Method and device for channel lead-in of two fluids within multichannel monolithic structure, their channel distributions and lead-out, and application of multichannel monolithic structure

FIELD: constructional engineering, pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: methods and devices for channel lead-in of two fluids within multichannel monolithic structure (in monolith), their distribution and lead-out are proposed, where channel apertures being scattered all over the sectional area of the said structure. The said device contains collector head, either monolithic assembly or monolithic complete set, or assembly battery or complete sets, or monolithic block. Moreover, invention features method and reactor for mass- and/or heat exchange between two fluids, the said fluids being distributed through one or more collector heads and assemblies or complete sets, or assembly batteries or complete sets, or blocks.

EFFECT: simple and effective way to supply two various fluids to individual channels within multichannel monolithic structure without pipe application, as well as to connect some monoliths.

23 cl, 18 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the creation of a method and device for input of fluids in channels in multi-channel monolithic structure (monolith), their distribution on the specified channels and output from the specified structure, and the openings of the channels are distributed (scattered) throughout the cross-sectional area of this structure.

The present invention may find application in processes of mass and/or heat transfer between two fluids.

The two fluids are usually two gases with different chemical and/or physical parameters. However, the present invention may also find application in cases where one fluid is a gas and the other is liquid. Can even be systems in which one or both fluids are a mixture of gas and liquid. This mixture of gas with liquid may form a continuous or homogeneous phase or explicit two-phase flow (plug flow). In the following description of two fluid as an example, is designated as the fluid 1 and fluid 2.

Fluid 1 and fluid 2 apply accordingly to the specified channels for fluid 1 and in these channels for fluid 2. Fluid 1 and fluid 2 are distributed in the monolith so that they have a common wall separating the fluid 1 and fluid 2. The walls, which are a common wall for two fluids form a contact surface between TLDs what I fluids, which is used for mass and/or heat transfer. This means that the fluids must be filed in the channels, and openings of the channels should be distributed over the entire cross-sectional area of the monolith. The present invention allows the entire contact surface or all the walls of the channels of the monolith directly to mass and/or heat transfer between fluid 1 and fluid 2. This means that the channel for a single fluid should always have another fluid on the opposite (outer) side of his wall of the channel, i.e. all adjacent or nearby channels for fluid 1 should have the fluid 2, and Vice versa. The present invention is particularly well suited for process intensification, as it can be used monolithic structure with the openings of the channels which have a small cross-sectional area (e.g., holes, channels with a width of 1-6 mm) and thin walls. Channels with small cross-sectional area and thin walls allow one to obtain a large surface area per unit volume and, consequently, to obtain a very compact and energy-saving device for mass and/or heat transfer.

In accordance with the present invention the contact surface of the wall of the monolith may be a membrane capable of selectively transporting one or more components between the two fluids. More then what about, the present invention can also be used for systems with two-phase flows, in which the gas and the liquid (in this case, the fluid 1) flow in the same channel and produce intense mass transfer (absorption or desorption) between two phases (gas and liquid) at the same time as they are heated or cooled by the fluid 2 through the wall of the contact area.

The wall between the two different fluids may also contain the active surface components on one or both sides. Such active surface components or catalysts used in the case when you go one or several chemical reactions. Often due to chemical reactions is secreted or absorbed heat (exothermic and endothermic reactions). To optimize such reaction systems, it is very important to regulate the temperature.

A distinguishing characteristic of the multi-channel monolithic structures (monoliths) is that they have a case with a large number of internal longitudinal and parallel channels. The monolith in its entirety, along with all channels, can be manufactured in one operation, usually by extrusion equipment.

Through the use of extrusion equipment for the manufacture of a monolithic structure there are wide possibilities to influence the geometric shape of the channels. Extrusion, as the process of manufacture, allows to make the entire monolithic structure entirely in a single operation. The cross-section of the channels may vary in form and size, or the channels can have the same size and shape that occurs most often, for example, can have a triangular, square or hexagonal cross-sectional shape. But it does not exclude the combination of several geometric shapes. Geometric shape, with width or area of the opening of the channel, has a significant influence on the mechanical strength and the available surface area per unit volume.

The width of the openings of the channels is typically about 1-6 mm, and wall thickness is typically 0.1-1 mm found that multi-channel monolithic structure with the smallest width of the openings of channels in order to maximize the surface area per unit volume. Typical values for the specified surface area per unit volume is in the range from 250 to 1000 m2/m3. Another advantage of the monoliths are direct channels, which have a low hydraulic resistance to fluid. Monoliths are usually made of ceramic or metallic materials that can withstand high temperature. This allows them to save strength for applications in processes at high temperature is Ah.

In industry monoliths used primarily when applying only one of the fluid through the channels in the monolith. The walls of the channels in the monolith can be coated with a catalyst that accelerates a chemical reaction in flowing through the fluid channel. An example of such a monolithic structure is the exhaust system of the vehicle. In this system, the exhaust gases heat the walls of the monolith to a temperature at which the catalyst accelerates the oxidation of undesirable components in the exhaust gas.

The monolithic structure is also used to transfer heat from the gaseous combustion products or from the exhaust to the supply air for combustion. One way involves alternating the flow through the monolith two gases, for example, hot and cold gas. In this way, for example, the exhaust gas can heat a monolithic structure, which then transfers heat to the cold air. However, such regenerative processes of heat exchange with the cycles of the alternating flow of the two fluids (one hot and one cold) in the same structure is not suitable when the mixing of the two fluids is undesirable or when you need a constant and continuous heat and/or mass transfer.

Industrial application of monoliths is mostly limited to those applications in which the only one fluid flows through all channels simultaneously.

The literature has already described a number of processes or applications in which the monoliths can be mostly used for heat and/or mass transfer between two different fluid flows. Such processes have already been implemented in a pilot test on a small scale. As examples are the production of synthesis gas (CO and H2). Typically, the synthesis gas is produced using steam (with steam) reforming of methane. This is an endothermic reaction in which methane reacts with steam for the formation of synthesis gas. This process can be carried out in the monolith, in which an exothermic reaction in the adjacent channels provides the heat for the steam reforming of methane.

Although it has already been shown that it is advantageous to use monoliths for heat and/or mass transfer between two fluids in a number of applications, industrial use of monoliths in such applications is not widespread. One of the most important reasons for the dissatisfaction, which the monoliths do not use in these areas is the fact that known techniques of the two input fluids in separate channels of the monolith, distribution and output of them are complex and not suitable for scaling (zoom) (that is, to combine multiple monolithic uz is s) especially when the monolith using a large number of channels.

In the Federal Republic of Germany patent 19653989 the described device and method for submission of the two fluids in the channels of the monolith through the supply tube. These lead pipes or lead pipes are used to supply the two fluids in the respective channels of the monolith from the chambers of the high pressure of the respective fluids. Camera high pressure mounted together so that the pipe from the outer chamber must pass through the internal chamber and then connect with the channels in the monolith. Each individual pipe must be sealed to prevent leakage from the channels of the monolith and through grommets in the walls of the chambers of increased pressure. When heated monolith, the walls of the chambers of high pressure pipe and the sealing material expands and when cooled is compressed. This increases the likelihood of cracking and undesired leakage and, as a consequence, the probability of mixing of the two fluids. This probability increases with the number specified pass-through sleeves.

In the Federal Republic of Germany patent 19653989 input and output zones sealed tubes are cooled, so there may be used a low-temperature, flexible seal material, and therefore the risk of cracking and leakage can be reduced. Needless to say that the cooling system a few who avishay the cost and complexity of a monolithic structure, especially in large scale applications, in which the monolith contains many thousands of channels and in which you also need to use a variety of monolithic structures arranged in series and/or parallel to obtain a sufficient surface area.

