Single-axle wheel-mounted vehicle

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to single-axle vehicles with body stabilisation effected by means of a moving mass and gyros. The outer frame lengthwise half-axles accommodate an inner frame, one of the said half-axle being linked to the inner frame stabilisation motor. A bearing platform is rigidly attached to the inner frame to carry the load and to accommodate a flywheel so that the bearing platform centre of inertia is arranged above the wheel pair running half-axles. The inner frame accommodates, also, two bi-degree gyros and a balance weight. The flywheel arranged on the platform represents a motor connected to the control unit, the motor axis of rotation being parallel to the wheel pair running half-axles. The flywheel rotation speed increment is inversely proportional to the vehicle speed increment.

EFFECT: higher reliability and accuracy of stabilisation of the bearing platform at wider range of its angular travel.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to highly mobile vehicles and can be used for automated handling by predetermined and/or controlled trajectory cargo complexes, for example, robots are used, in particular in military and anti-terrorism purposes, and can also be used in industrial and technological purposes in various industries.

The feature is known in the prior art uniaxial wheeled vehicles is high mobility, due to the presence of only one pair of coaxial wheels, providing the opportunity of mobile spreads by adding wheels of different size and sign of the angular velocities of rotation. In particular, if the angular velocity of the wheels is equal and opposite in direction, is the reversal of the vehicle on the spot. Another feature of uniaxial wheeled vehicles is the presence of angular degrees of freedom of its supporting platform relative to the axis of the wheelset. This provides the ability to control the angular position of the carrier platform around the axis of the wheelset, in particular stabilizing it in the plane of the horizon. These circumstances determine the high efficiency of such vehicles in solving a wide range of practical tasks associated with t is unsportingly and the angular orientation of the transported money, for example cargo complexes.

In the prior art it is known uniaxial wheeled vehicle with inertial and gravitational control and stabilization of the angular position of its supporting platform relative to the horizontal plane described in article Abiline "Mathematical modeling of the dynamics of uniaxial mechatronic vehicle, "mechatronics, automation, Control", Proceedings of the First all-Russian scientific-technical conference with international participation, Vladimir, Vladimir state University, 28-30 June 2004, This is a known uniaxial wheeled vehicle includes a wheel pair axle carrier platform mounted on the wheel pair so that its center of mass is located above the axis of the pair of wheels located on the carrier platform two driven engine wheels, the mechanism of displacement of the center of mass of the carrier platform along its longitudinal axis, comprising the balance weight and move it balancing the engine, the measuring system of orientation and navigation, connected through the control unit with the corresponding windings of the drive control and balancing of engines. In this known uniaxial wheeled vehicle is provided the ability to control the angular orientation of the bearing platform relative to the plane of the horizon only what about around the axis of the wheelset in a narrow range of angles (of the order of ± 30°). This is achieved by changing the speed of the translational movement that generates inertial forces and moments of inertia forces applied to the carrier platform, around the axis of the wheelset, and the simultaneous displacement of the balance weight from the axis of the pair of wheels along the longitudinal axis of the carrier platform. The subsequent reversal of the vehicle around the vertical axis (by giving the wheels a different angular velocity of rotation) is the angular deviation platform in the specified narrow range around any axis in the plane of the horizon coinciding at the moment with the axis of the wheel pair. However, there are instability of the speed of movement of the vehicle and the necessity of its required angular rotation about the vertical axis under the control of the angular position of the carrier platform around a horizontal axis that does not coincide with the axis of the wheel pair. The precise control of the angular orientation of the bearing platform relative to the plane of the horizon is low in this case, since the carrier platform is exposed to uncompensated disturbances due to the roughness of the working surface in the direction of the axis of the wheelset and the impact of disturbing moments of inertia forces around the axis of the wheelset, which arise at any speed changes not related to the management of the corners of the th orientation of the supporting platform relative to the plane of the horizon, and ineffective fending off moments of gravity created by balancing the load.

