All-wheel drive vehicle power train
SUBSTANCE: all-wheel drive vehicle power train incorporates the main and auxiliary transfer boxes with the auxiliary transfer box output shafts being linked, via drive lines, with the third and rear driving axle differential gears and the said box input shaft being connected with the main transfer box output shaft of the front driving axle differential gear drive. The main transfer box is arranged between the front and the third driving axles attached to the side member in the area of the medium traverse, while the auxiliary transfer box is located between the third and rear driving axles attached, at an angle to the side member, to the auxiliary transverse lower surface jointed to the side members, the said lower surface axis passing at an angle to the side members other than a right angle. All axles feature identical design and overall sizes. The rear driving axle differential gear is shifted towards one side member relative to differential gears of the other axles shifted towards the other side member. Note that all power train assembly units are arranged below the rectangular frame top surface.
EFFECT: higher performances.
The invention relates to the transport industry, in particular for off-road wheeled vehicles, multi-purpose, designed to travel in off-road conditions, poor soils for transportation of people and equipment. This wheeled vehicle is the base to create machines of various functional applications.
Known transmission off-road wheeled vehicles containing serially connected between a drive motor, coupling, gearbox and transfer box, made with the output shafts, drive gears associated with locking differentials front and rear axles, each of which is respectively associated with the side members of the frame, respectively, each axle flanges attached to the vertical walls of the side members with the inner side of the frame, and wheel drive shafts from the differential skipped through openings in the vertical walls of the side members and through the end of transmission associated with wheels (RU # 2163209, B62D 63/02, UK 17/28, B62D 7/14, publ. 2001.02.20).
Lack of transmission of this versatile traction of the vehicle is the fact that all power units are located on the longitudinal axial line of the frame, axles made with a Central location differentials that PR is leads to the necessity, on the one hand, the location of all power drive shaft closer to the longitudinal axial line and the output shafts of the steering actuator for a frame, that is, with its outer side. The density of the power units complicates maintenance. In this kinematic and lay out the build of this vehicle cannot be transformed in triaxial option to transfer it from the vehicle universal functional destination intended for performance of technological operations in forestry, agriculture and household, as well as when carrying out construction works, in the vehicle-terrain vehicles, used for transporting people and cargo.
In addition, the frame is made according to the classical scheme of the two side members and two cross-beams of steel determining the bending stiffness of this design. This frame becomes cumbersome and bulky. Increased stiffness for such a frame is necessary because the Carter bridges flanges are attached to the spars. Naturally, when replacing steel, for example, aluminum appears necessary to increase the rigidity of the frame.
The present invention is directed to solving the following technical tasks: attaching all units under the crossbars in the volume of the frame, is the use of elements attached to power units as cross-beams of the frame, determine its Flexural rigidity, optimization of the angles of the shafts cardan transmission. While the present invention is also directed to a solution to simplify the design as a whole through the use of standard components of mechanical power flow and improve the layout at the expense of rational allocation of all power units and propeller shafts freely available to them.
Achievable technical result is to improve operational performance through the use of standard equipment, capacity building building a series of machines for various purposes due to the location of all kinematic nodes below the top surface of the side members of the frame, reducing the weight of the frame through the use of cross-beams as supports for the kinematic nodes and durability of the actuator due to the rational arrangement of drive shafts in the optimal range of the calculated angular displacements.
This technical result is achieved in that the transmission-wheel drive vehicles with basic transfer case output shafts which drive gears associated with differentials front and rear axles, each of which has a sump, with wheel shafts from the differential skipped through overstep vertical walls of the side members and through the end of transmission associated with wheels, made with a third axle located between the front and rear driving axles, and additional gearbox output shafts which are connected with the cardan transmissions with differentials of the third and rear axles for the drive wheel and the input shaft with the output shaft of the main transfer case actuator differential front drive axle, respectively, each driving axle is attached to the lower surface of the individual cross rectangular frame, the main transfer case is located between the front and the third driving axles and attached to the spars in the area of the middle cross member below the upper surface of side members, and an additional transfer case is placed between the third and rear driving axles and attached at an angle to the side members to the bottom surface of the additional cross member connected to the side members and a longitudinal axis which is at an angle to the side members, other than direct, with all the bridges are made with the same design and dimensions, differentials front and third bridges are shifted to one side member and the rear axle differential is shifted to another spar.
These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to achieve the required the imago technical result.
The present invention is illustrated by specific examples, which, however, is not only possible, but clearly demonstrates the possibility of achieving a given set of features required technical result.
In the drawing - transmission four-wheel vehicles.
