Method of production of platinum metals nanoparticles
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of direct or reverse micelles with further reduction of metal precursors in them. Prior to preparation of micelles they are concentrated from water solutions by means of ion flotation or flotation extraction with application of surface agents and hydrocarbons. As water solutions artificial mixtures of dissolved water solutions are used, sewage waters, solutions of ores or their wastes that are poor in platinum metals, solutions of anode slimes of metals electrolytic cleaning.
EFFECT: preparation of platinum metals nanoparticles from wastes of mining industry; ores poor in platinum metals and sewage waters.
The invention relates to a process for producing nanoparticles hybrids (alloys) of platinum metals with other metals. Nanoparticles can be used as catalysts, magnetic and other materials.
Known to produce metals and hybrids of metals in reverse micelles (M.P. Pileni // Langmuir, V.13, R-3276). According to the method of preparing a reverse micelle (microemulsions) of aqueous solutions of salts, acids, e.g., H2PtCl6in isooctane in the presence of emulsifier sodium bis(ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Separately prepare the microemulsion of the reducing agent aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrate is added. Two microemulsions are mixed. In order to prevent oxidation of the reaction mixture, is passed through a mixture of microemulsions nitrogen. In the reaction are formed nanoparticles of platinum.
As precursors in a known method is used pure salts, acids, hydroxides. The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of obtaining nanoparticles of metals, hybrids metals from waste, poor platinum metals ores, waste waters.
An object of the invention is to obtain nanoparticles of platinum metals from mining wastes, poor platinum metals ores, waste waters.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that, according to the method for producing platinum nanoparticles the x metals including preparation of micelles and subsequent reduction in them precursors of the metals recovery using direct and inverse micelles, and before preparing micelles their concentrate from aqueous solutions by ion flotation or protectable with the use of surface-active substances (surfactants) and hydrocarbons, and after use the resulting solution of the precursor with a surfactant in the hydrocarbon to prepare micelles.
As aqueous solutions using artificial mixtures of dilute aqueous solutions, waste water, poor solutions on platinum metals ores or waste solutions anode slimes electrolytic cleaning of metals.
The invention is illustrated by examples.
Example 1. Decompose the ore composition: carbonaceous shale with striated silicification), containing about 20 g/t platinum, 15 g/t of palladium, 100 g/t of zinc, 500 g/t of copper. A sample of fragmented ore in the amount of 100 g is poured into a Teflon beaker with a mixture of 500 ml of hydrofluoric acid and 50 ml of nitric acid, is stirred, the solution is evaporated at a temperature of 160-200°to wet salts, the remainder of the double-pour 500 ml of Aqua Regia and both times evaporated to moist salts at the same temperature. Then the residue is dissolved in 10 ml of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. Undecomposed ore is filtered off and discarded. In each of 10 ml of the solution is kept in the form of ions about 20 mg of platinum, 15 mg of palladium, 1 g of copper and 0.5 g of zinc. Ten 10 ml of hydrochloric acid solution of salts of platinum, palladium, copper, zinc merge together and poured into a column for protectable.
Column for photoextract.com is a glass cylinder with a diameter of 30 mm and a height of 500 mm from the bottom of miplasta. Through Siplast as the dispenser is supplied by the air compressor. The air supply is regulated by the valve. For protectable column add alcohol solution reservoir - surface-active substances (surfactants), which form the precursors of the metals lahoratories in water molecules. These molecules adsorbed on the surface of the bubbles and transferred them to the surface of the aqueous solution is isooctane. Hydrocarbon (hexane, heptane, octane, isooctane, benzene, toluene, butylbenzoyl) is poured on top of the aqueous solution. Platinum in acidic solution of hydrochloric acid is in the form of the complex ion [Pt(Cl)6]2-and so can flotirovanija s-dodecylamine chloride [C12H23SC(NH2)2]+Cl (DTCH) or a primary, secondary, tertiary alkylamines followed, forming a salt by ion-exchange mechanism
This salt is soluble in the hydrocarbon. She gradually concentrated to the desired concentration required for the synthesis of nanoparticles. About the simultaneous DTH platinum palladium. Salts of copper and zinc in aqueous solution are in the form of cations Cu2+, Zn2+. So after flotation of platinum and palladium them platinuum anionic surfactant (alkyl sulphates, alkalicarbonate, tributylphosphate, organophosphorus compounds). For this purpose is the emulsifier AOT. After creating the desired concentration of precursor metals in hydrocarbon (˜0.1 g of platinum, ˜0.15 g of palladium ˜10 g copper, ˜5 g of zinc) hydrocarbons with metal ions and ions of the surfactant is separated from the rest of the solution in a separating funnel and transferred to the reactor for the synthesis of hybrids of platinum with other metals. Most metals, such as cobalt, Nickel, iron, copper, zinc, recovered from aqueous solutions of their salts without the platinum metals. Platinum metals, recovering and crystallizing the first, give the possibility to obtain nanoparticles with other metals. Moreover, the content of platinum metals in hybrids can be small (0.5 to 5%).