In the prior art is also known uniaxial wheeled vehicle is described, for example, in JP patent 5213240 And, publ. 24.08.1993; in the application US 2004/0040756 A1, publ. 04.03.2004; US patent 3844225 And, publ. 29.10.1974; in the application WO 9623478 And, publ. 08.08.1996 that for stabilization of the carrier platform is equipped with gyroscopes. However, in all these wheeled vehicles gyroscope is used either as measuring the orientation angle of the carrier platform around the axis of the wheelset or in the mode of stabilization as a direct regulator carrying out the compensation of disturbing moments gyroscopic torque around the axis of the wheelset. In the control mode in these wheeled vehicles gyroscope is used to control the angular position of the platform is also only around the axis of the wheelset. Direct gyroscopic stabilization does not provide reliable and high-precision stabilization of the carrier platform, especially in conditions of long-term maneuvering. Furthermore, in such known wheeled vehicles are not implemented stabilization and control the angular orientation of the bearing platform simultaneously around the axis of the wheelset and around the longitudinal axis.

Thus, we can conclude that all these are known in the prior art uniaxial wheeled vehicles may not provide a high level of reliability and accuracy of stabilization of the carrier platform.

The invention is directed to improving the reliability and accuracy of stabilization of the carrier platform by expanding the range of its angular movements.

This technical result is ensured by the fact that the uniaxial wheeled vehicle includes a wheel pair, mounted rotatably by means of drive motors on two coaxial axes placed on the outer frame, which can be rotated by the other two coaxial axes associated inner frame, one of these axes associated with motor stabilization of the inner frame, is placed on the outer frame, and a pair of axes of rotation of the wheel pair and a pair of axes of rotation of the inner frame orthogonal to each other and placed in the same plane. On the inner frame is rigidly fixed to the supporting platform, designed for accommodation of the transported goods and the flywheel, so that the center of mass of the carrier platform is located above the axes of rotation of the wheel pair. In addition, on the inner frame has two two-stage gyro and balancing the load in such a way that their centers of mass are located in the General plane of the placement of the axes of rotation of the wheel pair and the axes of rotation of the inner frame. The balance weight is placed can be moved along the axis, the PE pendicular the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, through the balancing of the engine, mounted on the inner frame. The first two-stage gyro is equipped with a sensor of the angle of precession and torque on the axis of precession. Kinetic moment of the first two-stage gyro normal to the General plane of the placement of the axes of rotation of the wheel pair and the axes of rotation of the inner frame. The axis of precession of the first two-stage gyro is perpendicular to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, and the output of the angle sensor precession of the first gyroscope is connected through the control unit with the balancing motor, mounted on the inner frame. The second two-stage gyro is also equipped with a sensor of the angle of precession and torque on the axis of precession, its momentum normal to the plane which contains the axis of rotation of the wheel pair and the axis of rotation of the inner frame. The axis of precession of the second two-stage gyro is parallel to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, and the output of the sensor of the angle of precession of the second two-stage gyro is connected via a control unit with motor stabilization of the inner frame. The flywheel is placed on the carrier platform, made in the form of the engine, the axis of rotation which is parallel to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, and this motor is connected to the output of the control unit, and the increment of the speed and rotation of mahawi is and is connected with the velocity increment uniaxial wheeled vehicles ratio

where m is the total mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform, transported cargo and flywheel; l is the shortest distance from the axis of the wheels to the center of mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform, transported cargo and flywheel; J - moment of inertia of the flywheel about the axis of its rotation.

For a clearer expression of the invention its formula is made without taking into account the above analogs, which does not contradict the requirements of paragraph 3.3.2.3 (1) the current edition of the Rules of drafting, filing and examination of applications for the grant of a patent for an invention.

The invention is illustrated with the help of graphic materials, in which figure 1 is given a schematic representation of uniaxial wheeled vehicles, figure 2 schematically shows the relationship of the coordinate systems with uniaxial wheeled vehicle, figure 3 schematically shows the relative location of the external and internal frames mounted on the inner frame two-stage gyroscopes and related coordinate systems, figure 4 shows the layout of the gyro signal in modes of stabilization and attitude control of the carrier platform.

