Basement structure

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.

EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.

8 cl, 8 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a Foundation structure of the building. The Foundation structures of this type have the features set forth in the restrictive part of claim 1 of the formula of the present invention.

More specifically, the invention relates to a base structure, erected on the ground. Usually the soil is dry, and on a flat horizontal upper surface of the bottom stack a layer of material that violates a capillary action, such as crushed stone (macadam)having a particle size of 2-4 mm

From experience gained over a long period of building foundations, it is well known that during the Foundation directly on the ground there is always the risk of seepage of moisture through the Foundation and its supply in the building, erected on this Foundation. Odors are also able to penetrate through the Foundation. In particular, it was also discovered that own the smell of the soil, "Jasmine" smell, also tends to penetrate through the known base structure.

The Foundation structure should not only be impervious to odors, but must also be installed quickly and with little cost, while the tightness of the Foundation structure will also meet the requirements of its integrity.

In accordance with the present invention is a manufacturing as a whole aronica is for my smells Foundation structure of the desired size, which can be without difficulty collected from lightweight items.

On a bearing surface in the form of a properly aligned layer laid on the plot of ground, put the foil impervious to "Jasmine" smells and preserving its integrity in the environment in which it is placed, over a very long time, for example of the order of a hundred or several hundred years. Such foil is often exposed soil moisture and condensate in an environment that can often be acidic or contain aggressive substances. Therefore, particularly suitable is a metal foil, which can withstand this environment for a long time, and remain impervious to "Jasmine" smells.

If a metal foil such as aluminum foil, to be laid directly on the specified alignment layer, so that it was in direct contact with a granular material of this layer, the foil preferably should be relatively thick, for example with a thickness of about 0.1 to 1 mm, so that it over time did not become permeable due to the impact on it of the weight of the building through the elements of the basement and close contact with the alignment layer. Metal foil such thickness can be obtained in the form of a roll, which can be rolled directly on the natural installation of Foundation structures on the site for the Foundation. To reduce the risk of damage to the foil when it is laid under the Foundation foil should also have high tensile strength. If in practice the width of the foil is less than the width of the Foundation structure, the cloth foil can be stacked next to and connected to each other, for example the lap to provide proof foil for odors. In accordance with this task can be set to the width of the jet foil, which can be a strip or layer of glue, adhesive tape or easily deformable foil, preferably elastic foil having sufficient width to overlap overlap and ensure thus impermeable foil for odors in a wide area of air infiltration. Usually, the only connection the lap between adjacent panels of aluminum foil, since such compounds are usually under pressure along their entire length. Before laying a metal foil leveling the surface may be first covered with a plastic foil, for example, to prevent the ingress of sand into a possible connection lap between adjacent panels of aluminum foil. In one embodiment, the aluminum foil may be laminated plastic foil, if necessary, for example for ease of manual operations, although relative to the tion thick and impermeable to odors foil, preferably aluminum foil, used in accordance with the present invention, can maintain its integrity over a very long time and even in a hostile environment. Most types of plastic foil will not retain integrity in this environment during the same period of time.

Possible, of course, an embodiment of the invention, which is impermeable to odors foil such as aluminum foil may be placed between two layers of insulating material contained in the base structure. In this case, the aluminum foil can be thinner, since the insulation material forms a smooth bearing surface, which can be rolled foil.

The purpose of the present invention is achieved. The invention is characterized by the following independent claim, while private embodiments of the present invention are characterized in the dependent claims.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention the surface is first prepared by dewatering and then laying on the surface of the layer of material that violates a capillary action, such as crushed stone having a particle size of 2-4 mm, with subsequent alignment of this layer to create a flat and the horizontal surface.

The first layer of gravel tightly to one another, stack the finished sheet or sheets of standard size, such as rectangular sheets of porous insulating material, such as foam glass (foamglasR) thickness of 50 mm is also Possible laying another layer such closely adjacent one to the other sheets; however, the connection between adjacent sheets of the second layer have to be shifted relative to the joints between adjacent sheets of the first layer.

The seams joining these sheets need to try to make impervious to liquid. The porous insulating material is preferably a foam glass (foamglasRor any other material that has a minimum of surface absorption and bulk absorption in relation to water, as well as extremely resistant to pressure, are able to resist parasites, is an effective insulator and has a diffusion-proof.

