Device and method for testing metal elements under load
SUBSTANCE: tuning device incorporates and adaptor-extender to be attached with its one end to railway line tested in-situ or to a fastener attached to the railway section. The said device comprises a vibration signal measuring appliance to be attached to the other end of the aforesaid adapter-extender. The railway line section integrity testing device comprises a control appliance, a vibration generator, a tuning device to be attached to the railway line section. The vibration signal measuring appliance and vibration generator are connected with the aforesaid section to cause its vibration. The railway line section integrity testing system incorporates the railway line integrity testing device attached to the railway section over five consecutive sleepers arranged below the railway line and perpendicular to it.
EFFECT: fast and valid control of the rail parameters.
16 cl, 4 dwg
The technical FIELD
The invention relates to improvements relating to devices designed for testing metal elements under load, as well as related methods and systems. The invention relates to the field including the methods of testing the integrity of the rail lines, but not limited to.
Metal elements are subjected to residual stress caused by mechanical or thermal loads. Stress has a negative impact on the physical parameters of the metal elements and can lead to fatigue and even failure of the element.
Known methods of measuring residual stress of the metal elements are not widely applicable. Currently, the commonly used technique of relieving thermal stress of the metal elements independently from the application of such techniques. Thermal processing of metal elements do not require stress relieving, leads to a significant loss of resources.
A similar problem occurs with elongated elements, such as railway lines and pipelines. Railway track, as a rule, is placed so that at a certain temperature, the load on the gauge would be neutral. When the temperature gauge, previse the neutral level, section gauge expanded, and the whole railway line is experiencing compression. At high enough temperatures this can lead to warping path. At temperatures below the neutral level section of track stretch. At sufficiently low temperatures, the tensile strength can reach the level at which the gauge section cracked.
Due to the fact that the risk of an accident during the formation of cracks in the partitions gauge less than the warping path, the neutral temperature is usually set higher average summer temperatures. In New Zealand, the neutral temperature is set to approximately 30 degrees Celsius.
The railway line is exposed to significant temperature fluctuations. They also have high mechanical loads during the passage of trains on the rails. All of the above can lead to plastic deformation of the rails, that is their strength. When this neutral temperature of the rail is reduced, thus increasing the risk of warping gauge on hot days. It is generally believed that the railway line it is necessary to pass or pull. In particular, it is believed that they are necessary every ten years to shift under tension to return the neutral temperature at the same level and thus to minimize the risk of warping. Currently, lifting the enterprise, the extension and relocation of the railway line are expensive and time-consuming. A lot of money can be spent on stretching sections of the track, it does not require.
The objective of the invention is to provide a device for use in testing the integrity of the metal elements and sections of the railway track in order to overcome at least some of the above problems or at least provide a choice.
DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS
According to the first object of the present invention this problem is solved due to the fact that the device configuration for use in testing the integrity of the rail line to obtain an improved test signal includes adapter extension cable made with the possibility of joining one end to check on the location of the railway line or to the mounting element attached to the section of railway line, where the device contains a means of measuring the vibration signal, which is configured to attach to the other end of the adapter extension.
It is preferable to use as a means of measuring the vibration signal of the sensor. It is desirable to use as the sensor is an accelerometer.
Preferably the execution of the adapter extension of a suitable metal. Desirable the execution of a device configuration of nelomky, vysokochetkogo material with sufficient elasticity and ductility.
Advantage will be attaching the adapter extension to the mounting element mounted on the rail head. Preferably, execution of the fastening element in the form of L-shaped metal block, made for example of mild steel.
Preferably, the supply device damper attached to the adapter-a power strip next to means of measuring the vibration signal with adjustable frequency devices. Preferably, execution of the damper tubular with a hollow Central part, in which the damping material.
Preferably, the device configuration so that the adapter extension cable distance between the mounting point on the railway line or the fastening element and means for measuring the vibration signal is approximately 13,5 cm, and the adapter extension has approximately a width of 16 mm and a thickness of 3 mm, and the device is configured for measuring the frequency of approximately 80 Hz.
According to the second object of the present invention the problem is solved due to the fact that the device for checking the integrity of the section of railway line contains a management tool, the vibration generator of oscillations, the device settings, issue lanoe can be mounted to the section of railway line and in accordance with the first object of the invention, this measurement tool vibration signal and the vibration generator of oscillations associated with the above section of the railway line with direct excitation of vibrations, the frequency of vibration oscillations is governed by the management tool with the capability of receiving and processing measurement of the oscillation amplitude by using the device settings, and excited by a frequency generator oscillations are regulated by means of control by means of measurement of the vibration signal.
Preferably included in the device temperature measurement made by attaching to the specified section of the railway line to provide a signal about the temperature control.
