Gas turbine engine combustion chamber

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: gas turbine combustion chamber contains a casing with an annular flame tube incorporating two spaced apart annular shells jointed together by the front wall streamwise first part, the said wall being furnished with heat-insulating screens arranged on the combustion space side. The said heat-insulating screens contain flanges and ribs on the side facing the front wall provided with the holes for the burner modules to be installed therein and for cooling air to pass through. The rib and flange, on every heat-insulating screen, are enclosed along the outline. The heat-insulating screen surface with the rib and the front wall form a space communicating, via the burner module holes, with the flame tube space. The flanges of adjacent heat-insulating screens together with the front walls form flowing channels. The front wall cooling air passage holes are arranged along the outline of every heat-insulating screen on both sides of a rub. The flange side facing the combustion space continues the screen surface.

EFFECT: low power engine, complete fuel combustion and reliable combustion chamber.

3 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, in particular to the structures of the main combustion chambers.

Known annular combustor of a gas turbine engine containing a frontal wall with fixed thereto insulating screen [patent GB 2297829, F23R 3/50, 2005].

A disadvantage of the known constructions is the presence of the connection of the frontal wall and a heat insulating screen high stresses due to temperature differences.

Closest to the claimed is the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine containing an annular flame tube with the frontal wall, adjoining insulating screen, consisting of many segments and many air-fuel burners [patent US 5479774, F02C 3/14, 1992].

In the known combustion chamber to reduce emissions of harmful substances, in particular to reduce the soot formation zone enriched fuel and located in the cavity of the flame tube between the air-fuel burners and at some distance from its walls, in the area of closing the fuel torches through the crack in the frontal wall and shelter heat insulating screen is a certain amount of air for diluting the enriched zone, thereby reducing the formation of soot. Used here, the method of supplying air in the enriched zone of the combustion chamber is inefficient, because the t is part of the air, supplied through a flat slit in the place where the rotating fuel torches dropped from this zone of the centrifugal forces of the rotating fuel torches, not reaching the centre of this zone.

In addition, the air cooling heat insulating screen using aperture installed on the air-fuel burner is released parallel to the wall of the heat insulating screen away from the air-fuel burner, and is not used for the dilution of the enriched zone and is not used in the combustion process.

The technical problem, which directed the claimed solution is to increase the fuel efficiency of the engine, the fuel combustion completeness and reliability of the combustion chamber by reducing the emission of harmful substances in exhaust gases by improving the cooling efficiency of the frontal wall of the flame tube and the secondary use of air cooling thermal barriers frontal wall for spraying fuel in a fuel burner and forming an air-fuel mixture and the combustion process.

The essence of the technical solutions is that in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, comprising a housing with an annular flame tube comprising two spaced apart annular shell, interconnected at the front by flow frequent the frontal wall, equipped with insulating screens from the cavity combustion, and thermal barriers contain shelves ribs on the side facing the frontal wall, and front wall made with holes for installation of burner modules and passage of the cooling air according to the invention at each shelter heat insulating screen edge and shelf made closed along a path, the surface of the insulating screen with an edge and a front wall form a cavity communicated with the cavity of the flame tube through the hole for the burner module, and a shelf adjacent insulating screens form with the frontal wall of the flow channels, and openings in its wall for the passage of cooling air are located on the contour of each insulating screen on both sides of the ribs, and the side shelves facing the cavity combustion, is a continuation of the surface of the screen.

In addition, the shelf heat shields from the side adjacent to the frontal wall is made arcuate in shape, and the surface insulating screens are made concave in the direction of the frontal wall.

Performing at each shelter heat insulating screen edges and closed shelves along the contour of the screen, i.e. without holes, cut-outs and openings allows you to divide the air flowing in the cooling heat-insulating screen into two parts and distribute it in the required ratio, allowing around air-fuel burners to form an air ring jet, to affect the air-fuel torch a torch on the outside, improving the quality of mixing and depleting the fuel-air mixture at the periphery of the torch, and uniformly cooling a heat insulating screen.

The surface of the screen edge and front wall forming a cavity through the opening for the burner module, in communication with the cavity of the flame tube. In this cavity through holes in its wall comes the main part of the air for cooling the greater part of the heat insulating screen and recycled for spraying fuel in a fuel burner unit, for forming an air-fuel mixture in the combustion process.

Shelf adjacent screens with the frontal wall form flow channels, in which through holes in its wall enters the second small portion of the air used for cooling the peripheral part of the insulating screens.

The inventive design allows for the elimination rich zone is formed at the place where the fuel torches, making them poor. This leads to improved quality of mixing fuel with air and increase the homogeneity of the mixture in the region of the frontal wall, and reduce uneven distributions of temperature in the cross section of the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and in the course. Resulting in reduced emissions of harmful substances in exhaust gases, improving fuel efficiency and increases combustion efficiency.

