Method for processing fir bark

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention concerns chemical processing of wood, particularly fir bark, with obtaining resinous wax, tanning substances and activated carbon. A method of fir bark processing is described involving milling fir bark, extraction by non-polar solvent to obtain resinous wax, processing bark remainders with water-alcohol mix containing 1% mass units of sodium hydroxide to obtain tanning extract, and further processing solid bark residues to activated carbon.

EFFECT: almost complete utilisation of fir bark, expanded range of products made thereof at higher tanning extract yield.

2 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to chemical processing of wood and can be used in wood-processing enterprises in the pulp and paper industry for the processing of spruce bark obtaining coniferous waxes, tannins and active coals.

A method of refining spruce bark in tanning extract, in which shredded fir bark extracted in the presence of N2About2in the amount of 2.5-3.0% by weight of the crust at a temperature of 80-90°C for 6 hours (EN 1221251, publ. 30.03.86).

The disadvantage of this method is that the extraction of spruce bark uses the chemical - H2About2. This reagent is quite expensive, which leads to higher process. The extraction of bark from the use of this reagent innocent tanning extract low as simultaneously with tannins extracted complex extractives. The disadvantage is the long duration of the extraction process (6 hours). In addition, the disadvantages include the need to incomplete use of the cortex - after extraction waste bark is removed in the dumps.

There is a method of processing fir bark with obtaining tanning extract, including shredding bark and extraction with hot water at a temperature of 80-90°S, water ratio 8 for 20 min (EN 2220206, publ. 27.12.2003).

what dostatkom of this method is the low range is obtained from the bark of spruce products. The method does not allow to achieve maximum extraction tenido and highlight the quality of the extract.

The chemical composition of the spruce bark similar to fir bark.

Closest to the proposed invention is a method of processing fir bark, including grinding, extraction of non-polar solvent, evaporation of the extract, vacuum it to justify fir oil and balsam fir, the activation of the rest of the crust under conditions of explosive autohydrolysis at a temperature of 200-260°C, a pressure of 3-5 MPa 30-60 gradual extraction of the bark of alcohol and water, combining the obtained extracts and isolation of tannin extract, the disposal of the remainder of the crust in active carbons (RU # 2142489, publ. 10.12.99).

The main disadvantage of this method is the difficulty in technical execution, as the crust is subjected to activation conditions explosive autohydrolysis, which increases the energy of its processing. On current Russian enterprises for processing vegetable raw devices explosive autohydrolysis missing. The disadvantage of this method is that the process of obtaining tanning extract is carried out in two stages: first, the bark is extracted with ethanol, then with water. The total output of the combined extract is not more than 18.6%, and its purity of 49.3%.

Object of the invention is the simplification of the process, increasing the yield of tannin extract, expanding the range obtained from the bark of spruce products and achieving almost full utilization of spruce bark.

This object is achieved in that in the method of processing of spruce bark, which includes grinding, extraction of non-polar solvent, the processing of the remainder of the crust with a water-alcohol mixture emitting tanning extract and recycle the remaining crust in active coal, according to the invention the extraction of non-polar solvent allocate pine wax, and the rest of the bark is treated once with a water-alcohol mixture containing 1 wt.% sodium hydroxide obtaining tanning extract.

The proposed method differs from the prototype in that after the extraction of non-polar solvent is eliminated stage cortex activation, and selection of tannins is carried out in one stage, water-speredelozzi mixture. The output of tanning extract of the proposed method is 35%and the purity is 52,3%. The rest of the crust after the selection of tanning extract processed into activated carbon through oxidation carbonization.

The method is as follows.

The bark is crushed to particle sizes of 1-3 mm and subjected to extraction with non-polar solvent (pentane, hexane is, petroleum ether or gasoline, BR-1) for the Department of coniferous wax to conventional Soxhlet extractions. Output and the degree of extraction of pine wax by extraction of various non-polar solvents shown in table 1.

Table 1
Output and the degree of extraction of pine wax by extraction of the bark of spruce nonpolar solvents
№ p/pSolventsThe duration of extraction, hThe output of wax % from A.S. bark*The recovery ratio of wax
1Pentane66,8996,8
2Hexane66,9897,0
3Petroleum6,9596,6
ether (40-70°)6
4Petrol BR-167,0097,2
*Output coniferous wax are given in % by weight of the absolutely dry crust

As can be seen from table 1, the maximum yield (7%) and the degree of extraction (97,2%) coniferous wax can be achieved by extraction of the bark of spruce gasoline.

Obtaining tanning extract is carried out in a flow-type apparatus equipped with a jacket for heating, automatic temperature control, reflux condenser, fitting for the filing of the extract, as well as fitting and filtering device to filter the extract. In the extractor download the spruce bark and extracted for 4 h at 75°With a 30%aqueous solution of ethanol containing 1 wt.% of sodium hydroxide. The flow of the extractant and the selection of the extract is carried out continuously. The yield of extractives is 35% of absolutely dry matter of the cortex, including the share tenido accounts for 51.7% of the dry matter of the extract. Quantitative determination of tannins performed by a standard method using gelievogo powder.