In U.S. patent 4271110 described another way input/output of the two fluids. The advantage of this method is that the supply pipe from the chamber of high pressure in the channels of the respective fluids in the monolithic structure can be completely excluded. This is achieved by cutting parallel gaps down from the ends (the ends) of the monolith. These slots or gaps are in the channels for one of the fluids in and out of them. While the slot gap corresponds to the camera elevated pressure for a number of channels through which cut the gap. By sealing the openings of the gap, which is facing the end face of the monolith, creates holes in the side wall of the monolith, where one of the fluids may enter or leave. Other fluid may enter or exit through the other open channels at the short end of the monolith. The main disadvantage of this method, in addition to necessary processing (cutting and sealing) the monolithic structure is that only half of the available space can be used for mass and/or heat transfer. For example the EP, square channels for one fluid and another fluid should be in the related series, so that the structure of the channels for the two fluids corresponds to a plate heat exchanger. If the channels for the two fluids to distribute as on a chessboard, where the black cells correspond to channels for a single fluid, and the white cells correspond to the channels for the other fluid, can be achieved with maximum use of space, as in this picture of the distribution of the fluid, all the walls of the channels for one of the fluid will be shared walls for the channels of the other fluid. When using these channels for the same fluid in a row, as in U.S. patent 4271110, approximately only half of the walls of the channels to one of the fluid will be in contact with the walls of the channels for the other fluid.

The main task of the present invention is a method and device for input of two fluids in a multi-channel monolithic structure, distribution in it and removed from it the two fluids so that maximum use of the surface area.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide an improved method and reactor for mass and/or heat transfer between two fluids.

In accordance with the present invention, the first problem is solved due to the way in which one fluid is fed through Kanak is in one or more joints in the manifold head, which is hermetically attached to one side of the specified monolithic structure, and the other fluid fed into the tunnel in the specified collector head and then directed through the slots in said wall of the tunnel and into one or more gaps in the specified collector head, the fluids are distributed from their respective gaps in these channels so that at least one channel wall is common for these fluids and these fluids are collected in their respective gaps in the main cylinder, which is sealed at the opposite side of this structure, where the first sealed reservoir cylinder, and the fluid then pass respectively through the groove of the one or more gaps and grooves in the wall of the tunnel specified in the latter the head of the header.

The task is also solved by way of the two input fluids in channels in multi-channel monolithic structure, their distribution and output, and the openings of the channels are scattered throughout the entire cross-sectional area of this structure and these channels have a common wall, so that one fluid fed to the first tunnel in the main cylinder and is directed through the grooves in the wall of the first tunnel and then into one or more gaps in the collector head, the other fluid serves the second tunnel to lectores the cylinder and is directed through the grooves in the wall of the second tunnel and then into one or more other gaps in the collector head, these fluids are distributed from their respective gaps in the channels so that at least one channel wall is common for these fluids, the fluids are collected in their respective gaps in the main cylinder, and the fluid is then removed from their respective grooves in the walls of the tunnels.

When the fluids injected and aspirated through the same collector head, the fluids are distributed in the channels so that if one fluid flows in one channel, the other fluid flows in all adjacent channels, the fluid from the clearances are distributed in the channels, as on a chess Board, where one fluid is flowing in the "black" channels and the other fluid flows in the "white" channels.

In accordance with the present invention, the first task is solved through the use of the collector head to enter the two fluids in the channels in multi-channel monolithic structure, their distribution and output, and the openings of the channels are scattered throughout the entire cross-sectional area of this structure, and the channels have a common wall, at least three parallel separator plates connected together by means of spacers, with the formation of the gaps with the grooves between the said plates, and the end invoices plates (plates, lids), connected in parallel with these separating plates, and these razdelitelnyi and miscellaneous plates have the same hole forming a tunnel with grooves through these joint plates. Separation plates and miscellaneous plates have at least one hole forming a tubular space (tunnel) through the United plates and the wall of the tunnel has a groove communicating with the gap.

In accordance with the present invention, the first task is solved through the use of the site, which provides multi-channel monolithic structure in which the openings of the channels are distributed over the cross-sectional area of this structure, these channels have a common wall, and the said collector head tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of this structure.

The specified node may contain a multi-channel monolithic structure in which the openings of the channels are distributed over the cross-sectional area of this structure, and the channels have a common wall, the specified collector head that tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of this structure, and at least one plate with holes, which is hermetically installed between the collector head and the specified structure on the outer surface, where there are openings of the channels.

These holes are arranged so that two fluid can in order to rotecti of the channels of the monolith in the gaps, conversely, one or more walls of the channels are covered by one or more catalytically active components, the openings of the channels are evenly distributed throughout the cross-sectional area of the monolithic structure in a checkerboard pattern, this structure has walls of channels oriented at an angle of 45 degrees to the outer walls of the structure, the separation plate is hermetically coupled to the plate with the holes in the plates are sealed and connected directly with the walls of the channels of the monolith, the collector head tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of the structure of the monolith, where there are openings of the channels.

In accordance with the present invention, the first task is solved through the use of the kit, which contains two or more multi-channel monolithic structures and openings of channels distributed over the entire cross-sectional area of these structures and these channels have a common wall, at least one specified collector head that tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of this structure, at least one plate with holes, which is hermetically installed between the said collector head and the specified structure on the side where there are openings of the channels, and, at IU is e, one connecting plate or other means of connection between the blocks.

In accordance with the present invention, the first task is solved through the use of batteries, which contains the specified nodes or sets joined together.

Typical battery length is of the same order of magnitude as the height of the individual sets, introduced in the cylindrical shell.

In accordance with the present invention, the first task is solved through the use of the block that contains the battery specified blocks or sets, which are connected by brackets face to face.

The block has the same height as the individual set of the monolith, the same width as the battery, and the length is proportional to the number of batteries.

In accordance with the present invention the second problem is solved through the use of the reactor, in which one or more specified nodes or sets, or these batteries nodes or sets, or these blocks are combined into a single unit.

The pressure vessel (autoclave) contains a monolithic unit (monolithic structure, tightly Packed together) with cavities, passages, channels, or pipes inside the shell (the shell of the vessel for transportation of one or both fluids in a monolithic structure, and from them, as well as in the pressure vessel and from it.

In accordance with this the current invention the second problem is solved by use of the method, in which the two fluids are distributed through one or more specified nodes or sets or through the battery of the nodes, or sets, or blocks.

Between the collector head and the monolith entered one or more plates with holes for fluid to provide a uniform distribution of the flow and transformation (transition) from the flow regime in a checkerboard pattern (monolith) to the linear flow regime (in the collector head).

The present invention makes it possible to connect two or more monolithic structures through elastic connection, built-in collector head. If you want to connect several such units together, it is important that they can move relative to each other, taking into account the differing thermal expansion. Several monolithic structures bonded together to form a monolithic battery.

Moreover, the present invention allows to introduce a large number of monolithic structures in the pressure vessel, without increasing its diameter with the increase in the number of monolithic structures. Thus, the system capacity can be increased/decreased simply by changing the number of batteries or the number of monolithic structures and changes in the length of the pressure vessel.

The present invention also allows you to save one fluid in a tubular closed system, i.e. in the pipe, when the volume of another fluid may flow into the cavity inside the pressure vessel to flow out of them.

When using the present invention it is not necessary in the application of the slots, as in U.S. patent 4271110, or lead tubes, as in the patent Germany 19653989 C2.

The present invention gives users the freedom to use all types of shapes and sizes and makes it possible to use the maximum available surface area for mass and/or heat transfer. The method described in U.S. patent 4271110, requires that all channels with the same fluid used together, at least one wall, so that when the common wall is cleaned or removed by mechanical processing, can be created connecting the gap, which forms a common chamber high-pressure fluid. The fact that two adjacent channels with the same fluid must have at least one common wall, means decreases the available area of the mass and/or heat transfer. In the Federal Republic of Germany patent 19653989 C2 use tubing of the respective fluids from the chambers of the high pressure in the channels of the monolith, which can be distributed in such a way that can be used the maximum available space, i.e. the fluids down and distributed in such a way that one fluid always has a common wall channels with another fluid. Two fluid is distributed in the channels, with the arrangement in the form of a chessboard. This is what allows maximum use of available area mass and/or heat transfer.

In accordance with the present invention offers a method and apparatus which can effectively fail to allocate and distribute two different fluid channels in multi-channel monolithic structure. It is necessary that the openings of the channels for the two fluids are uniformly distributed or dispersed throughout the cross-sectional area of the monolith, and that the channels have a common wall. The device can effectively be collected at the intake or release of fluid of the same type, for example fluid 1, all of the channels containing this fluid so that the fluid 1 may be stored separately from the fluid 2, and Vice versa.