Insulating layers is convenient to surround frame, the elements of which may consist of channel profiles from sheet metal, the concave side of which facing the inside of the element of the Foundation. The area inside the frame is filled resistant to compression of the insulating material, for example, two stacked on top of each other by porous layers of insulation (foam glass 2×100 mm). The frame element fu is damanta, stabilize, having built it I-beams, sheet metal, in parallel to one channel of the frame profiles. The girder element of the Foundation are mechanically connected so as to stabilize it. The element of the Foundation may have a thickness of, for example, 200 mm When using the element of the Foundation channel profiles and I-beams fixation of porous insulating sheets with respect to beams is ensured by adding sheets of corresponding form and the introduction adjacent to the beam portion of the sheet into a hollow beam. Thus the top horizontal shelf beams can be used for spot fixing wall of the building erected on the Foundation structure. Building design can take the form of a finished box, usually of plant production, made away from the base structure. There is also a variant in which the block is placed separately on a base structure on it, and then set loose components wooden structure or a frame house, which is then affixed to the metal shelves block.

It was found that, in practice, the smells still pass through the sealing foil, even a plastic foil with a low transmittance smells, so it is preferable to use a sealing layer, including the nes metal alloy or metal.

As far as we know, aluminum foil provides the necessary proof for smells already at a thickness of 0.01 mm, although thicker foil, of course, will be more reliable in this regard and will also facilitate the Assembly of a base structure, because the foil of this type can be delivered in rolls that can be easily deployed in a band, straightened and laid on the Foundation structure.

The invention is hereinafter described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

figure 1 schematically depicts a vertical section of the proposed Foundation of the structure;

figure 2 schematically depicts the connection of lap two foil strips of impermeable to odors material;

figure 3 depicts a variant of the vertical section presented in figure 1;

figure 4 schematically depicts a vertical section of the proposed Foundation of the structure of another embodiment;

5, 6 and 7 respectively depict cross-sections of frame elements in the frame construction, which can be incorporated in the base structure; and

Fig depicts an embodiment of a sheet to which is attached a sealing foil.

As shown in figure 1, on site installation of Foundation structures is drained layer 50 of the soil, which itself can serve as a barrier to pillango actions or have the floor, serving such a barrier, preferably in the form of a layer of crushed stone, and the upper surface 51 of the barrier 50 is essentially flat and horizontal.

On the surface 51 is placed aluminum foil or metal sheet material 111 having a preferred thickness of at least 0.1 mm, preferably 0.3 to 0.5 mm on Top of the foil 111 stacked layer of insulating material, preferably foam. The 40 sheets of foam together and laid on top of the foil 111. The sheet 40 is stabilized by means of a frame 31, which surrounds at least mutually United sheets 40.

If the foil 111 is received in the form of strips having a width less than the width of the Foundation structure, the strip of foil can be laid with the connection 112 lap. To minimize the probability of penetration of odors in the vertical direction through mutually connected strip of foil 111 across the width of the connection may be caused to the sealing layer, for example a durable adhesive. Otherwise, the tightness of the seam may be achieved by welding, adhesive tape or similar technical means.

Figure 3 shows an embodiment in which the layer 17 of insulating material, for example mutually United 10 sheets of foam glass, placed on the surface 51 of the barrier to the capillary action, and aluminum Foll is and placed on the layer 17 to the stacking layer Foundation layer, made in the form of sheets 40 and the frame 31, on the foil 111.

Figure 4 shows a variant in which before laying frame with 40 sheets per layer 18 on the foil 111 is placed another layer 18 of the sheet 10, are mutually joined at the edges.

Frame 31 surrounds the layer of Foundation, formed by the sheets 40, locking the integrity of the Foundation structure in the horizontal plane, and is also used for the mount point of the building, supported by the base structure. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, in the open parts of the edges of the sheets 40 can be made the cut for the shelves elements 32 of the frame, usually having the form of a channel (figure 5). In an embodiment of the invention, presented in Fig.6, item 32 of the frame has approximately the same height as the sheets 40, while the upper and lower surfaces of these sheets is slightly undercut to allow the shelving elements 32 of the frame. As shown in Fig.6, in the joints between adjacent sheets 40 can be arranged I-beams 37, and these sheets have connections cutouts for fixing shelves I-beams so that the beam may have the same height as the sheet 40. At present, however, it is preferable that the free distance between the shelves of the elements of the frame corresponds to the thickness of the sheets of insulating material. Shelves ele is having frames have only a small thickness, for example, a thickness of 1 mm, and their location above the main surface of leaves usually does not cause problems.

Frame 31 typically has a rectangular shape and includes direct, channel profiles, made of sheet metal, which are connected to each other (Fig.7) in the corners of the frame by means of rivets, screw connection, adhesive bonding or suitable devices for the connection between the overlapping parts of shelves profiles. The profiles are essentially the same size jumpers and a small thickness, for example 1 mm.