Preferably, execution of the vibration generator of oscillations in the form of a motor with eccentric loads, installed around the motor shaft, and the means of measurement of the vibration signal in the form of a tachometer mounted on the motor shaft.
The advantage is to have between your device settings and generator vibration oscillations distance sufficient to obtain accurate test measurements and preferably in the range of 60 to 70 centimeters, but in this invention the possible deviations from the specified dimensions.
Coz the ACLs third object of the invention the task is solved by the system checks the integrity of the section of railway line contains the device according to the second object of the invention mounted on a section of railway line for five consecutive railway sleepers, located under the railway line at right angles to it, and the vibration generator of oscillations is fixed on the rail line next to the second pole, and the device configuration according to any one of items 1-10 attached to the section of railway line next to the fourth sleeper, and the distance between the vibration generator of oscillations and the device configuration is in the range from 60 to 75 centimeters.
Preferred such a system configuration in which the second, third and fourth sleepers uncoupled from the train line, and between the top of the second and fourth rails and the bottom side of the railway line respectively placed cushioning elements to form an air gap between the third pole and the lower side of the railway line.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS
The invention is further explained in the detailed description of the best options for its implementation with reference to the drawings, which represent:
figure 1 - block diagram of basic elements of the claimed invention, the device for checking the integrity of the section of railway line;/p>
figure 2 - plan of the connecting device of figure 1 to the section of railway line;
figure 3 - device configuration and arrangement of the elements of the anchoring element;
figure 4 - option of attaching the device settings section of the railway line.
The BEST OPTION of carrying out the INVENTION
Figure 1 presents the block diagram of the main elements of the claimed invention device 1 to verify the integrity of the section of railway line.
The device 1 can be used to verify the integrity of the metal elements. It is desirable that the metal element suitable for testing using vibration. All statements in this document in relation to railway lines can also apply to other metal elements, including pipelines. However, to simplify the description of the invention, variations in its implementation in this document will be described with reference to the railway lines.
Further, this invention related to the invention described in WO 97/04291 and in the description of the patent US 6026687, and a full description of the invention of the patent owner presented in these documents are included in this document as part of the descriptions. Professionals will be provided easy access to these documents and presented them in the description when interest is arnosti in the assessment and understanding of aspects of the present invention.
Preferably incorporated in a device, 1 means 2 control executed in the form of computing device that contains a microprocessor programmed to control the operation of device 1, and executed with the possibility of obtaining measurements and data from various measuring devices and representation of the input signals in a form suitable for storage and/or display. For storing data can be processed to provide statistical data reflecting the characteristics of the railway line or the section of railway line 10.
Tool 2 control can function to control each stage of the claimed invention. Preferably the power means 2 control from any reliable source of supply (not shown in the drawings) when the need for remote testing of railway tracks away from the electrical power source, which allows not only to use the device in the laboratory, but also makes it portable.
Generator 3 vibration oscillations can be installed by any known method, for example by clamping, to the desired area of the railway line. Preferably run generator 3 vibration oscillations in the form of a motor with a tool vozbuzhdeno the oscillations, preferably made in the form of eccentric loads that are installed on the motor shaft and providing a vibrational effect on the line. The applied oscillatory force is adjustable, so if necessary, you can change the frequency of vibration oscillations. Generator 3 vibration oscillations may enable the pathogen, called in this subject area by vibrating screen, preferably controlled by the user, which regulates the speed of the motor generator 3. The motor generator 3 can be implemented by means of its connection with the tool 2 control.
The measurement of the speed of the motor generator vibration oscillations can be carried out by any known means of measuring the speed of the engine, and in this case - tachometer 4, mounted on the motor shaft 3. Tachometer 4 measures the speed of the shaft, and the received data is entered to the management tool 2.
The amplitude of the oscillations excited in the section of railway line, is measured by means of measuring the vibration signal, in the form of sensor, preferably the accelerometer 5. Instead of the accelerometer can be used by any other known device.
Accelerometer sensor 5 generates an electrical signal in response to the increased vibrations of the railway line caused by the vibration generator 3 what's hesitation, and this signal is applied to the tool 2 control. Tool 2 control configured and configured to convert incoming signals to measure the oscillation frequency.
Tool 6 temperature measurement with a sensitive temperature sensor can be used to measure the temperature of the line when conducting test measurements. Preferably executing means 6 temperature measurement in the form of a pyrometer, feeding the measurement data to the tool 2 control to compare with other received data line temperature at the time of measurement.
You may be offered the means 7 display to demonstrate the graph of the dependence of the rate of change of the amplitude (for example, mm/s) from the oscillation frequency, as well as any other characteristics obtained at the time of testing.
Figure 2 presents a plan for connecting the device 1 to the section of railway line before testing.
Specialists know that the railway lines are constantly in a state of compression or tension caused by temperature changes and other factors. Sharp fluctuations in temperature and too high or low temperature can increase the voltage to undesirable high level, which can lead to warping of the rail lines.