Moreover, you want the smallest possible number of parts or components and the minimum possible processing and adaptation (adaptation) of these parts, or components, so that the monolith favorably with the strength, simplicity and low cost. In principle, it can be argued that the less use of individual parts or components, the greater the achieved advantages. This facilitates sealing between the two fluids, which are injected into the channels of the monolith and deduce from them. Possible parallel fabrication of collector heads, plates with holes and monolithic structures reduces the time of manufacture. Pre-Assembly of these components into a monolithic node, solid set, bat is its nodes or sets or monolithic block creates additional benefits when placed in a pressure vessel.

Moreover, the best way can be achieved with the greatest possible contact surface (surface area) in the monolith, for a given width of the opening of the channel. This is particularly advantageous in the case where a monolithic structure or walls of the channel are used as membranes, for example membranes for transmission of hydrogen or oxygen.

To achieve the maximum possible throughput of the corresponding component of the fluid per unit volume of the monolithic structure, it is important to have the largest possible contact surface per unit volume. Therefore, it is desirable that one fluid flowed in the same channel, and the other fluid was (outside) on all side walls forming a channel. For example, when using channels with a square cross-section of two fluid must flow through the monolith in the scheme of the channels corresponding to the chess Board, i.e. one fluid should be in the "white" channels and the other fluid in the "black" channels. In addition, it is very important for mass transfer between two fluids, the largest possible area of direct contact is also very important for improving the efficiency of heat exchange.

The smaller openings of the channels, the greater specific surface area in the monolith. Therefore, to achieve a compact solutions it is desirable to have perhaps less practically OS is destinie channels.

Those exterior surfaces of the monolith, where there are inlets and releases the channels of the monolith, the collector head is mounted tightly over the openings of the channels of the monolith. For some applications it may be necessary to seal the junction of only one outer surface of the monolith with the collector head. Manifold head includes a separating plate installed at a distance adapted to the size of the openings of the channels in the monolith. The distance or space between the plates serves to collect fluid from the openings of channels, which lie in the same row (i.e. to collect the same fluid) in the monolith. This space is called gap increased pressure. In one of the applications of these plates have holes (e.g. circular holes)through which one of the fluids may be withdrawn from the tubular space or introduced into the tubular space formed by using the specified separator plates. This tubular space may be connected to a pipe or tube. Thus, if the monoliths are located in the pressure vessel, one of the fluids may be stored in a closed tubular system, which is connected with the tubular space of the collector head and the other fluid can flow into the open space and/or through the guide channel is to the inlet and outlet openings of the collector head in the specified vessel. In such a system it is possible to avoid direct (sealed) connection monolith for one of the fluids.

The rows of holes of the channels come mainly in the transverse direction across the short end of the monolith and contain an admission or release for the same fluid. These rows of holes of channels for the same fluid is divided by a sealed dividing plates in the manifold head. Two fluid collected in their respective gaps of high pressure. If there are two rows of holes of channels for the same fluid gap of high pressure to one of the fluid will have a gap of high pressure for another fluid on the other side of the separation plate. In the monolith with square channels, forming rows for the same fluid, the separator plate must be sealed and connected with the walls of the channels in the monolith. Instead of the tight connection of separator plates directly with the walls of the channels in the monolith one plate may be first sealed and connected with the short face of the monolith. This plate is a plate with holes, which are connected to the openings of the channels in the monolith, so that fluid from the various channels that contain the same fluid may leak through the holes in said plate and to flow into the gaps on sennoga pressure. This means that the dividing plates in the manifold head is hermetically coupled to the plate with the holes between the rows of holes instead of direct connection with the walls of the channels of the monolith that separates two fluids.

Due to the tight connection plate with holes with one or two outer surfaces of the monolith, with holes for fluid 1 and fluid 2 may be used as described here previously collector head, in which the channels for fluid 1 and fluid 2 in the monolith are distributed in a checkerboard pattern. This allows you to create a method and device for input and output of two separate fluids with maximum use of the surface area of the monolith. Fluids transform of the pattern distribution in the form of a chessboard in the monolith in the rows of holes in the plate, hermetically connected to the monolith. Moreover, the fluid 1 and fluid 2 are passed through these rows of holes in the channels of the monolith or of these channels for fluid 1 and fluid 2, distributed in the form of a chessboard, where one fluid flows through the "black" channels and the other fluid flows through the "white" channels. Plate with holes allows you to feed the fluid is distributed in a checkerboard pattern, in the gaps of high pressure, separated by means of partition plates, which allow you to separate the fluid 1 and fluid 2 from each other. Orifice plate should be slightly smaller than the area of the openings of the channels with which they are tightly connected. In addition to the reduced area of the holes in the plate compared to the area of the openings of channels, holes in the plate, which is hermetically attached to the structure of the channels of the monolith and the dividing plates in the manifold head must also be performed and are located so that the distance between the holes associated with the channels of the two fluids, allows you to place a dividing plate between the rows of holes with inlets and/or releases for the same fluid. In the case of the square openings of the channels for the two fluids, arranged in the form of a chessboard, a dividing plate between the two fluids will go in a straight line between the rows of holes for the same fluid.

It is now possible to display or enter a two fluid distributed in the channels in a monolithic structure, through individual gaps of high pressure, and the openings of the channels are distributed in the form of a chessboard. In order to maintain the separation of the two fluids, when they enter into the gaps of high pressure in the main cylinder, or out of them, one fluid may be filed with the holes in the gaps of high pressure on one side edge of the collector head and the other may be filed, respectively, all clearances increased pressure on the opposite lateral edge of the collector head. Alternatively, one of the fluids may be filed through the gaps of high pressure in the tubular space in the separation plates and then submitted through a pipe or through a circular connection or joint in the adjacent collector head monolithic kit. Such a connection or junction between the collector heads allows you to create a battery from a variety of monolithic parts or kits. Such a battery may again be connected by brackets with neighboring battery. Thus, monolithic nodes can be installed at a close distance from each other, which allows a compact connection of many monolithic sets into a solid block or core in the pressure vessel.

In such a system, in which there is not only a plate with holes that allows you to bypass fluid from each channel through the holes in said plate and to release it directly into the gaps in the collector head (in the space between the dividing plates in the manifold head), but two or more plates, the distance between the dividing plates in the manifold head can be made much larger than the openings of the channels in the monolith and, thus, without restrictions due to o the di cross-section (width) of the channels of the monolith.

This is accomplished by supplying fluid from one channel to the stream from adjacent channel through channels or funnels created within the system of plates with holes between the monolith and the collector head. When this fluid from one channel or more adjacent channels in the monolith is passed through the release seam in the gaps of high pressure in the main cylinder. These inlets/releases joint is made in the system so that the issues for one fluid together at the same time, respectively, the releases for the other fluid are combined together. Such connection issues for the same fluid creates a layout that allows you to set the dividing plates in the manifold head in the largest possible distance from each other than in the case when the plates are sealed and connected directly with the collector head, where the width of the individual holes of the channels in the monolith defines this distance.

The most effective heat transfer per unit volume of the monolithic structure is achieved by small canals and distribution of fluid in a checkerboard pattern. This allows you to use almost 100% of the available surface area in the monolith. The smaller the channel, the greater the surface area per unit volume (specific surface area).

However, the small width of the openings of channels which also makes it more difficult to pass fluid through a manifold head into the channels of the monolith and of them. The system described above plates with holes facilitates the flow of fluids in small channels and output fluids from them and allows you to preserve the distribution of fluid in a checkerboard pattern.

The following describes the feeding of two different fluids in a monolithic structure and conclusion of these fluids from it, without the use of collector head. This system is based on the use of channels for the same fluid, spaced rows having a common wall. Similar to that described in U.S. patent 4271110, these common wall can be cut to a certain depth of the monolith and then can be sealed at the ends, so that creates holes in the side walls of the monolith through which one of the fluids may flow or leak.

However, unlike the method described in U.S. patent 4271110, the proposed system is based on the use of channels arranged in rows, which are not only parallel along the side walls in one direction, but in the other direction (perpendicular to each other). This means that the cuts do in these intersecting rows and after sealing (as discussed later in more detail) get holes in all the side walls of the monolith, and not only in the two side walls, as in the case of series, parallel in one direction. This provides amnog the greater flexibility of the input fluid in the monolith and the withdrawal of fluids from it. This allows you to create recurring clusters of 3×3 channels, one fluid flows through the angular channels, and the other fluid flows through two intersecting in the center of the series (through the intersection, cross). Similarly, you can create a duplicate clusters 4x4 channels, which intersect at the center of the rows form a cross. Six other channels are placed one in each corner (top cross), and two channels are placed on the respective outer edges on each side at the base of the cross.