From Fig.6 shows that between the elements of the frame 31 can be stretched traction 43 to hold the frame elements in the horizontal plane.

It should be noted that the frame 31 with attached 40 sheets of insulating material may be part of the finished volume of the block, so that the Foundation can be done by installing this unit on a base structure and addition of any parts of the Foundation, which can be previously mounted on the installation location of the base structure and through which the blocks can be interconnected with the formation of the shell of the building on the Foundation structure.

It is obvious that the base structure can be performed, as shown in figures 1, 3 and 4, and from the loose wooden parts or units may be in Sweden the building frame and attached to the frame structure.

In the modification scenarios, shown in figure 3 and 4, you can use the additional frame, which holds the remaining insulating layers and, possibly, intermediate or placed outside the sheet 111 foil or metal.

One of the insulating layers (17, 18) may be formed preferably of a rectangular insulating sheet 10, connected to each other at the edges. One main surface of the respective sheets 10 may be covered with a piece of metal foil 11, preferably aluminum foil. Pieces of metal foil 11 on the sheet 10 can be hermetically connected to the lap, for example, by overlapping the edges 12 of the metal film located on the side of the foil adjacent elements along their respective joints. There is also a variant in which the foil that covers the sheet 10 may have the edge 12, protruding beyond the edges of two adjacent elements and overlying the foil covering the edges of adjacent elements.

Both layers 17, 18 can be formed by connecting the finished sheet 10 coated foil 11. The sheets 10 of these two layers is convenient to Orient so that their shells foil 11 were in contact with each other, so that the insulating sheets 10 layers 17, 18 are separated adjacent to each other the layers of foil. The shell or coating 11 of the foil sheets 10 is equivalent to the composition of the foil 111, described above.

Preferably, the connection between the sheets 10 of the respective layers 17, 18 are offset relative to each other.

1. Foundation structure of the building, including heat and damp-proofing layer (17, 18, 40), which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) of the layer of material that violates a capillary action, characterized in that it comprises a frame (31), which surrounds the specified heat and damp-proofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least in its upper part, thus locking the integrity of the Foundation structure in the horizontal plane, and which is used for the mount point of the building, supported by the base structure, with the specified base structure sealed foil (111) from a metal material.

2. Foundation structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the foil (111) is located under the specified layer(17, 18, 40).

3. Foundation structure according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the foil (11) is located directly on a given surface (51)which is formed by a layer serving as a barrier to capillary action and preferably consisting of crushed stone or gravel.

4. Foundation structure according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the foil used is luminova foil thickness, at least about 0.1 mm, preferably of thickness less than 1 mm and more preferably a thickness of about 0.5 mm.

5. Foundation structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the layer (17, 18, 40) includes at least two rows (17, 18) of insulating material, with a metal foil (111) is located between two adjacent vertical insulating rows.

6. Foundation structure according to claim 5, characterized in that the foil (111) has a thickness of at least 0.01 mm, preferably a thickness of, at most, 1 mm.

7. Foundation structure according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the frame parts (31) together with parts of the heat and damp-proofing layer is connected to the appropriate finished building large blocks, which when mounted on a base structure formed on it the frame of the building.

8. Foundation structure according to claim 5, characterized in that each of the insulating layers (17, 18) is formed connected to each other by the sheet (10) of insulating material, with one major surface of each sheet (10) is covered with a piece of foil (11), these pieces of foil (11) together form specified foil (111)layers (17, 18) covered by these pieces of foil (11) facing each other, the edge (12) of the specified material foil, preferably aluminum foil, tightly connects the coating is (11) foil on adjacent tiles (10), in at least one of the layers (17, 18); and the connection between the sheets (10) in the respective layers (17, 18) are displaced relative to each other.

9. The Foundation structure of claim 8, characterized in that the edge (12) is formed by edges (12) of the foil, covering the leaves, which extend beyond respective edges of the sheets (10) along two adjacent edges, and protruding edge (12) of the specified coating of the foil are arranged such that they overlap the adjacent edge of the coating of the foil (11) on adjacent tiles.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: constructional engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.

EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.

EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.

SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.

EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.

5 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.

4 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.

SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.

EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.

SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.

9 dwg

The invention relates to the construction and erection of buildings and structures on freezing heaving soils

FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.

SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.

9 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.

EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.

2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.

SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.

EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.

5 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.

SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.

EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.

3 dwg

FIELD: constructional engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.

EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

Basement structure // 2334050

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.

EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.

8 cl, 8 dwg

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