Some CRO is mportant lines consist of interconnected sections. Laying adjacent sections of the line must be made with the same level of tension or compression, preferably in a neutral state at a certain temperature. In significantly different States of adjacent sections and rapid temperature changes can cause warping and other undesirable changes in the line. The invention can be used to verify the integrity of the railway lines in order to establish the necessity of relaying or replacing sections of the line and apply for the correct laying or relaying of railway lines.
In one of the possible variants of the method and system testing of the audited section of the railway line 10, as shown in figure 2, is based on five sleepers, designated as the first pole And the second pole, the third sleeper, the fourth sleeper D and the fifth sleeper that is Mentioned five sleepers can be disconnected from the target line or optionally left on during the test in the attached position.
Preferably rigid fastening of the first sleepers and fifth sleepers E., and dense placement of ballast, in which he comes into contact with the first pole and the fifth sleeper E so that the lower side of the rails a and E was in contact with the ballast. Professionals it is clear that, during the audit, the ballast may be optionally IP is alsoan to ensure proper contact between the other sleepers.
The second bar In, the third pole and the fourth pole D can be disconnected from the line 10. Between the upper part of the second railway sleepers and In the lower part of line 10 is placed cushioning element in the form of a wedge 11 or other similar devices. The wedge 11 can be placed between the upper part of the fourth sleepers D and the lower part of the railway line 10. The advantage is the presence of a gap between the upper part of the third sleepers and With the lower part of the railway line 10, designated as 12. The location of the second, third and fourth sleepers relative to the line 10 can be set in one embodiment, the test corresponding to the test system using the device 1.
Advisable to install the accelerometer 5 to line 10 on the fourth sleeper D. Advantage is to install the accelerometer 5 in the structure of the device for the settings described below and presented in figure 3 and 4. Generator 3 vibration oscillations can be coupled with the second bar In or installed on top of it. Tool 6 temperature measurement can be installed in any part of the line 10. All necessary data line connected to the tool 2 control wires 13 or in other ways, for example by means of infrared or laser signal. If necessary, you may use any known data transfer methods.
OPI is an way to check the integrity of the line 10 to one of the embodiments of the invention. Generator 3 vibrational oscillation is activated, and the accelerometer 5 transmits a response signal to the means 2 controls. The signal is converted into digital form, and means 7 display displays a graph of the rate of change in oscillation amplitude (mm/s) vibration frequency (Hz). You can increase the frequency of oscillations; in most cases, testing is performed with operating frequencies in the range from 0 to 100 Hz, however, if necessary, the operating frequency can be increased up to 500 Hz. Can be measured by the accelerometer 5 and displaying moderately linear acceleration changes the amplitude of oscillation. Fluctuations can be enhanced prior to registration noticeable splash.
For some railway lines surge in the load unit can be detected when the frequency of vibration oscillations in the range from 50 to 125 Hz. If the line is under tension, the surge can be detected during the oscillation frequency in the range from 50 to 75 Hz. For line in a state of compression, a noticeable spike can detect when the oscillation frequency in the range from 85 to 100 Hz. This information helps to determine whether the audited section of the railway line extension or replacement, and indicates the state of the line 10.
It is clear that in one embodiment of the present invention the accelerometer mozhet to be placed between the rails C and D, and generator vibration oscillations 3 can be mounted on the second bar In order to obtain accurate measurements according to the proposed method. The preferred installation of the accelerometer 5 and generator vibration oscillations 3 at a distance of not less than 60 cm from each other.
Figure 3 and 4 shows the device 20 to adjust with the possibility of obtaining an electrical signal reflecting the oscillation frequency on the railway line.
The device 20 to adjust designed to improve the quality of the test signal by reducing the number of errors caused by standard fastening system used for direct attachment of the accelerometer to the railway line.
Preferably included in the device configuration of the fastening element made in the form of the body element 21, which serves for connection of measuring the vibration signal or sensor to the rail line 30. Preferably, execution of the body element 21 in the form of L-shaped segment is quite large, allowing any strong clamping means 22 to attach the device to adjust to the line 30. Preferably the attachment body element 21 to the outer side of the line 30, as shown in figure 4, due to the fact that this part of the line is less prone to wear, che the inner head section of the standard bi-trajectory line.
Device settings made from any durable material, connects the sensor, made in the form of accelerometer 24, shell element 21 by way of the adapter extension 23 with the aim of obtaining accurate measurements. You can use nelomky elastic material, preferably using visakorttini mild steel because of its strength and elasticity. The advantage is the use of a light, highly elastic metal.