The present invention provides a simple and efficient way to submit two different fluid in the individual channels in a multi-channel monolithic structure, to distribute them to the specified channels and output from the specified patterns. This is done through the use of the collector head, which is hermetically attached to the short front side or face of the monolith, where there are openings of the channels. The proposed method is based on the use of the system in the monolith, in which the openings of the channels through which it flows, the same fluid, connected in series, and two fluid is distributed evenly. The rows of holes of the channels for a fluid are connected by gap increased pressure in the manifold head. The gap increased pressure can also have holes so that two different what's the fluid can be released on either side of the collector head. This means that you can skip the separate flows of different fluids in individual channels (and of them) in the monolith through a separate clearance high pressure (that is, through the space formed between the two separating plates). Thus, this means that there is no need to use pipes for the supply of two fluids in a monolith or to drain fluids from it or to use voids or gaps in the monolith. Moreover, you can connect multiple cores in parallel, that is, side by side, and to receive fluid from an external reservoir and/or to direct the fluid through the channels formed on the inclined wall of the collector head. The gap increased pressure can also be provided with grooves, so that one of the fluids can be entered or displayed on the top or on one or two sides of the collector head, while the other fluid may be introduced or withdrawn through the gaps of high pressure, through the grooves in the tubular space of the collector head. This means that you can enter separate flows of different fluids in individual channels (and remove from them) in the monolith through individual gaps of high pressure (that is, through the space formed between the two separating plates), and the gap increased giving is possible for one of the fluids are in a tubular space, United with a pipe or with circular connection.

Moreover, the present invention allows, similarly to what has been described here above, with the specified collector heads, to enter two fluid channels in a checkerboard pattern in a multi-channel monolith, distribute and/or display two fluid from them, that is to miss one fluid through the "black" channels and the other fluid through the "white" channels.

If the collector head is connected directly with the monolith, the distance between the dividing plates in the manifold head of the monolith should be less than the width of the openings of the channels in the monolith. Thus, the lower limit of the distance between the separating plates determines how small can be drilled channels in the monolith. System of plates with holes between the monolith and the collector head allows you to skip the fluid through the channels in the monolith, the size of which is much less than the distance between the dividing plates in the manifold head. In addition, this system of plates with holes allows the use of channels for fluid, which are distributed in a checkerboard pattern, while the outlet channels for the same fluid are in the same row.

Moreover, the system of plates with holes between the monolith and the collector head allows you to have more be the tion between the separating plates, than the openings of the channels in the monolith.

The distribution of the openings of channels in chessboard order to maximize the contact surface between the two fluids in the monolith. Plate, which covers all the openings of the channels, tightly attached to the outer surface of the monolith and to the collector head. This plate also has an arrangement of holes, equivalent to the arrangement of the channels in the monolith. The layout of the channels in the monolith and the arrangement of holes in the plate are adapted so that the holes for the same fluid can form rows of holes, on top of which are placed in the gaps of high blood pressure.

In accordance with the present invention is not required to process the actual monolith, if the roughness of the outer surface, where the outputs of the openings of the channels of the monolith allows tightly connect the plate with the holes with the outer surface of the monolith. If not, then you should process the outer surfaces of the monolith, for example grinding, so that you can tightly connect the plate with the holes with the outer surface of the monolith, where the outputs of the openings of channels.

Through a series of holes for one of the fluids in the plate, the fluid is injected or out through the gaps of high pressure is, which now formed in the main cylinder, and display or enter through the grooves in the same collector head. While the other fluid is injected or brought out through the grooves on the opposite side of the collector head or through the tubular connection. Thus, the two fluids are removed from their respective channels in the monolith so that the two fluid can relatively easily be stored separately.

Hereinafter the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to figure 1-18.

Figure 1 shows two multi-channel monolith, both with square cells or openings of the channels. The monolith in the left part of figure 1 has walls of channels oriented parallel to the walls of the monolith. The monolith in the right part of figure 1 has walls of channels oriented at an angle of 45 degrees to the outer walls of the monolith. Such structures monoliths, if they are made of ceramic materials, usually produced by extrusion. Figure 1 shows the species in the future monoliths, with one outer surface, where visible holes of the channels, and in the circles in figure 1 are shown with enlarged detail of the channel. Extrusion tool determines the structure of the channel of the monolith, the cross-sectional area and shape (channel). Can be obtained channels with different geometries. For example, all cross brings the I channel can be triangular, square or hexagonal, or combinations thereof. The channels in the monolith are generally parallel and have the same shape around the longitudinal direction of the monolith. Monoliths with square openings of channels, in which the walls of the openings of the channels are parallel to the side walls, is used most often. Monoliths with the walls of the openings of channels that are oriented at an angle of 45 degrees to the outer walls of the monolith, is used less frequently. In accordance with the present invention this orientation is preferred because it simplifies the arrangement of holes and reduces the required number of plates with holes compared to the monolith with the walls of the openings of channels parallel to the outer wall of the monolith.

Figure 2 shows the Assembly (set, node) monolith with orifice plates and with the collector head. A typical kit of the monolith or the site of the monolith has two collector heads on the two outer surfaces of the monolith, where the inlet and outlet channels. Due to the plates with the holes in the fluid, which flows in the system, is transformed from a linear layout in the collector head in the layout in a checkerboard pattern in the monolith, or Vice versa. The collector head is formed by means of a set of separator plates (separation plate (peregorodka) and the separation plate (septum) and two end caps (miscellaneous plates) type "A" and "b"type. As shown in figure 2, fluid 1 can enter and leave through the tubular hole in the manifold head. In figure 2, the tubular holes are located in the Central part of the collector head, but in principle they can take any position in the collector head. Also the shape of the collector head may vary, except for the outer surface, which is joined to the plate of the Converter or directly with the outer surfaces of the monolith, where the inlet and outlet channels. Tubular holes allow the connection with the neighboring set of the monolith with the same brush head through the pipe connection or connect the collector head with the collector pipe several sets of the monolith. Thus, fluid 1 can enter through a closed pipeline system in multiple monoliths and out of them, while the other fluid can enter or exit through the grooves in the manifold head. This solution is preferable to a system in which the sets of the monolith is placed inside a pressure vessel (autoclave), because only one of the fluids (fluid 1) should be sealed, while the other fluid (fluid 2) can fill the empty space in the pressure vessel to flow through the passages or channels of the EAP is SKN holes or outlet openings in the shell of the vessel.

The first plate with the holes tightly adheres to the outer surfaces of the monolith, where the inlet and outlet channels, and the plate has openings that correspond to hole number of channels in the monolith. These openings in the plate located above the openings of the channels in the monolith so that the two fluid can leak out of the channels in the monolith in the gap between the dividing plates in the manifold head, and Vice versa. To ensure the functional purpose of the system of the holes for one of the fluids in the plate tightly connected with the monolith (staggered for maximum use of space), must be connected with a set of corresponding holes in the set of connected plates, which changes the position of the fluid flow so that the same fluid flows through the linear pattern of holes, which is paired with holes between the separating plates for the same fluid.

Figure 3 shows a front view of one of the monolith with the openings of the channels, together with five (different) plates with holes. The plate 1 has such an arrangement of holes, each hole takes the position that corresponds to the position of one opening of the channel in the monolith. Thus, if you set the plate 1 on top of the monolith in the rights of the aspects of the position, then, each hole should correspond to the opening of the canal in the monolith. The plate 1 can be hermetically connected with the monolith in this position. The diameter of the holes in the plate 1 should preferably be somewhat less than the width of the openings of the channels. How much less, it depends on the tolerances and acceptable pressure drop. Tolerances here understand deviations of sizes and shapes that can occur during manufacturing. For ceramic materials one of the reasons for the deviations is the shrinkage that occurs during sintering of the material. Smaller holes allow for large deviations. On the other hand, the smaller the holes in the plate 1 will create a greater pressure drop for fluid flowing through it. Plates 2, 3 and 4 were medium-sized plates that have holes with longitudinal configurations. These configurations allow the fluids to change the position from the picture stream (flow regime) in the form of a chessboard in the monolith to a linear picture of the flow when the flow through the holes in the plate 5. The dash-dotted lines show the position of the dividing plates in the manifold head. The system of the torque Converter (Converter)formed through the openings in the plates, can also be obtained using a smaller number of plates or even using a single square is tiny. If this system is formed using a single wafer, it is necessary to apply the method of manufacture that allows you to make small channels, directing (leading) inlet and outlet fluid into the correct position. This hole must match the monolith or holes corresponding to the position between the separating plates. Suitable manufacturing technique is injection molding, however, with very high requirements due to small deviations due to the very narrow channels with small distances from each other. It is assumed that if make, at least, plates 1 and 5 as individual plates, it provides better control, since they can be directly sealed and connected with the monolith and separating plates.