The reactor for the synthesis of nanoparticles is a glass stirrer 5000 rpm for preparing reverse micelles. Analyze the content of ions (precursor), ATC, AOT in hydrocarbon solution. AOT is responsible for creating a certain size of microemulsions (micelles). At a molar ratio [H2O]/[AOT] you can judge the size of the pools (water drops) micelli on them to determine the approximate size of the nanoparticles. ATC, which in solution an order of magnitude smaller than AOT, may affect the size of the nanoparticles and their other options. In the solution of precursors in the hydrocarbon add water in the ratio needed to obtain the required size of the nanoparticles. Mix to form a microemulsion in water pools which were precursors in the form of [Pt(Cl)6]2, Cu2+, Zn2+.
Separately prepare a microemulsion based only AOT, isooctane and water, in water pools is hydrazinehydrate. Hydrazinehydrate add 1.5 excess relative to the number of ions. Mixing two microemulsions and let this mixture of nitrogen, which performs the function of an inert atmosphere and at the same time contributes to the stirring reaction mixture. The reaction rate of recovery due to the speed of intermolecular exchange of precursors and hydrazine hydrate is added in the collision of microemulsions, flexible surface film of the microemulsion and other factors. After 0.5-1 hour of stirring in water pools formed nanoparticles hybrids. This mixture of metals cannot be called alloy, as the mixture is obtained by crystallization, and not melting. If micro-emulsions themselves are not destroyed, for their destruction add dimethylformamide or any other solvent: pyridine, dimethylamine, etc. Microemulsions are stratified and on the interfacial behavior of the displacement water the hydrocarbon layer appears a new solvent-nanoparticle hybrids. The nanoparticles are separated by filtration or centrifugation. The dried nanoparticles and determine the composition of atomic absorption spectrometry: 0.18 g of platinum, 0.11 g of palladium, 8.5 g of copper and 4.7 g of zinc. In percent: 1,7% platinum, 0.8% of palladium, 63,0% copper, 34.8% of zinc.
The average size of the nanoparticles is determined on the ultracentrifuge, pre dispersive them in water, according to the formula:
where η - viscosity solvent, PA·C; x0- the initial distance from the axis of rotation of the centrifuge to the center of the tube, m; x is the distance from the axis of rotation of the centrifuge to the center of the tube after settling for a time τ; n is the number of revolutions of the centrifuge, 1/; τ the time of rotation of the centrifuge; ρ is the density of the nanoparticles, kg/m3; ρ0- the density of water, kg/m3; r is the radius of the nanoparticles, nm. Get the diameter of the nanoparticles is 18±2 nm.
Example 2. Take sulphate solution baths anodic dissolution of alloys JSC "Norilsk Nickel". It contains 75 g/l of sulfate ions, 15 g/l chloride ions, 0.24 rhodium, 0.40 ruthenium and 18.8 mg/l iridium. 1 l of a solution is placed in the column for holding of the ion flotation. Add the equivalent of the precursor mixture in 5 ml of ethyl alcohol of decylamine with s-dutilisation chloride in a ratio of 15:1. Platinum metals are in rest the re in the form of ions [e(Cl) 6]2-. The top in the column add octane. After 30 min. transmission of air analyze the content of the precursors of platinum metals in octane: 0,12 mg/l of rhodium, 0.16 mg/l of ruthenium, 5.6 mg/l iridium. Evaporated octane. Of the remaining mixture of salts is prepared an aqueous solution of approximately 5·10-4M eridia. The mixture of salts can be obtained without octane, collecting the foam. There also add with NISO4and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, to the solution was Ni2+1,4·10-2M, and by cetyltrimethylammonium chloride of 0.3·10-3M Through micellar water solution for 20 minutes to let the nitrogen to remove dissolved oxygen and mixing. After stirring 30 ml of hydrazine hydrate is added and 200 ml of 9 M solution of potassium hydroxide. Must be an excess of potassium hydroxide, which can be verified by analysis. The solution after 15 min of additional stirring, and the reaction was 0.3 M in potassium hydroxide. Nanoparticles hybrid platinum metals - Nickel is separated from the micellar solution by centrifugation. Washed with alcohol surfactant is dispersed in water and determine the particle size as in example 1. The average particle size was equal to 19±3 nm. Particles contained 3.9% of the platinum metals, and the rest Nickel. Magnetic properties of the hybrid were investigated on the magnetometer in a magnetic field. The hysteresis curve based induction magnitno the field - induction magnetizing field showed that the particles have a super-paramagnetic properties.