Running side shelves facing the frontal wall of arcuate form, allows to form within the flow channels of the vortex flow and thereby improve the heat removal from the surface of the insulating screens.

The running surface of the insulating screens concave shape in the direction of the frontal wall increases the resistance of screens to thermal deformation, which increases the reliability of the combustion chamber.

The invention is illustrated by figures.

1 shows a longitudinal section of the combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine of the claimed design. Figure 2 shows a view of the front wall and the cross section of the channels in heat insulation screens, and figure 3 is a longitudinal section of the frontal wall along the axis of the burner.

The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine includes a housing 1 with an annular flame tube comprising two spaced apart annular shell 2 and 3, connected at the front by the flow of this header pipe frontal wall 4, provided with insulating screens 5 from the side of the cavity combustion 6. Thermal barriers 5 contain ribs 7 on the side facing the frontal wall 4, and the shelf 8. Front wall 4 is made with a hole at back is s 9 for installation of burner modules 10 and calibrated holes 11 for the passage of cooling air. At each shelter heat insulating screen 5 rib 7 and a shelf 8 are closed along the contour of insulating screen 5 without tears, cuts or holes. The surface of the insulating screen edge 7 and a front wall 4 to form the cavity 12, is in communication with the cavity of the flame tube 6 through the opening 9. Shelves 8 nearest insulating screens 5 form with the frontal wall 4 flow channels 13. Calibrated holes 11 on the frontal wall 4 for the passage of cooling air are located on the contour of each insulating screen 5 on both sides of the ribs 7, and the side shelves 8 facing the cavity combustion 6, is a continuation of the surface of the screen 5.

Part of the air flow high pressure 14, 15 forms a vortex flow, which exits through the open ends of the flow channels 16, 13 and partially through the gaps 17 between the heat-shielding screen 5. Around the air-fuel burner modules 10 is formed an annular jet of air 18.

The combustion chamber is as follows.

Air flow 14, 15 high pressure from the body cavity of the combustion chamber flows through an orifice 11 from the inner side of the ribs 7 in the cavity 12 between the frontal wall 4 and the insulating screen 5. Air flow 14, moving parallel to the wall of the heat insulating screen 5, cools it and going out in the ring the spruce along the axis of the air-fuel burner 10 from the outer side of the air-fuel torch, secondarily used when mixing. When this occurs, the effect of the air ring of the jet 18 at an air-fuel torch, additional agitation of the mixture of air and depletion of the peripheral zone of the torch. The closure adjacent torches downstream happens depleted surfaces, resulting not formed locally enriched fuel zones, the mixture is formed more uniform concentration. When burning in these places, local zones of high temperatures is not formed, thereby the emission of harmful substances in the exhaust gases is reduced, improving the combustion efficiency and fuel economy of the engine. The concave surface of the insulating screens to the side of the frontal wall reduces the cross-sectional area of the cavity 12 in the direction of the burner, when the movement of air increases its speed and, accordingly, the heat dissipation from the surface of the screen 5. In addition, the concave conical surface in comparison with the flat has a greater stiffness, which is more resistant to thermal deformation.

A small portion of the air stream 14, 15 high pressure from the body cavity of the combustion chamber flows through an orifice 11 from the outer side edges 7 in the flow channel 13 between the insulating screens 5 and forming a vortex flow, cools the shelf 8 and the rib 7. Vortices the eve thread, moving in the channel 13, extends into the cavity of the flame tube 6 through the open ends of the flow channels 16, 13 and partially through the gaps 17 between the insulating screens 5.

1. The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine, comprising a housing with an annular flame tube comprising two spaced apart annular shell, interconnected at the front by the flow of part of the frontal wall, provided with insulating screens from the cavity combustion, and thermal barriers contain shelves, the ribs on the side facing the frontal wall, and front wall made with holes for installation of burner modules and the passage of cooling air, wherein each shelter heat insulating screen edge and shelf made closed along a path, the surface of the insulating screen with an edge and a front wall form a cavity communicated with the cavity the flame tube through the hole for the burner module, and a shelf adjacent insulating screens form with the frontal wall of the flow channels, and openings in its wall for the passage of cooling air are located on the contour of each insulating screen on both sides of the ribs, and the side shelves facing the cavity combustion, is a continuation of the surface of the screen.

2. The combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine according to claim 1, distinguished by the lasting themes that shelf heat shields from the side adjacent to the frontal wall is made arcuate in shape.

3. The combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the insulating screens are made concave in the direction of the frontal wall.



 

Same patents:

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