On Fig shows a section of the collector head, where the arrows indicate the direction of fluid flow. The fluids injected into the monoliths or removed from them through the slots, allowing the fluid 1 to enter from the circular hole ("tunnel") in an enclosed space (gap) between the separating plates, which separate fluid 1 fluid 2. Shows the separation plate for fluid 2 have holes in the circular space, but have grooves in the upper part of the collector head, so that the fluid 2 can flow che is ez to these grooves. Thus, the fluid 1 and fluid 2 can come from separate chambers of increased pressure and flow in a separate chamber high pressure or the gap between the separating plates. Holes of the circular space for fluid 1 is because of the separation plate or partition wall has a set of bosses in the immediate vicinity of the circular hole. They increase the ability of separator plates to withstand the pressure difference, and also allow for the transfer of axial force to the sealing ring, if two or more collector heads together.

On Fig shows the collector head is the same system that pig, but with two tubular (circular) holes inside of the collector head. With this construction both fluids can be introduced into the monolith and removed from it by means of hermetically closed or sealed system pipes. In this case, the structure of the monolith can be isolated vessel under atmospheric conditions, even if both fluids are elevated pressure. The disadvantage of this construction is that the displacement caused by thermal expansions, are limited to by means of the pipe connections of both fluids.

Figure 1-4 was shown the individual system (connection) of one monolith with its collector head.

On Phi is .5 shows a system for connecting two or more sets of monoliths. Using o-ring end cover (cover plate) type "A" from one of the collector head and end cap type "B" from another collector head can be joined together and created the axial force for connecting together two sets of monoliths (see Fig.6). Such a system finds special application in industrial processes, which often require a large number of monoliths.

Figure 6 shows the principle of the connection between the two collector heads, where you can see the o-ring and two end caps, namely, type "a" and "b". The contact surface between the sealing ring and end cap "A" is the flat surface that allows movement in two axes on the surface. 2. The contact surface between the sealing ring and end cap "B" is partially spherical surface that allows rotation around the center of the sphere. Note the external force that is applied to the collector head. This effort is necessary in order to make a gas-tight system, especially if the fluid 1 has a higher pressure than the fluid 2. If the fluid 2 has sufficient excess pressure in comparison with the fluid 1, the external force is not necessary.

Figure 6 in the circle shown with increasing uplatne is entrusted ring and end cover two different types (type "a" and "b"), used for connection of the collector head of one set of the monolith with the collector head of another adjacent set of the monolith. Using this system it is possible to connect two different monolith in such a way that maintained the integrity and flexibility of movement of both fluids. In addition, this connection system, two sets of the monolith is very compact. For the connection requires only a distance equal to the thickness of the sealing ring.

7 shows the spherical surface contact between the sealing ring and end cap. 7 shows that the contact surface between the sealing ring and end cap "B" is part of a spherical surface, which allows rotation around the center of the sphere.

On Fig shows the Assembly of two monoliths and collector system connected to them and connecting them with each other. In the circle (with magnification) shows details of the connections described with reference to figure 5-7.

Figure 9 shows an alternative construction of the Converter using the monolith with the layout of the cells oriented at an angle of 45 degrees to the wall of the monolith. For such a monolith, you need a maximum of 4 plates with holes, compared to the solution shown in figure 3, where 5 plates. In addition, the interval and the distance between the separating plates is increased in comparison with the method or the system shown in figure 3, which gives the same size of the cells of the monolith. In the lower right part of figure 9 shows the cavity. Cavity called what remains after removal of all material. You can see the cavity "flow channels" within four plates with holes.

Figure 10 shows a kit of the monolith, which contains the monolith, the plate of the Converter and the collector head. It is also shown connecting plates. These plates are used only in the case when the set of the monolith contains two or more individual monoliths. This may be the case when the length of one individual monolith insufficient or when the system contains monoliths with different functional capabilities or properties. For example, one monolith may be a heat exchanger, and the other monolith may have a membrane structure. The connectors can be formed of a graded material, for example, in the case of different coefficients of thermal expansion of the monoliths to take into account these various factors.

Figure 11 shows the battery sets monolith that contains the individual sets of the monolith, United together. To build such a line (battery) sets of the monolith can be used in the connection system shown in Fig. When a proportional increase to the industrial the of sizes starting with the smallest repeating node, which for this system is a kit of the monolith shown in figure 10. As a single component to be assembled or line (battery) sets of the monolith, as shown at 11.

In large industrial applications where it is necessary to use hundreds of monoliths, great importance is the ability to install kits monolith close as possible to each other to obtain a compact design of the reactor. On Fig shows a system or method in accordance with which the battery sets of the monolith, as shown at 11, are stacked wall to wall, with the formation of a large "block of the monolith". On Fig shows a battery which contains 10 sets of the monolith. The number of sets of the monolith, which should be a single battery depends on many factors. To maximize the volume of a cylindrical pressure vessel height set width monolithic block must be selected accordingly. For example, the height set in the battery 150 cm can be obtained from 10 monoliths, if the width of the collector head and the monolith is 15 see the capacity of the system can then be increased without increasing the diameter of the pressure vessel, by simply increasing the length and add more sets of the monolith.

On Fig shows the location of monolingually in a cylindrical pressure vessel. It is easy to understand that the number of batteries can be increased or decreased without changing the diameter of the pressure vessel. Thus, the system can be easily adjusted in a wide range of functionality by changing the number of batteries and select the length of the pressure vessel. On Fig shown that the fluid 1 is in a closed system through the use of internal intake and exhaust collector pipes. On Fig shown countercurrent system flow monoliths, in which the fluid 1, which is the upper collector cylinder sets of the monolith, flows down and out through the bottom of the collector head. Fluid 2 enters into the bottom of the collector head of the passages or open space inside the reactor vessel and flows upward in the channels of the monolith, is derived from them and enters the top of the collector head and flows into the upper part of the reactor, where it exits through the grooves in the collector heads in the upper part of the reactor.

On Fig shows a monolithic structure inside a pressure vessel or reactor vessel. In this system, the fluid 2 and serves to display in the same position (location) through the wall of the pressure vessel. This system can be used, for example, when the fluid 2 flows from the compressor, and the fluid 2' is directed to the turbine. Fluid 2 may be air, and flue the Ohm 2' may be heated oxygen-depleted air. The monoliths can be ceramic supplying oxygen of membranes and fluid 1 can be permeate, which receives oxygen from the air. In the fluid 1 to produce the fuel injection and carry out the combustion process of the absorption of oxygen and production of heat. In this system, the oxygen-depleted fluid 1 (after combustion) can be returned to the monoliths, the walls of which are formed in the form of oxygen-carrying membrane. Fluid 1 is heated by combustion, and the heat is transferred from the fluid 1 oxygen-containing the fluid 2. At a given temperature level of the membrane in the wall of the monolith carries oxygen in the fluid 1. The excess weight caused by the injection of fuel and oxygen, can be displayed in the form of bleed gas through the monolith on the left side (Fig) collector pipes. The monolith on the left side can then be used as a clean heat exchanger, heating the air and cooling of bleed gas. If the fluid 1 contains water vapor and carbon dioxide, it is constructive or system solution can be used to generate electricity through gas processing CO2. This can be created power plant with zero emissions of carbon dioxide, if CO2be sent to permanent storage.

On Fig shows a cross section of the reactor shown in Fig. On Fig is provided technological scheme, in which the flow direction is shown by arrows. You can see that the incoming fluid 2 flows through the passages near the inner wall in the lower part of the reactor, where it enters at the bottom of the collector head sets monolith. Fluid 1 flows in countercurrent with the fluid 2 in the circulation loop. For systems with zero gas fluid 2 is air and the monoliths are ceramic oxygen membrane. Component of the fluid 1 may be water vapor and carbon dioxide, and the fluid 1 then receives oxygen from the air. Then it adds fuel combustion, such as natural gas, and the fluid 1 can be returned to the monoliths to get oxygen (flow drives the difference in the partial pressure of oxygen) and heat the fluid 2 fluid 2'leading to the turbine of the power plant. To ensure mass balance of the fluid 1 in the circulation loop to produce the drain. Thus, left on Fig kit monolith acts as a simple heat exchanger. The fuel injection can be performed by means of the fuel ejector to circulate fluid 1.