Thus, the examples show that, by combining a method for concentrating ions by ion flotation or protectable to methods for producing nanoparticles of platinum and its hybrids in direct and inverse microemulsions, it is possible to obtain nano-sized particles of platinum and its hybrids with other metals from waste.
1. Method for producing nanoparticles of platinum metals, including preparation of micelles and subsequent reduction in them precursors of the metals, characterized in that for recovery use direct and inverse micelles, and before preparing micelles their concentrate from aqueous solutions by ion flotation or protectable with the use of surface-active substances (surfactants) and hydrocarbons, and after use the resulting solution of the precursor with a surfactant in the hydrocarbon to prepare micelles.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that aqueous solutions using artificial mixtures of dilute aqueous solutions, waste water, poor solutions on platinum metals ores or waste solutions anode slimes electrolytic cleaning of metals.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydrometallurgy of noble metals and can be used at processing of gold-silver alloys. The method includes dissolving of granulated gold-silver alloy with chloronitric acid and separation of silver chloride. Before sediment of gold out of the produced solution it is treated with carbamide powder, then settled during 12-24 hours and the sediment of silver chloride is repeatedly separated. The settled gold is washed with concentrated hydrochloric acid during 4-5 hours at the temperature of 50-60°, and after cooling of the washing solution, washed with water.
EFFECT: reduction of "back remaining" of gold in the process, increased output of available product, including reduction of material and labour consumption required for obtaining of final product.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining iridium hydrochloric acid refers to chemical metallurgical production of metals of platinum group (Mill) and their compounds. The technical result of the invention consists in obtaining of the powder of iridium hydrochloric acid with iridium mass % (38-45). The method includes dissolving of hexachloriridate ammonium in chloronitric acid. Then repeated evaporation of the chloride solution is performed with removal of the solvent at a temperature of 100-120°C before foaming of obtained melt of iridium hydrochloric acid and cooling of the obtained product in a dry air or dry inert gas medium.
EFFECT: production of iridium hydrochloric acid powder.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining hydrated rhodium oxide (III) pertains to chemical and metallurgical production of platinum group metals and their compounds. The method involves treatment of a chloride solution of rhodium with an alkali until its concentration in the pulp becomes 1.0-2.0 mol/l. The pulp is subsequently heated to 85±15°C and the precipitate is separated from the master solution. Separation of the precipitate is done by repeated re-pulping of the precipitate in diluted inorganic acid and subsequent filtration.
EFFECT: obtaining a Rh2O3·nH2O precipitate with low content of impurities of chloride ions from a rhodium chloride salt solution.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to the field of noble metal metallurgy, in particular, to methods of recovery of osmium from non-ferrous metallurgy platinum-containing electrolytic slime processing products, namely, cakes containing selenium and non-ferrous metals. The cake is subjected to preliminary caustic treatment with caustic soda solution with a concentration of 180-220 g/dm3, and the residual matter resulting from the separation is heated at a temperature of 100 to 130°C. The heated residual matter is subjected to treatment with sulphuric acid and secondary caustic treatment. The osmium concentrate resulting from the caustic treatment is sent for the distillation of the osmium tetraoxide, with its recovery using ammonia solution and subsequent preparation of osmium salt.
EFFECT: increase in efficiency and maximum simplification of osmium recovery process.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: metallurgy of non-ferrous metals.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the precious metals metallurgy and can be used for gold selective extraction from the mining arsenical pyrite gravitational and flotation concentrates utilised at the gold-extracting manufacturing plants with a view to reach the affinage (i.e. gold refining) requirements. The gold extraction from the mining arsenical pyrite concentrates in a metal alloy can be brought into effect with the presence of a melted caustic alkali (NaOH) with an intensive mechanical mix of the system by applying a blade stirrer. The process must be performed under the 330-350°C range of temperatures; the weigh relation of the NaOH concentrate equals 1-(0.8÷1) during 8-15 minutes whereby the gold-arsenic particles start to be extracted from the pulp of an aqueous desalination of an alkali alloy by the gravitational method. The technical result of this invention is exclusion of introduction of led, reduction in temperature and consumption of the caustic alkali, while extracting sufficient quantities of gold.