As shown in the graphic materials, uniaxial wheeled transport among the STV contains wheel pair 1, mounted for rotation by the drive motor 2 at the two coaxial axle shafts 3. Hereinafter, the combined axis of rotation of the wheel pair 1 are considered as the axis of rotation of the wheels axis wheels of the vehicle. Axis 3 is placed on the outer frame 4, which can be rotated by the other two coaxial axle shafts 5 is connected, the inner frame 6. Coaxial axis 5 of rotation of the inner frame 6 is determined and hereinafter considered as the longitudinal axis of the uniaxial wheeled vehicles. One of the axes 5 is connected with the engine 7 stabilization of the inner frame 6, which is placed on the outer frame 4. A pair of 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1 and the pair of the 5 axes of rotation of the inner frame 6 are orthogonal to each other and placed in the same plane. On the inner frame 6 is rigidly fixed to the supporting platform 8, designed for accommodation of transported cargo (not shown) and the flywheel 9. The center of mass of the carrier platform 8 when this is over 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1. On the inner frame 6 has two two-stage gyro 10, 11 and the balance weight 12 so that their centers of mass was located in the General plane of the placement of the 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1 and 5 axes of rotation of the inner frame 6. Balansirovochnye the th load 12 posted by can move along the axis, perpendicular to the 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1, by means of the balancing motor 13 fixed to the inner frame 6. The first two-stage gyro 10 has a sensor 14 of the angle of precession and the sensor 15 torque on the axis of precession. Kinetic moment of the first two-stage gyro 10 normal to the General plane of the placement of the 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1 and 5 axes of rotation of the inner frame 6. The axis of precession of the first two-stage gyro 10 is perpendicular to the 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1, and the output of the sensor 14 of the angle of precession of the first gyroscope 10 is connected via a control unit (not shown) with the balancing motor 13 fixed to the inner frame 6. The second two-stage gyro 11 is also provided with a sensor 16 of the angle of precession and the sensor 17 of the torque on the axis of precession. Kinetic moment of the second two-stage gyro 11 normal to the plane which contains the axis 3 of rotation of the wheel pair 1 and axis 5 of rotation of the inner frame 6. The axis of precession of the second two-stage gyro 11 is parallel to the 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1, and the output of the sensor 16 of the angle of precession of the second two-stage gyro 11 is connected via a control unit (not shown) with the engine 7 stabilization of the inner frame 6. The flywheel 9, placed on the carrier platform 8, made in the form of the number is I, the axis of rotation which is parallel to the 3 axes of rotation of the wheel pair 1, and the engine (flywheel 9) connected to the output of the control unit (not shown), and the increment of the speed and rotation of the engine (flywheel 9) is associated with the increment of velocity And uniaxial wheeled vehicles ratio

where m is the total mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform 8, the transported cargo (not shown) and the flywheel 9; l is the shortest distance from the axis of rotation of the wheel pair 1 (combined axis 3) to the center of mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform 8, the transported cargo (not shown) and the flywheel 9; J - moment of inertia of the flywheel 9 about the axis of its rotation.

Uniaxial wheeled vehicle works as follows. Control speed and direction of movement is determined by the supply voltage to the drive motors 2 wheel wheelset 1. When this rotation is due to the different angular velocities of rotation of the wheel pair 1, which are located coaxially. To change the angular orientation of the carrier platform 8 signal on the torque sensor 15 or 17 of the corresponding two-stage gyro 10 or 11, and the supporting platform 8 under the action of gyroscopic the moment provides the necessary rotation. When driving with the settlement of annoy speed compensation of external disturbance torques, seeking to change the angular orientation of the carrier platform 8, is based on the principles of gyroscopic stabilization, when the initial time disturbing moment of force is compensated by the gyroscopic moment, and then sultry system discharge, which is on the channel R is made in the traditional method using motor 7 stabilization of the inner frame 6, and the channel and is due to displacement of the balance weight 12 along the longitudinal axis of the inner frame 6. When moving with acceleration, when you may experience great moments of inertia forces, for their partial compensation, in addition to two-stage gyroscopes 10 and 11, use the flywheel 9, which is due to develop a reactive moment is able to parry the moments of inertia forces along the axis of the wheel pair 1 and due to the gyroscopic moment - moments of centrifugal forces along the longitudinal axis during movement on the curve.