On Fig illustrates the concept of the reactor for the combined production of oxygen and electrical energy, in which the monoliths made in the form of transporting oxygen membranes. This illustrates Flex the capabilities of the present invention, which can be used in different processing systems.

Needs only a slight modification of the concept of the reactor shown in Fig and 15, so that it can be used for the combined production of oxygen and electricity. Fluid 2 may be compressed air, which is heated at the bottom of the reactor by means of gas burners. Thus, use part contained in the air of oxygen for heating air to a temperature desirable for ceramic transporting oxygen membranes. Fluid 1 must have a lower oxygen partial pressure than the fluid 2. Lower partial pressure of oxygen ensures that oxygen will be transported from the fluid 2 fluid 1 through the membrane. You can also use a vacuum instead of fluid 1 to push the oxygen on the permeate side of the membrane. It allows to directly obtain pure oxygen, which can be compressed to pressure transportation or storage.

To ensure maximum generation of oxygen remaining in the fluid 2 in the production of membranes, can be used to raise the temperature entering the turbine air by use of gas burners installed in the exhaust manifold, as shown in Fig. Fluid 1 can be l the battle of the fluid (and even the air at a lower pressure, than that in fluid 2, to ensure a positive difference in the partial pressure of oxygen), capable of transporting oxygen from the membrane and suitable for the downstream separation from oxygen or for direct applications.

On Fig shows a system that contains the Assembly of the monolith, orifice plates and the collector head. In the illustrated collector head issue (in this case, fluid 2) has a shorter length and more direct direction than in the main cylinder, shown in figure 2. Dividing plates have guide ribs for fluid 2, which also act as mechanical supports. The ribs are shaped in a way to prevent blocking of the openings and to minimize flow resistance for the fluid 2. Fluid 1 has a circular inlet of the collector head and the open groove, where the fluid 1 can pass through a plate with holes and enter the channels of the monolith. There are no ribs or bosses on the side of the fluid 1 in the separation plate. Shown in Fig.9 system uses four individual plates to move fluids compared to only two in the system shown in Fig. Two plates in the system Fig provide the same functionality, and four plates in the system of figure 9. Plate 1 corresponds to the Plaza is ine 1 Fig.9, and plate 2 corresponds to the plates 2-4 Fig.9.

On Fig shows in detail the space inside the plate 2 and plate 1. The thickness of the plate 2 depends on the angle of the funnel leading into the holes for fluid 1 and fluid 2 in the plate 1, and the number of holes leading from the plate 1 in each collecting funnel. As shown in the left part on Fig in a circle, a funnel for fluid 2 produces a collection of the four holes of the plates 1 and, hence, of the four channels of the monolith. As shown in the right part on Fig in a circle, a funnel for fluid 1 produce the collection or distribution for the five holes in the plate 1. Due to the symmetrical build, you can have the same number of holes for each funnel. Then every fifth hole will be distributed in two funnels. On Fig only shows the principle of construction of the plate 2. It should be borne in mind that freely can be selected from any kinds of combinations between the number of holes, from which the funnel collects or in which it distributes. The selected combination depends on a set of parameters, including the pressure drop, the number of separator plates and the distance between them.

The present invention allows to improve and simplify the operation of the device for mass and/or heat transfer (separation) through the use of compact monolithic is structure (i.e. large surface area per unit volume of the device with small channels), low flow resistance for gases and heat ceramic material which may be coated with catalyst. Improvements associated with the use of monoliths for mass and/or heat transfer between two different fluids, and with devices in a monolithic structure, where there is a chemical reaction. This combination of mass and/or heat transfer and chemical reactions in the monoliths (with the device) allows to obtain a compact solution, in which the operation of transportation and separation is simplified. One application of such a device is a combination of endothermic and exothermic reactions, such as the reforming of methane with water vapor in the case of natural gas or other streams containing hydrocarbons, synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide), with the flow endothermic reforming of methane with steam in a covered catalyst channels and exothermic combustion in the adjacent channels. Such monolithic structures allow you to create a very compact installation reformer and may, for example, be used for small scale production of hydrogen. However, the synthesis gas can also be further processed into various other products, such as, for example, methanol, ammonia, and synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel.

Higher work is their temperature, when there can be used metals (800-900°and above)are favorable from the point of view of balance or thermodynamics for various chemical processes. Use in such processes of ceramic monoliths, which can be coated with a catalyst and can withstand high temperatures, is very beneficial. The process of burning or processing of hot gas can be directly combined with the process of chemical reaction.

Monolithic structures can be also used in the energy market (electricity production), for example, for catalytic combustion of natural gas. Through the use of the present invention can perform control over a range of temperatures of the combustion process, resulting in lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). It should be borne in mind that the combustion or oxidation in air or other atmosphere, which contains oxygen and nitrogen, always leads to the formation of NOx. This environmentally harmful gas is mainly produced in areas of high temperature flame. Through the use of the present invention with the distribution of gas flow in the monolith staggered catalytic combustion mixture of fuel and air to produce heat in the "black" channels and passive cool the (i.e. air) in the "white" channels or active cooler, carrying out an endothermic reaction (i.e., the reforming of methane with water vapor) in the "white" channels. This system prevents the peak temperature and, therefore, reduces the production of NOx. Moreover, due to the use of such a system there is a possibility of mixing of the coolant and the working gas in the monolith downstream, in the presence of a header only on the intake (parallel flow), resulting in getting a very efficient mixing at the output due to the location in a checkerboard pattern of small channels in the monolith.

The system described above, which prevents the formation of NOx can also be used to prevent/reduce unwanted emissions of other substances. Thus, the present invention allows to combine combustion (production of heat) and heat transfer directly into monolithic structures contact through a thin wall between the two fluids.

1. The input method of the two fluids in the channels in multi-channel monolithic structure, their distribution and output, and the openings of the channels are scattered throughout the entire cross-sectional area of this structure and these channels have a common wall, wherein one fluid is fed through a groove in one or more gaps in the collector head, which is hermetically attached to one outer surface is rnost monolithic structure, another fluid fed into the tunnel in the main cylinder, and then is directed through the grooves in the wall of the tunnel and enter into one or more gaps in the collector head, the fluids are distributed from their respective gaps in the channels so that at least one channel wall is common for these fluids, these fluids are collected in their respective gaps in the collector head, which is hermetically mounted on the opposite side of this structure, where tightly installed first collector head, the fluid then respectively sent through the groove from the one or more gaps and grooves in the wall of the tunnel in the latter the collector head.

2. The input method of the two fluids in the channels in multi-channel monolithic structure, their distribution and output, and the openings of the channels are scattered throughout the entire cross-sectional area of this structure and these channels have a common wall, wherein one of the fluid fed to the first tunnel in the main cylinder and is directed through the grooves in the wall of the first tunnel and then into one or more gaps in the collector head, the other fluid serves the second tunnel in the main cylinder and is directed through the grooves in the wall of the second tunnel and then into one or more other gaps in the collector head, specified the s distribute fluids from their respective gaps in the channels so that at least one channel wall is common for these fluids, the fluids are collected in their respective gaps in the main cylinder, and the fluid is then removed from their respective grooves in the walls of the tunnels.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fluids injected and aspirated through the same collector head.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fluids are distributed in the channels so that if one fluid flows in one channel, the other fluid flows in all adjacent channels.

5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the fluids are distributed in the channels so that if one fluid flows in one channel, the other fluid flows in all adjacent channels.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the fluids of the gaps are distributed in the channels, as on a chess Board, where one fluid is flowing in the "black" channels and the other fluid flows in the "white" channels.

7. The collector head to enter the two fluids in the channels in multi-channel monolithic structure, their distribution and output, and the openings of the channels are scattered throughout the entire cross-sectional area of this structure, and the channels have a common wall, wherein said manifold head includes at least three parallel plates connected together by means of spacers, with the formation of the gaps with the grooves is between the plates, and false end plates connected in parallel to the separating plates and the separator plates and miscellaneous plates have one hole, forming a tunnel with grooves passing through the connected plates.