Near the end of the adapter extension 23 can for more durable fastening to fit in a hole (not shown in the drawings) in the side of the body element 21 and to join vessel element 21 using any possible means of fastening. In the present embodiment, is shown attaching with screws 25. The accelerometer 24 may be joined to the far end of the adapter extension 23. The damper 26 can be installed next to the accelerometer 24 at the far end of the adapter extension 23.
Preferably, execution of the damper 26 is tubular with a hollow Central part with the possibility of placing inside the damper damping material to establish the desired frequency devices to configure. It is desirable to use as the damping material is sand. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the damper 26 has the roughly the height of 15 millimeters (mm) and a diameter of 3 mm Within the scope of the invention also provide for other sizes and shapes of the damper.
One of the possible embodiments of the invention the adapter extension 23 is located between the bolt 25 and the accelerometer 24 at a distance of approximately 13.5 cm from them, has approximately a width of 16 mm and a thickness of 3 mm, These dimensions correspond to the option of using the device configuration for measuring frequencies in the range from 78 to 80 Hz.
If the thickness is smaller device 23 may use a more sensitive device settings.
Assume that when the attachment body element 21 to the line device configuration is located parallel to the railway line. Device installation settings parallel to the railway line are desirable to improve the accuracy of the measurements.
In another embodiment of the invention, differs from the one described in figure 2, does not require the use of a wedge or other cushioning elements and the rail line 30 may at the time of testing to remain attached to the sleepers.
In a variant, when the railway line is disconnected from the sleepers, the generator 3 vibration oscillations is located above the sleepers, and corpus element 21 is mounted preferably a T to the line between the rails C and D, and preferably at the same distance from them. United of the mouth of austo settings and accelerometer 24 is located at a distance of not less than 60 cm from the generator 3 vibration oscillations and preferably at a distance of approximately 70 cm from the device settings for more accurate results and prevent or minimize interference from the generator 3 vibration oscillations.
The advantage is the transmission response signal from the accelerometer 5 means 2 controls in the form of infrared or laser signal. The receiver is an infrared or laser signal is mounted on the trolley, is arranged to move along the line, the car is set by the invention a device for testing and measuring.
It is desirable to use a frequency of 80 Hz, because it is the most suitable for testing and ensures optimal signal enhancement, reflecting the rate of change of the amplitude measured by the accelerometer 24. Thus the resonant frequency of most rail lines are far above this frequency.
It is also proposed computer software to control a computer or computing device that is included in the unit 2 control. Preferably included in the list of computational operations management device for checking the integrity of the train line operations to obtain data on the frequency of the line using a special measuring device, such as a tachometer. Experts clear that strict control over the operation of the generator 3 vibration oscillations are possible Avenue is to use a tachometer to measure the speed of the engine and feed the signal into the unit 2 control. After that, the unit 2 control signals necessary to change the speed of the engine.
Accelerometer sensor 2 generates a signal reflecting the amplitude of the line. Desirable supply means 6 temperature measurement signal of the temperature line.
After receiving these data, the graph of dependence of the amplitude of oscillation from the oscillation frequency at a certain temperature line.
The data obtained are recorded and, if necessary, are compared with other data.
Preferably included in the list of arithmetic operations, comparison operations graphs constructed for the test cell line at different temperatures line to determine whether the line is in a state of compression or tension.
Preferably included in the list of computational operations pre-operations for carrying out control measurements of the rate of change of the amplitude of the line, which is in the neutral position, i.e. not in a state of compression or tension. These measurements can be used as a benchmark when comparing all kinds of graphs corresponding to different temperatures.
If the numeric parameters or elements have known equivalents, then all of the above applies to them as if they were explicitly mentioned. Thus, the change above options ASU is estline of the invention can take place within its entity.
Other advantages of this invention will be clear to experts after considering the specific implementation of the principles of the invention described and represented in the drawings. Thus, it is clear that the invention is not limited to the specific implementation options described or presented on the figures, but covers all modifications that are within the entity appended claims.
1. The device configuration for use in testing the integrity of the rail line to obtain an improved test signal that includes the adapter extension cable made with the possibility of joining one end to check on the location of the railway line or to the mounting element attached to the section of railway line, where the device contains a means of measuring the vibration signal, which is configured to attach to the other end of the adapter extension.
2. The device configuration according to claim 1, characterized in that the means of measuring the vibration signal in the form of sensor.
3. The device configuration according to claim 2, wherein the sensor is an accelerometer.
4. The device configuration according to claim 1, characterized in that the adapter extension cable is made of a suitable metal.
5. The device configuration according to claim 1, characterized in that it is ipodnano of nelomky, vysokochetkogo material with sufficient elasticity and ductility.
6. The device configuration according to claim 1, characterized in that the adapter extension cable attached to the mounting element mounted on the rail head.
7. The device configuration according to claim 1, characterized in that the fastening element is designed as L-shaped metal block.