Uniaxial wheeled vehicle in the combination of its features provides the ability to stabilize and control the angular orientation of the bearing platform 8 is not only around the axis of rotation of the wheel pair 1, but also along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, which allows to achieve a given angular orientation of the carrier platform 8 in the process of movement without changing the desired trajectory.

In addition, the profile is known from the prior art uniaxial wheeled vehicles, where stabilization and control the angular orientation of the bearing platform is carried out by changing the speed of the translational movement of the tool and the simultaneous displacement of the balance weight along the longitudinal axis of the carrier platform, in the invention for this purpose there are two two-stage gyro 10, 11 located appropriately on the inner frame 6. In addition, to ensure stabilization of the carrier platform additionally introduced the flywheel 9, located on the carrier platform 8, which provides the parry moments of inertia forces arising from the changes in the speed of the vehicle, as well as moments of centrifugal forces when driving on a curve.

The equations of motion uniaxial wheeled vehicles have the following form.

The equation of motion of the first wheel 1, recorded in the trajectory coordinate system (figure 2), has the following form:

where Jku- moment of inertia of the first wheel 1 around the y-axis;- angular acceleration of rotation of the first wheel 1; j - gear ratio drive motor 2 of the first wheel 1; Md- the torque delivered to the driving motor 2 of the first wheel 1; N1a normal reaction Doro and (working surface); a - longitudinal demolition of the normal reaction of the first wheel 1; Fx1- the thrust force of the first wheel 1; r is the radius of the wheel 1.

The equation of motion of the second wheel wheelset 1, recorded in the trajectory coordinate system (figure 2), has the following form:

,

where- angular acceleration of rotation of the second wheel pair 1; Md- the torque delivered to the driving motor 2 of the second wheel pair 1; N2a normal reaction of the road (working surface); Fx2- the thrust force of the second wheel pair 1.

The equation of motion of the outer frame 4, recorded in the trajectory coordinate system (figure 2), has the following form:

where JpxI , JruI , Jpzthe moments of inertia of the outer frame 4 relative to the main Central axis;- angular velocity and angular acceleration of rotation of the outer frame 4 and the inner frame 6 together with rigidly fixed thereto a bearing platform 8 around the transverse axis of the vehicle;- angular velocity and angular acceleration of rotation of the inner frame 6 together with rigidly fixed thereto a bearing platform 8 around the longitudinal axis of the vehicle;- angular velocity and angular acceleration of rotation of the vehicle around a vertical axis; MPIRthe moment created by the first gyroscope 10 on the y-axis; Mmindthe moment generated by the flywheel 9 on the y-axis; mPL- the mass of the inner frame 6 with the carrier platform 8 and installed on 13 elements; mg- the mass of the balance weight 12; l is the shortest distance from the axis of the wheel pair 1 to the center of mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform 8, the transported cargo (not shown) and the flywheel 9; g - acceleration of gravity, p is the displacement of the balance weight 12 from the zero position; JPLHI , JPldI , Jzthe moments of inertia of the inner frame 6 is rigidly fixed thereto a bearing platform 8 for the respective axes of rotation.

The equation of motion of the inner frame 6 is rigidly fixed thereto a bearing platform 8, recorded in associated with the loading platform 8 coordinate system (figure 2):

where JgI , JgI , Jgthe moments of inertia of the balance weight 12 with respect to its main Central axis; Mhgirthe moment generated by the second gyro 11 and the x-axis; Mhplmthe moment generated by the flywheel 9 xPL; Marticlethe torque delivered by the motor 7 stabilization of the inner frame 6.