According to the present invention, the transmission off-road wheeled vehicles formulas 6×6 contains a rectangular frame with side members 1 connected by the three main cross-beams 2, the upper surface of which is planar and located in the plane of the upper surface of the rails. Thus, the plane of the upper platform frame for mounting attachments on it equipment, such as a body of any type, to create a series of machines for various purposes. The frame is a basic element to create a transmission module.
Mounted on the frame driven by the main engine gear box 3, additional transfer case 4 and three leading axle 5 of the same design and dimensions, designed to drive the wheels. In this third axle is located between the front and rear driving axles. Differentials 6 front and third bridges are shifted to one side member, and the differential 7 rear axle shifted to the other is th spar. Wheel shafts from the differential skipped through openings in the vertical walls of the side members and through the end of the transmission 8 is connected with wheels. Each of the three main cross-beams 2 to the lower surface attached respectively corresponding driving axle. Thus, all axles are secured under the cross.
The main gear box 3 is located between the front and the third (middle) driving axles and attached to the side members 1 in the area of the middle cross member and does not extend past the plane of the upper surface of the frame.
The output shafts of the additional transfer box 4 are connected cardan transmissions with differentials of the third (middle), and rear axles for the drive wheel and the input shaft with the output shaft of the main transfer gear engaged gear of the differential front drive axle. Additional transfer case 4 is placed between the third and rear driving axles and attached at an angle to the side members to the bottom surface of the additional cross member 9, which is connected with the side members and a longitudinal axis which is at an angle to the side members, other than a right angle. The axis of the input and output shafts an additional transfer case 4 are at an angle to the axes of the input and output shafts of the primary transfer box.
Thus, all aggregatecatalog drive wheels placed in the cavity of the frame. With such design, the frame is possible sealing frame bottom cover 10, the insulating cavity of the frame from the side of the road.
The present invention allows to provide high maintenance and rational arrangement, attaching all units under the crossbars in the volume of the frame allows you to use the top plane of the frame as the site for the installation of any equipment or body of any type, using elements attached to power units as a cross frame allows you to save the Flexural strength of the frame at a high level, which is especially important for long wheelbase vehicles, and you can release the volume between the spars in front or after the rear crossbars for installation of additional process equipment, due to the inclined relative to the side members of the location of additional transfer case is achieved by optimizing the angles of the shafts drive shafts providing the calculated displacement and the estimated power load on the joints and shafts of these gears. In General just solved the problem by simplifying the design through the use of standard components of mechanical power flow and improve the layout at the expense of rational allocation of all power units and propeller shafts freely available to them.
Transmission RA who work as follows.
Torque transferred to the input of the main transfer gear of the transmission where it is transmitted in two streams: the first goes to the main transmission front drive axle to drive its differential, the second goes to the input of the transfer case, which comes on the main transmission medium drive axle to drive his differential and the main transmission rear drive axle to drive its differential.
The present invention is industrially applicable as it is based on the use of ready-manufactured automotive components and assemblies, and the novelty consists in the new layout and rational placement of these units relative to each other and the frame, thereby creating a transmission module to create a series of all-terrain vehicles for various purposes.
Transmission four-wheel vehicles with basic transfer case output shafts which drive gears associated with differentials front and rear axles, each of which has a sump, with wheel shafts from the differential skipped through openings in the vertical walls of the side members and through the end of the transmission associated with the wheels, characterized in that it is made with a third axle located between lane is ne and rear driving axles, and additional gearbox output shafts which are connected with the cardan transmissions with differentials of the third and rear axles for the drive wheel and the input shaft with the output shaft of the main transfer case actuator differential front drive axle, respectively, each driving axle is attached to the lower surface of the individual cross rectangular frame, the main transfer case is located between the front and the third driving axles and attached to the spars in the area of the middle cross member below the upper surface of side members, and an additional transfer case is placed between the third and rear driving axles and attached to the bottom surface of the additional cross member connected to the side members and the longitudinal axis which is located at an angle to the side members, other than direct, with the axis of the input and output shafts additional transfer box are located at an angle to the axes of the input and output shafts of the primary transfer case, all the bridges are made with the same design and dimensions, differentials front and third bridges are shifted to one side member and the rear axle differential is shifted to another spar.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed driving axle of cross-country wheeled vehicle has housing rigidly connected to frame and including final drive with differential to drive axle-shafts passed through holes in frame sidemembers and coupled with axle-drive units mounted for angular displacement in vertical direction with wheels whose hub units are coupled with frame through levers and independent suspension. Housing is attached to lower surfaces of frame cross-members, and its ends are brought out through holes in sidemembers. Corrugated cup fitted on each end of housing is connected by other end on sidemember from inner side. Suspension is made in form of semispring arranged square to sidemember, one end of spring being secured on sidemember or cross-member of frame, and other end, on hub unit of wheel. Semispring consists of leavers of different length placed one onto the other in stack, with high elastic material linings being placed between spring leaves and rigidly connected with said leaves. Spring leaves are made of composite material of reinforced plastic type. Bracket with ball support for connection with wheel hub unit is secured on end of semispring by glue or bolted joint.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics, reduced weight of unspring mass.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles with all drive and steerable wheels. Platform 1 has at least three driving and steerable wheel pairs 9, and body 2 can turn relative to wheeled platform 1. Proposed vehicle is furnished with slewing tower 3, engine 4 with clutch and gearbox, central reduction gear 5, transmission and control drive. Transmission provide transmission of torque from engine 4 to wheel pairs 9 of steering columns 8. Provision is made for turning of wheel pairs 9 in the same direction and through the same angle as turning of body 2 relative to platform 1. Sock absorbing of wheels is provided owing to telescopic steering columns 8 and springs. Stabilization of tower 3 at turning relative to cardinal points in horizontal plane is provided.