8. The device configuration according to claim 1, characterized in that it is provided with a damper, which is attached near the means of measuring the vibration signal on the adapter extension cable with the possibility of frequency tuning device.
9. The device configuration of claim 8, wherein the damper is made tubular and has a hollow Central portion which is placed in the damping material.
10. The device configuration according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the adapter extension cable distance between the mounting point on the railway line or the fastening element and means for measuring the vibration signal is approximately 13.5 cm, and the adapter extension has approximately a width of 16 mm and a thickness of 3 mm, and the device is configured for measuring the frequency of approximately 80 Hz.
11. Device for checking the integrity of the section of railway line comprising a management tool, the vibration generator of oscillations, the device settings, issue lanoe can be mounted to the section of railway line, in accordance with any of claims 1 to 10, with a means of measuring the vibration signal and the vibration generator of oscillations associated with the above section of the railway line with direct excitation of vibrations, the frequency of vibration oscillations is governed by the management tool with the capability of receiving and processing measurement of the oscillation amplitude by using the device settings, and excited by a frequency generator oscillations are regulated by means of control by means of measurement of the vibration signal.
12. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that it further comprises means of temperature measurements made with the possibility of attaching to the specified section of the railway line to provide a signal about the temperature control.
13. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the vibration generator of oscillations made in the form of a motor with eccentric loads, installed around the motor shaft, and a means of measuring the vibration signals is made in the form of a tachometer mounted on the motor shaft.
14. The device according to claim 11, characterized in that the distance between the device settings and generator vibration oscillations is in the range from 60 to 70 cm
15. System integrity section of the railway line that contains a device according to any one of § § 11-14, mounted on the section of railway line for five consecutive railway sleepers, located under the railway line at right angles to it, and the vibration generator of oscillations is fixed on the rail line next to the second pole, and the device configuration according to any one of claims 1 to 10 is attached to the section of railway line next to the fourth sleeper, and the distance between the vibration generator of oscillations and the device configuration is in the range from 60 to 75, see
16. The system of clause 15, wherein the second, third and fourth sleepers uncoupled from the train line, and between the top of the second and fourth rails and the bottom side of the railway line respectively placed cushioning elements to form an air gap between the third pole and the lower side of the railway line.
FIELD: measuring techniques.
SUBSTANCE: method involves use of amplitude of sound vibrations as a linkage parameter, arising when a grinding wheel cuts into a work-piece in the range of natural frequencies of manufacturing systems. On the change of amplitude, the complete attenuation time of the transient process is fixed, limited by the value of the preset amplitude of the sound vibrations, on which the time constant of the manufacturing system is determined.
EFFECT: increased speed of operation and accuracy of determining time constant.
SUBSTANCE: essence of the device lies in the serviceability of the device in self-control mode based on control of availability of source voltage and information signal under the condition that, the current level of the amplitude of vibration exceeds the first given value, in actuation of the previous signalling when there is attainment of the current value of the amplitude of vibration of the second given value, determination of the first time interval, which characterises the rate of change of the amplitude of vibration relative to the first and second given values. The second time interval is determined, which characterises the rate of change of the amplitude of vibration relative to the second and third given values. The third time interval, which characterises acceleration of the change of amplitude of vibration based on comparison of the first and second time intervals, is determined. The forecasted time of alarm signalling of vibrations relative the third given value is given out, taking into account the dynamics of change in the acceleration of amplitude of vibration.
EFFECT: actuation of the alarm signalling and decrease in measuring errors.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises analogue-digital converter, computer, and information storage connected in series. The computer has N programmable down-converting low-frequency filters and Nxn band filters, where N is the number of frequency intervals and n is the number of frequency bands extracting in each frequency interval. N and n are integers larger than unity. The output of the analogue-digital converter is connected with the input of the down-converting low-frequency filter and inputs of the band filter of the first frequency interval. The output of the low-frequency filter of previous frequency interval is connected with the input of the low-frequency filter and outputs of the band filters of the subsequent frequency interval. The outputs of the band filters for the frequency intervals from the first to the N-th interval are connected with the inputs of the information storage.
EFFECT: reduced body of transmitted information.
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises parameters of vibration acoustic signal, extracting components corresponding to the defects and failures, correcting amplitude-phase characteristics of the signal in accordance with the parameters of the amplitude-phase characteristics of the channel for transmitting vibration acoustic information appropriate to the measured amplitude of the signal, and comparing the values obtained with the permissible values. The amplitude and phase of components of spectral signal realization as well as frequency components are used as diagnostic components.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: calibration systems.
SUBSTANCE: calibration system can be used for devices, which measure vibration on base of vibration speed and vibration acceleration parameters. Measuring and vibration inspection device calibration system has reference sinusoidal electric signal oscillator 2, analog multiplexer 3, analog-to-digital converter 8, analog demultiplexer 9, calibration system control interface 14, readings inspection digital interface 27 of vibration inspection and measuring device 1, digital interface intended for relating calibration system to computer 32, and computer 33.