The equation of motion of the balance weight 12, recorded in associated with the inner frame 6 of the CCW system is dinat (figure 2):

where FFe- power is applied to balance the load 12 from the balancing of the engine 13; Ft- resistance force to movement of the balance weight 12.

The simplified equations of motion of the first gyroscope 10, recorded in associated with the inner frame 6 coordinate system (figure 3):

where Jx1I , JN1the moments of inertia of the first gyroscope 10 according to the respective axes; δ1- the precession angle of the first gyroscope 10; H1- kinetic moment of the first gyroscope 10; Mhgir=Mkor1+MWOSM, MPIR- managing and gyroscopic moments of the first gyroscope 10.

Simplified equations of motion of the second gyroscope 11, recorded in associated with the inner frame 6 coordinate system (figure 3):

where Jx2I , JU2the moments of inertia of the second gyro on the appropriate axes; δ2- the precession angle of the second gyroscope; N2- kinetic moment of the second gyroscope; MPIR=Mcar+MWOSM, Mhgir- managing and gyroscopic moments of the second gyroscope.

The equations of motion of the flywheel 9, recorded in associated with the loading platform 8 system of coordinates (Phi is .2):

where Mum, Mmind- moments developed by the flywheel 9 and the respective axes gyro and reactive); Jmax- moment of inertia of the flywheel 9;- angular velocity and angular acceleration of rotation of the flywheel 9; andmax, imax- voltage and current in the windings of the flywheel 9;max, LAmah, rAmah- coefficient of the counter EMF of the flywheel 9, the inductance and resistance of the armature of the flywheel 9, respectively;

According to the invention can control the orientation of the carrier platform 8 in a wide range of angles relative to the longitudinal and transverse axes is provided by feeding the control signals from the control unit (not shown) on the sensors 15 and 17 points gyroscopes 10 and 11 (see figure 4): the sensor 15 of the first gyroscope 10 to implement the rotation bearing platform 8 around the transverse axis, i.e. around the axis of rotation of the wheel pair 1, and the sensor 17 of the second moment of the gyroscope 11 to rotate around the longitudinal axis. As can be seen from equations (5) and (7), there are gyroscopic moments applied to the carrier platform 8 on the appropriate axes and tending to rotate the carrier platform 8 in the desired direction.

From equations (2) and (3) shows that the mode of stabilization of disturbing moments, attached to the carrier platform 8 can varirirovalis jointly by the contours of the flywheel and gyroscopic stabilization. Based stabilization channel β lies the traditional principle of gyroscopic stabilization, which is parry disturbing moments in the initial moment of time gyroscopic moment (8)equal to the magnitude of the perturbation and in the opposite direction, and the subsequent elimination of the discharge circuit through the motor stabilization of the inner frame 6 (see figure 4). In addition, when driving on the turn to stabilize the carrier platform 8 in a predetermined angular position is additionally used gyroscopic torque delivered by the flywheel 9 (9). This is particularly important for the generation of high centrifugal forces, the elimination of which only through the principles of gyroscopic stabilization requires installation on the carrier platform massive gyroscopes with a large kinetic moment, which will adversely affect mass and energy characteristics of the vehicle.

Stabilization of the carrier platform 8 channel and is also sharing principles and gyroscopic flywheel stabilization. The use of gyroscopic stabilization in the traditional form is impossible, because there is no point of support for the engine reliable the implementation on the axis of the wheelset. In this regard, the invention uses the movement of the balance weight 12 (4) to create a discharge point on this axis (see figure 4). When driving the vehicle at a constant speed all disturbing moments on the axis of the wheelset 1 fending off gyroscopic moment (6) and discharge system without engaging the flywheel 9. If you programmatically set the speed, and there are moments of inertia forces applied to the carrier platform 8, for their partial compensation is used reactive torque developed by the flywheel 9 (10)that allows the use of gyroscopes with small kinetic moment.

Thus, the invention, presents the totality of symptoms, objectively provides high reliability and accuracy of stabilization of the carrier platform 8 by expanding the range of its angular movements.