EFFECT: improved maneuverability and cross country capacity.
FIELD: rail-free vehicles, including wheeled armchairs, preferably with electric drive and servo control for disabled people deprived of or with immobilized lower limbs.
SUBSTANCE: vehicle comprises side drive wheels on axles and two additional self-orienting wheels equally spaced from side drive wheels and arranged at ends of springy rocker which is disposed in longitudinal plane. Springy rocker is made in the form of double-armed lever for alternative resting during speeding up and braking and is positioned for rocking around axles of drives in longitudinal plane. Springy rocker is equipped with device for dynamic orientation of rocking plane in direction perpendicular to horizontal plane. Each of side drive wheels has independent drive and consists of at least outer rim with tire, casing with rollers, and device for transmitting rotation from drive axle to rim.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities of vehicle, including wheeled armchair.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; control of mass and gravity center of machine.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comes to shifting of ballast material along machine frame. Said ballast material is distributed between central, front and rear ballast reservoirs. With machine moving straight ahead, ballast material is displaced from central ballast reservoir into rear one, and at change of direction of movement to reverse, from rear ballast reservoir into front one. Liquid is used as ballast material. Device to control mass and position of center of gravity of machine contains ballast material shifted frame. Ballast reservoirs are installed on frame at opposite ends and in center, being interconnected by pump and three two-position two-way spools and pipelines. Central ballast reservoir is connected with first output of first spool, and its input is connected to first output of second spool. Second spool is connected with input of pump. Second outputs of first and second spools are connected, respectively, with front and rear ballast reservoirs. Output of pump is connected with input of third spool, and outputs of the latter are connected to front and rear ballast reservoirs. Hollow metal structures of machine frame are used as central ballast reservoir.
EFFECT: improved quality of operation owing to control of mass of machine and position of center of gravity owing to displacement of ballast material in any direction along machine axis depending of technological requirements within the limits of working cycle of set.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed swamp tractor can be used for towing freight trailers. Said tractor with hollow supports at edges provides minimum load on surface of swamp which, firstly, brings to minimum resistance of swamp to movement of tractor and, secondly, unloads crawler propulsion unit making it possible to use track links of increased height of horns.
EFFECT: considerable increase in tractor pulling force owing to difference in lower edges of idler wheels and driving sprockets equal to height of horn.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention can de used for towing freight trailers over marshes. Proposed crawler tractor is furnished with sealed hollow supports-floats with welded up front and rear ends which almost completely remove pressure of tractor onto surface of marsh and thus unload propulsive unit. Alternation of group of track links with short horns and track links with high horns makes it possible to create pulling force sufficient for towing freight platform bodies.
EFFECT: improved cross-country capacity.
FIELD: transport engineering; self propelled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for exploration and development well drilling, load carrying, pipe laying and road building in marshy areas. Proposed march vehicle consists of power plant whose power is transmitted through transmission to two rows of similar cylindrical drums with projecting ridges. Ridges of each following drum are higher than those of preceding drum to provide reliable adhesion of vehicle with soil.
EFFECT: improved reliability in operation.
FIELD: road machinery.
SUBSTANCE: proposed machine contains prime mover with cab and engine 3 which is connected with mechanical gearbox 4 through clutch 5 provided with clutch release pedal 6. Power takeoff box 15 is mechanically coupled with gearbox 4. Mounted equipment is provided with power coupling with gearbox 4. Said coupling is made in form of hydraulic system including hydraulic pump 17 driven by power takeoff box 15. To change over gearbox 4 of prime mover clutch 5 is released by pressing on pedal 6. This breaks mechanical coupling between engine 3 and gearbox 4. Simultaneously with release of clutch 5, bracket of pedal 6 closes electric switch of hydraulic valve 20, and power coupling between gearbox 4 and mounted equipment is interrupted after change over of gears, pedal 6 is returned in upper position and clutch 5 is engaged. Simultaneously, bracket breaks contacts of electric switch, thus restoring power coupling between gearbox 4 and mounted equipment.