8. Collector head according to claim 7, characterized in that the separating plates and miscellaneous plates have at least one hole forming a tubular space (tunnel) through the United plates and the wall of the tunnel has a groove communicating with the gap.

9. Node, wherein the multi-node contains a monolithic structure in which the openings of the channels are distributed over the cross-sectional area of this structure, and the channels have a common wall, and having a collector head according to claim 7 or 8, which is tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of this structure.

10. Node, wherein the specified node contains a multi-channel monolithic structure in which the openings of the channels are distributed over the cross-sectional area of this structure, and the channels have a common wall, the collector head according to claim 7 or 8, which is tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of this structure, and at least one plate with holes, which is hermetically installed between the collector and the head and the specified structure on the outer surface, where there are openings of the channels.

11. The node of claim 10, characterized in that the openings are arranged so that two fluid can leak out of the channels of the monolith in the gaps and Vice versa.

12. The node according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that one or more walls of the channels are covered by one or more catalytically active components.

13. The node according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the openings of the channels are evenly distributed throughout the cross-sectional area of the monolithic structure in a checkerboard pattern.

14. The node according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the structure has walls of channels oriented at an angle of 45° to the outer walls of the structure.

15. The node according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the separating plate is hermetically coupled to the plate with holes.

16. The node according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the plates are sealed and connected directly with the walls of the channels of the monolith.

17. The node according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that the collector head tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of the structure of the monolith, where there are openings of the channels.

18. Kit, characterized in that it contains two or more multi-channel monolithic structures, in which the holes of channels distributed over the entire cross-sectional area of these structures, and the channels have a common article the NCI, at least one collector head according to claim 7 or 8, which is tightly adjacent at least one outer surface of this structure, at least one plate with holes, which is hermetically installed between the collector head and the specified structure on the outer surface, where there are openings of the channels, and at least one connecting plate or other means of connection between nodes.

19. Battery nodes or sets, characterized in that the battery contains nodes p-17 or packages p, United together.

20. Battery nodes or sets, characterized in that the battery contains nodes p-17 or packages p, in which the o-ring and two different types (type a and type b) end invoices plates used to connect the collector head one node or set with the collector head of another neighboring node or set.

21. Unit, characterized in that the unit contains a battery of nodes or sets in claim 19 or 20, which are connected by brackets face to face.

22. Reactor for mass and/or heat transfer between two fluids, wherein the one or more nodes on p-17, or packages p, or batteries of nodes, or sets according to claim 19, or blocks on item 21 United together in the specified reactor.

23. The way mass is/or heat transfer between two fluids, characterized in that the two fluids are distributed through one or more nodes according to claim 9-17, or packages p, or batteries of nodes, or sets according to claim 19, or blocks in item 21.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in modernisation of horizontal machines of air cooling with heat exchanging sections that have welded undetachable chambers of rectangular shape. In the back wall chambers form at least one window for access to internal surface of pipes and their cleaning from the products that have been accumulated in the process of air cooling machines operation. The window has circular shape or shape of two circles joined to each other. Centre of circle coincides with axis of one of the openings of tubular grid. Centres of two circles coincide with axes of corresponding openings of tubular grid. Mentioned windows are covered with shields with sealing gaskets made of soft metal or soft nonmetal gasket material. Shields are fixed with the help of threaded plugs that are installed in the openings of back wall, which are closer to the shields.

EFFECT: increase of servicing convenience and machines reliability and increase of service life.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat exchange apparatus; chemical industry and power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed heat exchange header has body and distributor secured in it and made in form of honeycomb with cells containing one raw of electric rollers secured between bounding grates located at distance exceeding five ball diameters. Provision is made for automatic adjustment relative to external change of flow velocity with no consumption of energy for control and no consumption of liquid in case of change in inlet pressure.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

5 dwg

FIELD: engine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: radiator section comprises sectional collectors made of heads (branch pipes) and lids, tube bank with flat-oval tubes that are set and soldered into the openings of the tube boxes with a stannic-lead solder, finned plates soldered to the flat-oval tubes with a stannic-lead solder, top and bottom tube boxes whose outer edges are flanged toward the collectors according to the shape and the sizes of the cross-section of the tube bank, and temperature deformation compensators.

EFFECT: simplified structure.

3 dwg

FIELD: engine engineering.

SUBSTANCE: radiator section comprises bank of flat-oval tubes that are set and soldered into the openings of the top and bottom tube boxes, finned plates, and collectors. The ends of the flat-oval tubes diverge outward. The tube boxes are provided with openings with flanges mating to the outwardly diverging ends of the flat-oval tubes. The tubes are soldered to the tube boxes. According to the other version, the tube boxes are sectional and made of main tube boxes with the openings and hollows arranged over periphery or along the boxes and spacing shaped bushings. The ends of the tubes are soldered to the spacing shaped bushings with a zinc solder.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: heat engineering, particularly air inlet and outlet headers for exhaust gas heat recovery devices, particularly for devices to heat air with exhaust combustion products from compressor of gas-turbine plant used in gas-transfer devices for compressor stations of gas main pipelines.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting metal sheets into case blanks; folding and welding the blanks to create header body preferably having cylindrical shape; cutting orifice for tube plate installation into the case, wherein orifice edges define contour of cylindrical rectangle having height of 0.72-0.95 of header height in heat-exchanging unit and with angular width equal to 0.07-0.25 of header case cross-sectional perimeter; cutting out tube plate; beveling thereof and forming orifices in the tube plate, wherein summary orifice area is equal to 0.52-0.81 of total tube plate area; welding tube plate to above header case orifice edges so that orifice edges are arranged within the bounds of tube plate contacting the edges.

EFFECT: increased manufacturability, reduced metal consumption along with improved structural rigidity thereof, simplified production and decreased labor inputs.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: power engineering, particularly gas cooling equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method involves producing least two intermediate header body sections provided with orifices adapted to receive connection pipes having flanges to connect thereof with gas inlet or outlet chambers of heat-exchanging section of the gas air-cooling plant; manufacturing end body members shaped as doubly curved bottoms; producing flanges with connection pipes; assembling and welding header body and welding bottoms to intermediate sections of header body. Header body is created by joining intermediate sections to central cylindrical one to form T-member having two coaxial cylindrical parts adjoining intermediate sections and having diameters of not less than intermediate section diameters. Adjoined to above cylindrical parts is the third cylindrical part adapted to be connected to gas pipeline. The third cylindrical part is inclined substantially at 90° to above cylindrical parts and extends substantially at 90° to plane passing through vertical axes of the connection pipes of intermediate sections. Diameter of the third cylindrical part is equal to 0.81-1.10 diameters of cylindrical body part. Technological support to facilitate manufacture of gas inlet and outlet header body or header body sections has frame with at least two support members, namely with support plates arranged from both sides from medium vertical plane of housing body to be produced and spaced apart from longitudinal axis thereof to support contact points in lower body half for radial distance corresponding to outer body radius. Each support member comprises not less than one flat part tangential to corresponding radius and arranged to be supported along cylindrical body section generator or cylindrical body part generator so that above radius is spaced an angular distance equal to 15-75° from vertical line in plane transversal to the generator in both opposite directions beginning from lower point of cross-section of the body or body section preferably shaped as solids of revolution.

EFFECT: increased manufacturability, reduced labor inputs and material consumption for header components assemblage, increased quality, reliability and service life of header characterized with elevated internal pressure due to optimized parameters of header body sections and technological supports, increased assemblage accuracy and improved header body stability during boring operations performing.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: heat and power engineering, namely tube walls of inlet or outlet chambers of apparatus for air cooling of gas or section of such apparatus.

SUBSTANCE: tube plate of chamber of gas inlet or gas outlet of heat exchange section of apparatus for air cooling of gas includes plate in the form of parallelepiped, mainly right-angled one. Said plate includes system of through openings for ends of heat exchange tubes of tube bundle. Said openings are arranged by rows along height of wall at pitch of their axes in row being in range (1.7 - 3.4) d; at pitch of rows along height of wall being in range (1.6 - 3.4)d where d - diameter of openings. Said openings are shifted in adjacent rows by value 0.35 -0.65 of pitch in row. Projection of surface area of wall carcass onto mean plane of tube wall exceeds by 4 - 12.5 times projection of total surface area of voids of wall on the same plane. Portion of continuous cross section is arranged along perimeter of tube wall for forming rigidity band of tube wall. Surface area of rigidity band consists 16.0 - 45.0% of tube wall surface area.