EFFECT: shortened time of calibration.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: vibration-testing machine has bed with base, movable system connected with base by means of straight movement guides, post and flat spring attached to bed in vertical. Tensioning screw of flat spring is connected with post. Tip is attached to flat spring from the left by means of first hinge. Two clams are connected with tensioning screw of flat spring and with tip by means of pins. Lamellar cylindrical slot spring embraces clamps. Discharge screw with cone-shaped tip is mounted inside tensioning screw of flat spring. Plate is attached from the right to flat spring by means of second hinge. Arm-piece is mounted onto movable system and touches plate. Two wheels are mounted onto tensioning screw of flat spring and onto discharge screw. Plate of hydraulic damper is mounted onto base in parallel to guides of straight motion. Guides are made in form of four plates mounted in horizontal onto base. Two rubber limiters are disposed in vertical. The first one is mounted between base and flat spring; the second limiter is mounted between movable system and base. Three-component accelerometer is disposed onto movable system in such a way that two its measuring axes are disposed at plane of horizon; the third axis is directed in vertical. Eight roll bearings are mounted onto movable system. Two cylindrical extension springs are disposed symmetrically in relation to flat spring; the springs have their ends connected with movable system and post correspondingly.
EFFECT: improved precision of testing.
FIELD: measuring equipment, particularly vibration-testing of structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installing measuring vibration pickups in several control points; determining parameters of vertical self- and stimulated span structure oscillations caused by ordinary traffic through time period; determining horizontal displacement of load-bearing beam end with the use of computer program, which determines horizontal displacement of lower or upper beam end points from vertical beam displacement in span structure center in dependence of vibration pickup locations; determining scale factor of vertical load-bearing beam displacement in span structure center from above horizontal displacement value in lower of upper beam end points obtained from formula. To control technical state of bridge span structure horizontal load-bearing beam oscillation values are used, wherein the horizontal load-bearing beam oscillation values are obtained by means of vibration pickups horizontally installed in load-bearing beam ends. Vertical span structure oscillation frequency may be determined from horizontal load-bearing beam oscillation frequency. Amplitudes of vertical oscillation frequency in span structure center are defined from horizontal load-bearing beam end displacement with the use of previously calculated scale factor.
EFFECT: simplified measurements along with increased measurement reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: electric signal, being proportional to object's vibration, is conversed into spectrum. Amplitude components of spectrum are memorized and are subject to comparison with preliminary specified critical and evaluation levels. Technical condition is determined from results of comparison and period of non-failure operation of object being tested is determined. Prior to beginning of measurement of main signal, values of signals of associate factors are measured and memorized, namely period of actual operation of object and average meaning of environment temperature during actual operation of object. After that values of preliminary specified critical and evaluation levels of amplitude components are subject to correction depending on meanings of preliminary measured signals of associate factors.
EFFECT: improved truth of diagnostics.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bench comprises base provided with vibration generator and loading device. The base also has lever whose one end is pivotally connected with the base and other end is connected with reduction gear and drive through crank and double eccentric. The strain-gage dynamometer underlies the vibration insulation. The seismic sensor is secured to the lever and records the level of the input vibration acceleration. The signals from the pickup and strain-gage dynamometer are fed to the strain-gage amplifier and then to oscilloscope, magnetograph, and computer for processing information obtained.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and simplified structure.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: vibration bench comprises base provided with vertical pillars whose top parts are interconnected through cross-piece, vibration generator, and loading device. The vibration bench additionally has hydrostatic bearings made in the base and cross-piece and composed of three balls uniformly arranged over periphery and interacting with three hydrostatic thrust bearings. The vibration generator is made of electric motor, gear box with step-up and step-down gears, double eccentric, and shackle connected with the end of rocker. The loading device is composed of disks mounted on the rod.
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced precision.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices intended to measure the rolling stock weight in operating conditions without stopping the said rolling stock and in inclined track automatic control systems. The force transducer incorporates a signal processing unit and a sensitive element fitted on the rail and made up of a passive and active parts moving relative to each other, the passive part being fitted directly on the rail while the active one being fitted on a rigid beam mounted on two hinged supports equidistant, along the rail, from the passive part. The aforesaid passive part represents a bush with an inner and outer threads and is fastened, by means of outer thread and nut, in the rail web hole, while the bush inner thread serves to locate a threaded stepwise rod made from a nonmagnetic material accommodating a magnetic material insert on its end face closer to the sensitive element active part. The said insert magnetisation vector is parallel to the measuring rail direction. The sensitive element active part incorporates a magnetic field intensity meter.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.