Uniaxial wheeled vehicle containing wheel pair, mounted rotatably by means of drive motors on two coaxial axes placed on the outer frame, which can be rotated by the other two coaxial axes associated inner frame, one of these axes associated with motor stabilization of the inner frame, is placed on the outer frame, and a pair of axes of rotation of the wheel pair and a pair of polio is she turning of the inner frame orthogonal to each other and placed in the same plane, on the inner frame is rigidly fixed to the supporting platform, designed for accommodation of the transported goods and the flywheel, so that the center of mass of the carrier platform is located above the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, in addition, on the inner frame has two two-stage gyro and the balance weight so that their centers of mass was located in the General plane of the placement of the axes of rotation of the wheel pair and the axes of rotation of the inner frame, while balancing the load placed so that they can move along an axis perpendicular to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, through the balancing of the engine, mounted on the inner frame, the first two-stage gyro equipped with a sensor of the angle of precession and torque sensor on the axis of precession, the kinetic moment of the first two-stage gyro normal to the General plane of the placement of the axes of rotation of the wheel pair and the axes of rotation of the inner frame, the axis of precession of the first two-stage gyro is perpendicular to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, and the output of the angle sensor precession of the first gyroscope is connected through the control unit with the balancing motor, mounted on the inner frame, the second two-stage gyro also has a sensor of the angle of precession and torque sensor on the axis p is eassie, his momentum normal to the plane which contains the axis of rotation of the wheel pair and the axis of rotation of the inner frame, the axis of precession of the second two-stage gyro is parallel to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, and the output of the sensor of the angle of precession of the second two-stage gyro is connected via a control unit with motor stabilization of the inner frame, flywheel, placed on the carrier platform, made in the form of the engine, the axis of rotation which is parallel to the axes of rotation of the wheel pair, and this motor is connected to the output of the control unit, and the velocity incrementrotation of the flywheel is connected with the velocity increment V uniaxial wheeled vehicles ratio

where m is the total mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform, transported cargo and flywheel; l is the shortest distance from the axis of the wheels to the center of mass of a system of bodies, consisting of a supporting platform, transported cargo and flywheel; J - moment of inertia of the flywheel about the axis of its rotation.



 

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SUBSTANCE: front wheel 22 and rear wheel 13 of folding bicycle cantilever mounted at one side on rocking levers 4, 10, when bicycle is folded, are arranged opposite to each other. For this purpose, when folding the bicycle, front suspension 18 is disconnected from front post 1, and rear suspension 20 is disconnected from end of frame 3. Then front rocking lever 4 with front wheel 22 is turned relative to hinge joint 17 on front post to center of frame 3, and rear rocking lever 10 with rear wheel 13 is turned relative to central unit 11 to center of frame 3. Freely adjustable handlebar 9 and saddle 16 can also be folded up.

EFFECT: provision of size of bicycle, when folded up, corresponding to square with sides equal to diameter of wheels.

17 cl, 4 ex, 26 dwg

FIELD: automobile transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicle stabilizing devices. According to invention, stabilization of vehicle which contains rotating rotor with drive and speed control system is provided by increasing or decreasing speed of rotor under action of control system. Axis of rotating rotor is parallel to axis of vehicle.

EFFECT: increased lateral stability of vehicle.

1 dwg

Bike // 2223886
The invention relates to two-wheeled bicycles with electric transmission and flywheel, which can be used to stabilize the bike
The invention relates to single-track vehicles, namely monorail Railways, motorcycles, scooters, bicycles and motorbikes, in particular to one-wheeled vehicles

The invention relates to vehicles and in particular to devices for stabilizing their bodies, and can be used to improve their sustainability movement on the slope, comfort of movement and improved working conditions of the engine

The invention relates to agricultural machinery, mainly to the tractor

Vehicle // 2088456

Vehicle // 2027626

The invention relates to the transport industry, in particular to methods and devices for increasing the stability of vehicles

Tractor // 2001812
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