EFFECT: improved reliability of gearbox.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power takeoff for vehicle auxiliaries. Proposed power takeoff has case, hollow drive shaft, drive gear made integral with drive shaft or secured on said shaft, idler gear, driven shaft and driven gear made integral with driven shaft or secured on said shaft, and engagement mechanism. Front end of drive shaft is connected with engine flywheel by means of splined and flexible disk. Clutch mechanism is installed on rear end of drive shaft, said mechanism being installed in power takeoff case.
EFFECT: provision of reliable and simple design power takeoff, simplified of gearbox and clutch.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tractors and it can be used in mechanisms provided with clutch with power takeoff to transmission and power takeoff shaft or other auxiliary mechanism. Clutch has cover plate secured on flywheel, pressure plate connected with cover plate by tangential plates, driven disk with hub connected to said disk which is installed between pressure plate and flywheel, diaphragm spring installed on cover plate, and coupling plate with hub. Coupling plate has radial lobes and it is arranged between diaphragm spring and pressure plate, being connected by ends of lobs with cover plate. Lobes of coupling plate are arranged in posts made in cover plate.
EFFECT: reduced axial size of clutch, improved manufacturability and facilitated centering of hub of coupling plate.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission 3 for amphibian vehicle contains engine 12, gearbox 14 and differential 16. Axis of crankshaft of engine 12 can coincide with longitudinal axis 32 of vehicle or it can be parallel to longitudinal axis. Gearbox 14 is installed crosswise relative to engine perpendicular to engine. Gearbox can be manual, with successive change of gear ratio, automated, manual automatic or stepless. Drive shaft 42 of transmission set into motion by engine crankshaft drives propulsion unit 48 of vehicle, and gearbox 14. Engine can be displaced from central line of vehicle.
EFFECT: provision of transmission for amphibian vehicle in which conventional cross automobile transmission is used adaptable for amphibian vehicle.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power gear train includes engine, transmission located in line with it and intermediate power takeoff unit located between engine and transmission; output of power takeoff unit may transmit power to unit of drive working during motion on water; it is mounted in rear part of transport facility by means of shaft. Transmission output is designed for transmission of power to differential mounted in rear part of transport facility. Power takeoff unit is located behind transmission and shaft passes below or through engine oil sump.
EFFECT: enhanced arrangement of power gear train.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.
EFFECT: improved layout of power train.
19 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: power takeoff case in all-wheel-drive vehicles is mounted in separate housing, being installed on chassis frame on its own suspension brackets between gearbox and transfer case and is connected through propeller shaft with flange of gearbox drive shaft and through second propeller shaft, with transfer case. According to second designed version, power takeoff case is also mounted in separate housing and installed on chassis frame on its own suspension brackets between gearbox and rear axle of vehicle, being connected by propeller shaft with flange of gearbox main shaft and by second propeller shaft, with rear axle of vehicle. Drive shaft of power takeoff case is made sectional and is provided with engagement clutch connecting members of shaft. And clutch for connection of driven gear with shaft is arranged on output shaft.
EFFECT: improved reliability and simplified design of power takeoff mechanism.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles, preferably, tractors, equipped with power takeoff mechanism with independent drive. Proposed power takeoff mechanism contains drive shaft, bushing connected with drive shaft and arranged in groove of vehicle engine crankshaft, and pins installed in holes and connecting bushing with crankshaft. Novelty is that holes for pins are made in place of contact of bushing and crankshaft groove and are formed by longitudinal recesses on contact surfaces of bushing and groove. Engine flywheel is secured directly on end face of crankshaft.
EFFECT: simplified design of mechanism, improved manufacturability and reduced overall dimensions.
FIELD: agricultural engineering; offroad tractor.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to driving axle with suspension and agricultural tractor with such axle which has central housing with build-in final drives and left-hand and right-hand axle housings suspended by means of upper and lower adjusting arms, with axle-shafts projecting from axle on which wheel-and-tire units are installed. Constant-velocity universal joint is installed between fitted-in final drives and axle-shafts. Said universal joint has pair of journal members and coupling holder radially enclosing driving and driven races of joint, thus minimizing axial length of universal joint providing arrangement of wheels on axle-shafts at width of 1524 mm.
EFFECT: possibility of using driving shaft on tractor-cultivator without changing design of load-bearing frame of standard tractor-cultivator with preservation of performance characteristics of said tractor-cultivator.
39 cl, 15 dwg