and a compound of rare earth metals with extremely high heat capacity at low temperatures, characterized in that the superconductor further comprises at least two metal tubes of arbitrary cross-section, distributed over the cross section of the superconductor, filled with a compound of rare earth metals, the distance between the tubes is at least two linear dimensions of the tube, and the superconductor has an outer Obolo is from metal with a high conductive properties.



 

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