The remainder of the cortex after removal of extractives oxidative carbonation is transferred to the activated carbon in a reactor with a fixed or fluidized bed at a temperature of 600-800° (Kuznetsov B.N., ShipCo M., Kuznetsova S.A., tarabanko VE New approaches in the treatment of solid organic materials. Krasnoyarsk, 1991. 74).

The method of processing of spruce bark confirmed by specific example.

Example. In the to conventional Soxhlet extractions load of 100 g of crushed (1-3 mm) of spruce bark moisture content of 20%, which contains 7.2% of coniferous wax, and extracted with hexane for 4-6 hours Pic the e distillation of hexane obtain 5.7 g of pine wax, the extraction ratio was 97.2 per cent.

To obtain tannin extract 15 g deresinated spruce bark loaded into the device flow type, fill in 450 ml of 30%aqueous solution of ethanol containing 1 wt.% of sodium hydroxide. Extraction was carried out at 75°C for 3 h with continuous stirring. The yield of extractives is 35% of absolutely dry matter of the cortex, including the share tenido accounts for 51.7% of the dry matter of the extract.

The rest of the crust formed after receipt of tanning extract, oxidative carbonation is transferred to the active coal in a reactor with a fixed or fluidized bed at a temperature of 600-800°C. the Output of the active charcoal is 13-14%. Characteristics of activated carbon are shown in table. 2.

Table 2
Characteristics of active coal
Characteristics AU
Ash content, %15-16
Bulk density0,11-0,12
Activity iodine, %75-80
The volume of pore water, cm3/g1,9-2,1
Activity on MG, mg/l140-150

During the processing of 1 ton of spruce bark on the proposed method are:

1) conifers in the IC 60-70 kg;

2) tanning extracts of up to 350 kg (purity 51-53%);

3) active carbon 130-140 kg

Thus, the proposed method can improve the yield of tanning extract, to expand the range obtained from the bark of spruce products and to achieve virtually complete utilization.

The method of processing of spruce bark, including its grinding, extraction of non-polar solvent, the processing of the remainder of the crust with a water-alcohol mixture emitting tanning extract and recycle the remaining crust in active carbon, characterized in that the extraction of non-polar solvent allocate pine wax, and the rest of the bark is treated once with a water-alcohol mixture containing 1 wt.% sodium hydroxide obtaining tanning extract.



 

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical processing of wood and can be used at wood-processing enterprises and in wood-pulp and paper industry for spruce bark processing with obtaining coniferous wax, antocyanidin pigment, pectine and active coal. The method of spruce bark processing is described. It includes bark extraction with nonpolar solvent with extraction of coniferous wax, further isolating from bark of antocyanidin pigment and processing of remaining part of bark into active coal; after obtaining antocyanidin pigment the remaining part of bark is subjected to extraction with 0.5% water solution of ammonium oxalate at temperature 95-100°C with isolating pectine.

EFFECT: achieving practically full utilisation of bark with production of coniferous wax, antocyanidin pigment, pectine and active coal.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: fat and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: base material is cyclically heated under effects of microwave energy until preset temperature is achieved. Obtained extract has to be cooled to the preset temperature. Each cycle, base material is first heated by microwave energy to 40-50°C temperature. Simultaneously, fine disperse extracting agent is injected into effective volume of extractor with exposure time 0.5 minutes at frequency of 2 cycles per minute and pressure increase in effective extractor volume to 3000 - 4000 mm of m.c. Secondly, material temperature is decreased to 25-30°C and pressure in extractor effective volume is also decreased to 10-1 - 10-2 mm of m.c. Microwave energy effects only at heating stage lasting no more than 10 minutes. Extracting agent injection is terminated at the last two minutes of extracting.

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3 dwg

FIELD: food-processing industry.

SUBSTANCE: method provides processing of dried hawthorn fruits by a lactoserum in the ratio 1:5, at temperature 40-50°C within 2 hours, at lactoserum pH=4.

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1 tbl

FIELD: food production technology.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in grinding dried material, its extraction with ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Gramineae (cereals) are used as vegetable raw material, they are ground in disintegrator till the particle size 0.5-2 mm, and extracted with the mixture of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide, ethyl alcohol - 10-20 mass fractions, carbon dioxide - 80-90 mass fractions from the solvent total mass. The extraction is carried out at the pressure 16-31 MPa and temperature 31.5-32°С within 20-60 min. Fractional separation of the end product is carried out at the pressure 0.01-0.2 MPa and temperature -8 - +5°С with further solvent regeneration.

EFFECT: received rich vegetable oil contains more biologically active materials from the vegetable raw material.

3 ex

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2 cl, 2 ex

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1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: food processing industry, in particular food supplements.

SUBSTANCE: claimed food supplement with immunomodulating properties represents protein-pumpkin-oil paste. Paste is obtained by drying of pumpkin bagasse with simultaneous grinding and extraction. Extraction is carried out with refined deodorized vegetable oil in thin spiral rolling film of 0.5-1.0 mm thickness, at pulsed pressure gradient of 10-20 MPa and temperature of 20-40°C. Pumpkin bagasse/refined deodorized vegetable oil ratio is (40-60):(60-40). Further mixture is separated to produce target product.

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3 tbl, 3 ex

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2 tbl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

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