EFFECT: enhanced strength, lowered metal consumption of construction due to optimal parameters of tube wall.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engineering of collectors for injection or drainage of gas for apparatuses for air-based gas cooling.

SUBSTANCE: device has bearing frame, on which not less than three cradle supports are mounted for supporting body of collector for injection or drainage of gas and for abutment of branch pipe connected thereto for connection to gas main, and no less than four portal supports for temporary technological holding by plane, rotation angle and position along collector for injection or drainage of gas of branch pipes with flanges for connection to chambers for inlet or outlet of gas of heat-exchange sections of air-based gas cooling apparatus adequately to position of contact surfaces of response flanges and mounting apertures in them in chamber for inlet or outlet of gas. At least two cradle supports are positioned with possible abutment of body of collector for injection or drainage of gas against them in accordance to suspension scheme, each one primarily between additional pair of portal supports, mounted below outmost and adjacent flanges of branch pipes for connection to chambers for inlet or outlet of gas. Each portal support is made with detachable beam, which is provided with device for temporary holding by plane and rotation angle of flange of appropriate branch pipe and for connection of it to body of collector for injection or drainage of gas in planned position.

EFFECT: simplified construction of building berth while providing for high precision of manufacturing of collector for drainage or injection of gas.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering, particularly gas cooling plant components.

SUBSTANCE: gas inlet or outlet chamber is made as a high-pressure tank and comprises side, upper, lower and end walls. Gas inlet or outlet chamber also comprises not less than two load-bearing partitions arranged between side walls and provided with through orifices. One chamber wall is made as tube plate with orifices defining grid structure and adapted to receive heat-exchanging tube ends. One chamber wall has orifices to receive pies to connect thereof with gas inlet or outlet manifold, which supplies gas to or discharges gas from the chamber. Orifices for connection pipe receiving, load-bearing partition orifices and tube plate orifices define communication system to connect gas air cooling plant with gas pipeline. The communication system has several stages with orifices formed so that orifice number at each stage successively changes in gas flow direction. For gas inlet chamber above number increases, for gas outlet chamber the number decreases.

EFFECT: possibility to equalize velocity field, reduced hydraulic hammer, which results in reduced power losses in pipeline conveying gas to be cooled and in increased thermal performance of air cooling plant as a whole or air cooling plant section, increased economy of plant production and operation.

3 dwg, 13 cl

FIELD: power engineering, in particular, heat exchange devices, primarily, air-based gas cooling apparatuses.

SUBSTANCE: device is made in form of reservoir working under pressure, including cylindrical body with end portions of two-side curvature, central branch pipe for connection to gas main and branch pipes for connecting to chambers for inlet or outlet of gas of heat-exchange sections of air gas cooling apparatus, while cylindrical body is made of technological sections, central one of which is made primarily in form of unified technological element with central branch pipe, and branch pipes for connection to chambers for inlet and outlet of gas of heat exchange sections of air gas cooling apparatus are mainly symmetrically positioned on both sides from central technological section and number of these branch pipes on each side ranges from 2 to 8, while the area of cross-section in light of central branch pipe is 0,7-1,0 of area of cross-section in light of cylindrical portion of body of collector fro injection or drainage of gas, and total area of cross section in light of branch pipes for connection to chamber for inlet or outlet of gas of each heat-exchange section of air-based gas cooling apparatus is 0,37-0,62 of area of cross-section in light of cylindrical portion of body of collector for injection or drainage of gas.

EFFECT: decreased metal cost of gas injection or drainage collector and higher manufacturability of its construction, and also decreased hydraulic losses in collector for injection or drainage of gas.

3 dwg, 7 cl

FIELD: temperature control of rooms being under a heat exchanger.

SUBSTANCE: the horizontal heat exchanger recovering the water heat in the winter time, combining the functions of a coating and a roofing, having partitions carrying steel strings and exterior walls of rammed earth, a coating of two layers of transparent film placed on the strings, the second layer is perforated by holes passing through air bubbles for formation of a bubbly ice covering the water poured on the coating from the bottom of water reservoirs, a spouting chute, as well as a transparent film vapor seal placed under the heat exchanger, and a stack of several layers of transparent thin film.

EFFECT: provided protection of translucent components against ozone, solar and wind destruction and against fire, simplified and made cheaper penetration of the solar energy under the roofing, adjusted rational use of the heat-transfer medium and rain water.

1 dwg

FIELD: devices for transfer of heat between first and second walls brought in contact with first and second thermal masses.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes heat-insulating module which may be inserted between first and second walls for forming closed circulating loop for fluid heat-transfer agent; this closed loop includes first vertical or inclined passage running along first wall and second vertical or inclined passage running along second wall; these passages are shifted relative to each other in vertical direction; device is also provided with upper passage connecting the first and second passages and lower passage connecting the first and second passages to ensure circulation of fluid heat-transfer agent in said loop due to convection when passage located below is subjected to action of temperature exceeding temperature of passage located above, thus making it possible to ensure transfer of heat and to discontinue circulation when passage located below is subjected to action temperature below temperature of above passage, thus excluding transfer of heat and ensuring heat insulation.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

14 cl, 31 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of heating devices, possibly used in nuclear reactors.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes housing made of two envelopes; heaters; inlet and outlet branch pipes. Outer and inner envelopes of housing are mutually joined through spring in such a way that helical slit is formed for passing heat transfer agent. Heaters are in the form of copper sectors inside which cable type electric heaters are arranged. Clamp with locking sleeve is arranged along central axis of apparatus for forcing heaters to housing.

EFFECT: enhanced operational reliability of quick response easy-to-repair heating apparatus.

2 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems; removal of low-potential heat from on-board systems of spacecraft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed trickling cooler-radiator includes heat-transfer agent storage and delivery system, drop generator with acoustic oscillation exciting element, drop collector, transfer pumps and pipe lines. Trickling cooler-radiator is provided with heat stabilization system including heaters mounted on structural members of cooler-radiator and thermostatting units made in form of shield-vacuum insulation of these members. Said system is also provided with bypass pipe line laid between drop generator and collector and provided with volumetric expansion compensator (with electric heater) and automatic temperature control unit ensuring operation of heaters by signals from respective sensors. To reduce emission of heat-transfer agent, trickling cooler-radiator is provided with hydraulic accumulators at drop generator inlet and at drop accumulator outlet. Passages of output grid of drop generator have geometric and hydraulic characteristics varying from axis of symmetry towards periphery for smooth distribution of temperature field. Drop collector may be passive with inner surface formed by walls of one or several slotted passages through which heat-transfer agent is delivered for forming moving film.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.

2 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to industries, agriculture, utilities, using heat exchangers for settling liquids, and can be used on livestock and poultry farms in installations for processing of organic waste by the method of anaerobic digestion of manure, litter, and various plant residues in the preparation of these combustible biogas and high-quality bacteria-free from pathogenic organisms and weed seeds organic fertilizer

The invention relates to the field of heat transfer and can be used for intensification of heat transfer in refrigeration, air conditioning systems and other similar devices

The invention relates to a method of cryogenic fractionation and purification of gas

The reactor // 2101079
The invention relates to energy and chemistry, in particular to chemical equipment, namely, high temperature heat exchangers

FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems; removal of low-potential heat from on-board systems of spacecraft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed trickling cooler-radiator includes heat-transfer agent storage and delivery system, drop generator with acoustic oscillation exciting element, drop collector, transfer pumps and pipe lines. Trickling cooler-radiator is provided with heat stabilization system including heaters mounted on structural members of cooler-radiator and thermostatting units made in form of shield-vacuum insulation of these members. Said system is also provided with bypass pipe line laid between drop generator and collector and provided with volumetric expansion compensator (with electric heater) and automatic temperature control unit ensuring operation of heaters by signals from respective sensors. To reduce emission of heat-transfer agent, trickling cooler-radiator is provided with hydraulic accumulators at drop generator inlet and at drop accumulator outlet. Passages of output grid of drop generator have geometric and hydraulic characteristics varying from axis of symmetry towards periphery for smooth distribution of temperature field. Drop collector may be passive with inner surface formed by walls of one or several slotted passages through which heat-transfer agent is delivered for forming moving film.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Up!