FIELD: railway transport; track facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relate to method of straightening railway track in plan, physical profile and level and to device for implementing the method and they can be used in scheduled preventive straightening out of track and finishing of track before handling over for operation after major repairs. According to proposed method, railway track is electronically marked out by fitting electronic marks on track axis on each hundred meter and kilometer mark, and scanners of said marks are installed on track measuring car on each track maintainer. Parameters of track rails in plan, physical profile and level are checked by electronic marks. Marks are uninterruptedly read out, their identification number are kept in memory and distance covered at moment of their detection is recorded. In process of calculations and corresponding shifts of track, data base of said electronic marks is formed containing information on location of each marks and distance between adjacent marks. Results of obtained calculations and data base of electronic marks are transmitted to dispatcher centers of track maintainers and further on to computers of said machines. Track is subjected to straightening out starting from set mark and continuously reading information from electronic marks and automatically correcting current index of program task in moment of detection of mark if measured distance from initial mark differs from Log value. Information on current calculated shifts of track is periodically renewed basing of subsequent passings of track measuring car and is transmitted to track maintainers. Invention increases capacity of machine maintenance of track, cuts down time taken for calculation of required straightening out of track, provides acceleration of total certification of geometrical parameters of rail track gauge geometry measuring device and improves quality of said device, provides automatic tie of readings of track maintainers to longitudinal coordinates of track owing to doubling of existing staking out with electronic marking out.
EFFECT: increased capacity of track maintainers.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of measurement of displacement of rails under action of movable loads. According to proposed method, horizontal mark is made on nonworking face of rail and magnetized metal rule is attached to nonworking face of rail so that visible division on rule is parallel to horizontal mark on nonworking face of rail. Then geodetic stand is installed stationary out of the limits of track, and video camera is rigidly secured on stand. Definite focal distance is chosen, and horizontal collimating ray of video camera is directed perpendicular to nonworking face of rail to get simultaneous image of mark and rule division. Video frame of rail in unloaded state is fixed. Rule is removed. Then, without changing position of video camera and focal distance, video survey of change of rail level, when train passes, is carried out. Data, thus obtained, are compared by registration of frames of initial and loaded state of rail in computer program for processing of video frames. Difference in positions of rail head is revealed by displacement of horizontal mark relative to its initial positions, and elastic deflection of rail is determined in divisions of rule.
EFFECT: facilitated measurements, possibility of storing results of measurements.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; measurement facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for automatic checking of rail. Proposed device for checking geometrical parameters of rail has measuring platform carrying six optical sensors, three of which check upper surface of rail head at its beginning, center and end, and remaining three sensors check side surface of rail head, respectively, in beginning, center and end, and measuring device connected with sensors. Device contains also mechanism to compress rail in horizontal and vertical planes, and mechanism to shaft rail relative to stationary measuring platform with rail position sensors connected to measuring device. Laser rangers are used as optical sensors.
EFFECT: possibility of measuring rail parameters after straightening out.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; rail track checking facilities.
SUBSTANCE: proposed bogie-carrier consists of two independent one-axle bogies. Frame of each one-axle bogie is connected by parallelogram mechanism with common frame. Following members are made in form of wheels. Longitudinal beams with lifting-lowering mechanism and mechanism to correct displacement of diagnosing device are hinge-mounted on axle boxes of following wheels of opposite one-axle bogies. Longitudinal beams are secured to provide angular and axial displacement of one-axle bogies.
EFFECT: improved operation reliability, strength and wear resistance of device of small mass and insignificant action onto rail track and featuring elasticity to cushion shocks and impacts when running.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for checking wear of rails on railways and streetcar tracks. Device for testing wear of rails includes pulse generator and recorder and second pulse generator. First and second pulse generators are made in form of electronic transducers furnished with spring-loaded rods with rack gears engaging with surfaces of rail and with gears on axles of which light breakers are installed, and with light emitting diodes connected by wires with photorelays. Recorder is made up of radio electronic elements, supply unit and control panel with push buttons and change-over switches. Pulse generators and recorder are connected by wires. First pulse generator is installed on base on edges of which bellcranks are mounted for rotation on joints. Position lock of bellcranks is installed between upper parts of bellcranks furnished with handles, position lock being made of concave parts and screw. Second pulse generator is installed lower than the base on one of bellcranks. Stops with slots and fastening screws are made in lower parts of bellcrank to secured their position relative to bellcranks.