EFFECT: increase in volumes of gold extraction from the mining concentrates, while reducing the temperature and caustic alkali consumption.
SUBSTANCE: method implies use of organic ion-exchange sorbents in parallel with conversion of platinum metals to actively sorbed form by chlorination. As organic ion-exchange sorbents, highly basic gel anionite Rossion-5, which contains benzyltrimethylamino groups, or low-basic macroporous resin Rossion-10, which contains primary, secondary or tertiary amino groups, is used. The said method implies adding sodium chloride or sodium nitrite to the solution in the presence of sorbents. Sodium nitrite is added to continuously stirred solution at 90°С for 4 hours. The method also implies purging the solution, which contains up to 20 g/l of sodium chloride, with chlorine-air mixture.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of platinum metals extraction.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: precious metal metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for selective recovery of gold from arseno-pyrite gravitational and flotation concentrates at gold-recovery plants when performing adjustment of gold-containing products to refining conditions. Process comprises recovering gold from arseno-pyrite gold-ore concentrates into molten lead in presence of alkali (NaOH) at vigorous stirring with blade stirrer. Process is carried out at 330-350°C and concentrate-to-alkali weight ratio 1:(0.8-1) for 8-10 min, while agitating phases.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of alkali and lowered temperature at high rate of recovering gold and silver into molten lead.
FIELD: processes for extracting gold from ores.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of breaking ore, double-stage disintegration of it, sorting, gravitation and flotation con centration, sorption leaching, electrolytic extraction of gold and melting it. At cycles of primary and secondary disintegration of initial ore hydraulic sorting is performed for producing sand fraction of ore and drain. Then sand fraction is divided by flow for gravitation concentration and flow for secondary disintegration. Divided flow of sand fraction is fed for gravitation concentration in quantity determined according to given formula: γ gr.f. = (0.3 - 0.4)γ in.ore + (0.2 - 0.6)γ circ.load where γ gr.f - mass of sand fraction of disintegrated ore fed for gravitational concentration; γin.ore - mass of initial ore fed for primary disintegration; γ circ.load - mass of circulation load for secondary disintegration. Gravitational concentration of drain and divided flow of sand fraction are realized for producing separate gravitation concentrates and separate tails. Then gravitation concentrates of drain and divided flow of sand fraction are combined and after their combination they are divided by "gold head" concentrate and depleted gravitation concentrate. The last is subjected to intensified cyaniding for producing solid phase and gold- containing solution. Tails of gravitation concentration of drain of sorting are subjected to flotation and prepared flotation concentrate is combined with solid phase of intensified cyaniding to be subjected to sorption leaching and desorption for producing gold-containing solution. Then separate electrolytic deposition of gold from gold-containing solutions of intensified cyaniding and sorption leaching is performed for producing separate cathode deposits of gold. Produced " gold head" and cathode deposits of gold are subjected to calcining and melting for producing gold in ingots.
EFFECT: lowered losses, increased degree of gold extraction, reduced circulation load and therefore improved efficiency of gold extraction.
FIELD: noble metals refining, namely improved degree of noble metal extraction from their alloys with enhanced purity degree.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of melting initial material; saturating it with gaseous composition for forming impurity compounds in the form of saturation products and removing them. Saturation is performed with use of gaseous composition including at least two gaseous components for forming compounds with impurities at constant super-high pressure. Impurity compounds are removed by adsorption of saturation products due to filtering melt in vacuum through filter of sorption material with large specific surface. Temperature of heating filter exceeds temperature of melt.
EFFECT: improved degree of noble metal extraction, enhanced purity degree of extracted metals.
7 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, namely pyrometallurgical processing of sulfide concentrates containing gold and silver.
SUBSTANCE: method for processing sulfide concentrates containing lead, non-ferrous and noble metals comprises steps of mixing concentrate sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and carbonaceous reducing agent; melting mixture; separating formed products such as slag and matte and cooling them; in addition introducing to mixture for melting iron oxide base product; performing melting for producing lead base metallic alloy; cooling matte at rate 10 -20°/h and leaching it in water; disintegrating insoluble deposit of matte till fraction size of 95 - 97 class minus 0.074 mm; correcting pulp according to its acidity till pH in range 3.0 - 6.5 and processing it by froth flotation and gravitation; combining flotation and gravitation concentrates and melting them together with initial concentrate.