EFFECT: improved safety, reduced possibility of breakdown in operation of rolling stock on railways and streetcar tracks.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of checking condition of rail tracks. Proposed track measuring truck includes two recoil wheels rigidly connected in axial direction by base member on which measuring wheels are installed, being mechanically intercoupled. Base member is made in form of sealed hollow frame with parallelogram mechanisms on ends. Guide hollow shafts with stop-shock absorber on end are tightly fitted on end faces of hollow frame for fixing and turning around own axis. Turnable recoil wheel with friction shock absorber on working face is secured on end of hollow shaft, and hollow cup is installed for hermetic axial displacement. Conical hub of measuring wheel is installed on cup for rotation to which rim of measuring wheel with inner conical surface is fastened through conical shock absorber. Conical hub of measuring wheel together with hollow cup is connected through inner space of guide hollow shaft with articulated leverage arranged in sealed space of frame. Axle of central rocker is hermetically installed on hollow frame passing through its center and is coupled at one outer side with shaft of following wheels travel sensor installed on outer side of hollow frame, and at other outer side, with following wheels drive lever on which guide for checking displacement of measuring wheel relative to body is hinge mounted. Axle of following wheels travel sensor is enclosed and fixed in space of axle of central lever by shock absorber compressed in closed space by threaded rod arranged inside central rocker axle.
EFFECT: provision of smooth adjustment of pressure and release forces of following wheel, high-shock absorbing properties of truck at impacts.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: renewing or cleaning the ballast in situ, with or without concurrent work on the track.
SUBSTANCE: method for track scanning in working direction directly in front of ballast grabbing means and for recovery of track position disturbed by ballast grabbing means involves sketching the first and the second measuring chords through two end points correspondingly in track working direction; measuring indicator height in the first measuring chord zone; displacing rear end point of the second measuring chord to correct track position in track transversal direction, wherein indicator height determined by the first indicator height sensor of the first chord and path measurements are recorded in memory to take the last end point of the first measuring chord as a given position point with respect to local track point. Then as end point of the second measuring chord reaches local point above point is displaced up to position in which measured value corresponds to that stored in memory and, thereby, to predetermined position thereof, due to the second measuring chord of the second indicator height sensor. Ballast cleaning machine comprises excavation car including height-adjustable track-lift, ballast grabbing means and sizing car arranged in front of excavation car in car working direction. The first measuring chord and indicator height sensor are attached to sizing car. The second measuring chord of path measuring system with rear end point defined with respect to working direction is associated with excavation car. Path measuring system comprises track indicator and memory to store value measured by the first indicator height sensor depending upon path and to compare thereof with measured value recorded by the second indicator height sensor.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced time of track recovery after ballast cleaning.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; testing.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, frame forces acting onto each wheel-set are measured at passing of each fixed point of rail track by all wheel-sets. Simultaneously side (cross) irregularities of rail lines are measured by cordless methods and basing of received information, six independent equations are set up where 1, j = 1,2,3,4, are wheel-sets; and are side rigidities of left-hand and right-hand rail line in k-th fixed point on rail track; and where and are irregularities of left-hand and right-hand rail lines measured at passing of k-th fixed point by i-th wheel-set; where is frame force acting onto i-th wheel-set at passing k-th fixed point of track. Then system is chosen from six equations consisting of two equations so that system should be nonuniform and definite (determinant and values of rigidities and are found by Cramer formula.
EFFECT: possibility of measuring side rigidity of rail lines by track testing car.
FIELD: railway transport; testing.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method of measuring vertical rigidities of rail lines by track testing car forces are measured by which track testing car acts on wheels when wheel-sets pass each fixed point. At initially different static loads on axle, vertical irregularities of rail lines are measured by means of two wheel-sets using cordless method. Values of vertical rigidities of rail lines are found as ratio of difference of forces acting onto corresponding (left-hand or right-hand) rail line to difference of vertical irregularities of corresponding rail line in fixed point. Mean rigidity of rail track in each fixed point is determined as mean arithmetic value of vertical rigidities of each rail line.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurement of rigidity of rail lines.
FIELD: railway transport; measuring facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to special purpose devices for measuring separate geometric parameters of reinforced concrete ties, i.e. propelling and canting of rail flats on reinforced concrete ties. Proposed device contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3, third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left-hand support 4, right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5. Housing 1 carries also right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15 and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 is fastened in central part of housing 1, controller 17 and supply compartment 18 being secured on base 16. Device for measuring rail flat canting contains housing 1 with fitted-on transport handle 2, right-hand support 3 and left-hand support 4. First support screw 5 and second support screw 6 are installed on right-hand support 3. And third support screw 7 and fourth support screw 8 are installed on left0hand support 4. Right-hand catcher 9 and left-hand catcher 10 are installed on ends of housing 1, first sensor 11 is secured on first support screw 5, and second sensor 19 is installed on fourth support screw 8. Housing 1 carries right-hand orientation handle 13 with pushbutton 15, and left-hand orientation handle 14. Base 16 with fitted-on controller 17 and supply compartment 18 is secured in central part of housing 1. Moreover, support 21 is connected to housing 1 through vertical rods in central part.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of measurements, increased accuracy and provision of operative measurement of parameters under checking.
3 cl, 2 dwg