EFFECT: enhanced extraction degree of noble metals to target lead alloy.
3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: mixer has a cylindrical casing with the loose material loading device arranged at the casing top. A loose material rotor spreader is mounted below the loading device. A tapered branch pipe discharging the mix of loose material and nanopowder is arranged at the casing bottom. An air- or liquid-operated mechanical nozzle connected with the nanopowder feed injector is arranged below the rotor spreader.
EFFECT: higher quality of the mix.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for efficient control of optical properties of nanocomposite applied in nonlinear optics, information engineering, development of optical memory facilities etc. Method of nanocomposite optical properties control consists in that nanocomposite structure is introduced and consistently connected by nanoparticles with transient binding molecules, i.e. particles modifying spatial configuration as affected by external light, and bonded molecules i.e. particles with optical properties visualised near nanoparticles. Nanocomposite is irradiated with light of wavelength modifying spatial configuration of transient binding molecule.
EFFECT: efficient control of nanocomposite optical properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semi-conducting nanotechnology and thin film material science, namely to devices for thin film and dielectrics coating. Device consists of chamber with working capacity in cylindrical form where basis, support for film coating, reagents and cushion gas inlet system, heating elements and motor with shaft are located. Working surfaces of basis and support are made flat and even to form adjusting clearance between them due to changing of cushion gas pressure counteracting with load weight located on the support to adjust clearance between support and basis. Motor shaft is not rigidly fixed. Movable coupling is installed on the said shaft to transfer rotary motion to support with regard to fixed basis. Hollows are made on basis working surface. Hollows length does not exceed basis working surface diameter. There are openings in hollows to inlet reagents into clearance volume.
EFFECT: increase in thin film buildup speed in semi-conductors and dielectrics.
5 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to powdered metallurgy, particularly to antifrictional composite powdered material, and can be used, for example, in metal working industry and paper processing industry at fabricating of wear resistant antifrictional materials. The composite material contains a copper powder of 100-160 mcm size at amount of 63.8-64.3 mass.%, granules of copper-plated graphite of 160-200 mcm size; at amount of 16-17% with copper contents in copper-plated graphite granules of 70-75 mass.%, granules of copper-plated polymer of 50-200 mcm size at amount of 7-9 mass.% with copper content in granules of copper-plated polymer granules 50-60 mass.%, granules of copper-plated nickel of 100-200 mcm size at amount of 3-5 mass.% with copper contents in granules of copper-plated nickel 25-35 mass.%, granules of copper-plated chromium of 25-75 mcm size at amount of 6-8 mass.% with copper content in granules of copper-plated chromium granules 30-40 mass.% and carbon nano pipes at amount of 0.2-0.7 mass.%. Such composition facilitates increased service life of friction units, upgraded hardness of a powdered matrix and increased wear resistance of composite material.
EFFECT: producing antifrictional composite powdered material facilitating increased service life of friction units, increased hardness of powdered matrix and increased wear resistance of composite material.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for the obtaining of power supply, superhard and composite materials, catalysts, medicinal materials. Ground graphite and/or shungite with the normalised composition with carbon not less than 20% mix with preliminarily ground catalyst. As a catalyst use a carbide-forming metal from the group which includes Fe, Ni, Mn or Co, or lanthanum hydride, or the oxide of yttrium or LaNi5. The received material is subjected to great dispatch-shift influence in a force field with power density of more than 3 W/c·g in an inert environment, for example in argon, not less than 10 minutes. Fullerene, obtained by solid-phase synthesis, is extracted and separated.
EFFECT: invention allows to carry out synthesis of fullerenes with smaller power expenses and to simplify hardware maintenance.
4 tbl, 10 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: substance of invention is the method of manufacturing of field-emission cathode with emission layer from carbon nanofiber material via evaporating oxygen from graphitic heater inside gasostat, containing the following operations: purging the working cavity of gasostat, followed by filling the cavity with pressurised working gas, heating, conditioning at given temperature, followed by cooling to room temperature, manufacturing of cathode bed via processing basic graphitic element of the bed in alcoholic solution of metallocene, followed by drying and mechanical processing. Then, this bed is placed inside the gasostat on heater surface. After that, the process of carbon evaporation from graphitic source is started by heating. The evaporation process is accompanied by growing of carbon-nitrogen nanofiber on the bed. Instead of metallocene alcoholic solution, the same solution of ferrocene can be used.
EFFECT: invention allows to produce a ready-to-use field-emission cathode with increased nanomaterial adhesion to bed.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to obtaining of porous carbon materials with a high specific surface and developed microporosity which can find use as adsorbent and porous carbon carriers for catalysts. The method of manufacturing the nano-porous carbon material includes the preparation of a solid mixture of natural anthracite with a hydroxide of sodium, potassium or lithium by their mixture in a mass ratio 1:5-1:7, melting in preliminary preheating up to temperature of fusion of hydroxide of muffle of furnaces, carbonisation in an atmosphere of gases carbonisation at the temperature 600-800°C, cleaning using water and drying.
EFFECT: simplification and reduction of duration of process of obtaining.
2 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices intended to form nano-sized objects. In compliance with this invention the device to form nano-sized objects incorporates a working chamber accommodating a microscope stage and a measuring head of the scanning probe microscope head, the said microscope including a cantilever, a source of electrical effects onto the cantilever/sample system, piezo scanners with thermal drift and deformation compensator, anti-vibration devices, a digital electronic probe scanning microscope head control system and the data analogue-digital processing system. The aforesaid source of electrical effects on the cantilever/sample system represents an electronic current control device operating in both a direct current and pulsed current modes, including a variable-polarity mode. Note that the device incorporates additionally an electronic voltage amplitude and its derivative control system carrying out the control during the entire object formation process, an independent sample and chamber temperature adjustment and stabilisation system, reagents and their evaporators sources, as well as the system of barbotage, control, adjustment and stabilisation of humidity, that of the gas medium evacuation from the chamber working space isolated from the working chamber vibration noises by means of shutter and a bypass system.
EFFECT: higher system mobility and reproducibility of nano-elements formation processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the method of obtaining low-dimensional filling materials, which can be used in engineering materials for making composite materials with given functional characteristics. The method involves grinding the raw materials of the layer mineral and thermal treatment of the ground up dispersed particles. Thermal treatment is done by putting the dispersed particles into a non-oxidising thermal gas stream with density of 3·106-8·107 W/m2 for a period of 10-4-10-3 s. The above mentioned stream, containing dispersed particles, is applied to a substrate in form of a steel sheet, heated to 20-100°C. The obtained particles are collected and cooled down to 100-120°C.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining a filling material with size of not more than 10 nm, with low energy consumption, and is effective when making polymer nano-composites.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: for one technological operation two types of pressing are carried out. As one type direct pressing of metal is used from container to its exit via calibrating zone. The second type is equal-channel angular pressing with provision of shift deformations in metal. Direct pressing is carried out prior to angular pressing. Shift deformations at angular pressing are provided immediately after metal exit from calibrating zone of direct pressing. Pressing is performed in the device that contains puncheon, matrix with two crossing channels and container. Container is installed above the matrix. Container cavity forms inlet part of vertically installed matrix channel. Area of inlet part cross section exceeds cross section area of vertically installed channel. The latter is arranged in the form of calibrating belt for direct pressing of metal from container. Height of belt makes 4-10 mm, and its diameter is equal to diameter of matrix second channel.
EFFECT: production of long-length items with high mechanical properties from different structural materials with simultaneous reduction of power intensity.
6 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: chemical nano-structural preparations, liquid-phase compositions containing nano-particles of metals and having bactericidal, catalytic, corrosion-preventing and magnetic properties, possibly used in bio-technologies, medicine and nano-electronics.
SUBSTANCE: in order to receive micellar solution of stable metal-containing nano-structure particles, inverse-micellar dispersion is prepared on base of solution of surface-active matter in non-polar solvent, metal salt solution is added and then dispersion is agitated or it is subjected to ultrasound treatment for further deaeration of it. Metal ions are reduced by means of solvated electrons and radicals generated due to action of ionizing irradiation upon dispersion. Nano-structural particles are particles of metals, bimetals, sulfides or metal oxides. Metal salt is added in the form of aqueous, water-alcohol or water-ammonia solution. Sodium bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate is used, mainly as surface-active matter. Normal alkane, cyclic or aromatic hydrocarbons are used as organic solvent. Reduction by means of solvated electrons and radicals is realized in range of absorbed dozes 1 - 60 kGy by means of ionizing irradiation 60Co.
EFFECT: higher efficiency on uses the preparation.
26 cl, 11 dwg