Cleaning method for beds of minor rivers in permafrost zone to remove bottom sediments contaminated with radionuclides

FIELD: construction, hydrotechnics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to cleaning methods for beds of minor rivers in permafrost zone with seasonal flow from sediments contaminated with radionuclides from radioactive solid waste handling. Removal of contaminated sediments is executed in winter by segments in downstream direction after discharge cancellation and their dewatering. Bottom ground is loosened and mechanically shaved by layers as it is freezed by natural cold with stocking it in temporary piles and subsequent transportation outside river floodplain for burying or laying in surface burial hills. To speed-up layer-by-layer freezing the net of trenches with vertical walls is cut in parallel in bottom ground depth as it freezes. Trench width is defined by parameters of equipment being used, their depth is not less than half a meter and distance between trenches corresponds to double trench depth. The invention allows to isolate from biota (for a period of not less than 100 years) the most migration suspectable solid radioactive wastes and hence to lower the risk of people irradiation.

EFFECT: lowering the risk of people irradiation.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of solid radioactive waste (SRAW are in progress) and cleaning the beds of small rivers of the permafrost zone with seasonal (summer) runoff from sediment affected:

- natural radionuclides trapped on the earth's surface during the exploration and development of mineral deposits;

- artificial radionuclides released from combat wells in accidents on underground nuclear explosions (APAV)conducted for peaceful purposes in the sparsely populated Northern regions where there are no specialized processing enterprises SRAW are in progress and the final repository.

A known method of cleaning the beds of small rivers from toxic silt bottom sediments [1] - prototype. The proposed technology cleaning works recommend starting with the source of the river with the preliminary razmorazhivanie channel section and the formation of dams using mechanisms that are on floating platforms. In a particular sequence to produce a work for the development and uplift of sediment, washing coarse particles (boulders, gravel) from silt, defending pulp, neutralization of toxic sludge in special vehicles.

The main disadvantages and constraints to the implementation of the method described above in terms of the sparsely populated areas of the permafrost zone are: high the energy intensity of work; the need for the acquisition and delivery of special expensive equipment; a large amount of installation work; the difficulty and complexity of service units; the need for education and training of personnel; the complexity of the device dams and impervious barriers, given the high strength of the soil in frozen condition and low speed defrost; processing (washing) contaminated sediments related to SRAW are in progress, will lead to the formation of liquid radioactive waste (LRW), which in turn need to recycle and to dispose of; the unresolved issues of dumping toxic sludge; the seasonality of work - only in the summer period, the duration of which in the North are not more than 3 months; the need to supply clean water for special conduit; a high probability of external exposure of personnel in the production of rehabilitation works.

We propose a new method of cleaning the beds of small rivers of the permafrost zone from bottom sediments contaminated with radionuclides, namely, that the notch is only in the winter time (from upstream to downstream) after cessation of flow, define the boundaries of areas subject to rehabilitation, and drainage. Contaminated sediment soil is loosened and cut in layers mechanically as freezing its natural the cold war with storage in temporary stockpiles and subsequent transportation beyond the floodplain and storage (packing) in the surface burial mounds (PCM) [2]; at the same time to speed up the process layer-by-layer freezing in the thickness of the bottom as it is freezing in parallel to each other is cut network of trenches with vertical walls, the width of which is determined by the parameters of the applied technique, the depth is not less than half a meter, and the distance between them corresponds to twice the depth, thereby providing a significant increase in the surface contact of the soil with cold air and, as a consequence, intensive freezing.

The invention is aimed at addressing the issues of cleaning the beds of small rivers of the permafrost zone from bottom sediments contaminated with radionuclides trapped in the river and a soiled bottom sediments, processing and disposal of which in the North is currently not possible. The quality of the proposed rehabilitation works in accordance with the technological regulations will allow to reliably isolate from biota (for a period of not less than 100 years) SRAW are in progress, the most prone to migration, thereby reducing the risk of radiation exposure to the population.

The required technical result of the invention is assumed to be obtained when taking into account peculiarities of the hydrological regime of small rivers of the region, where areas with fast currents (rifts) are alternated with periods of low flow velocity (pits, pools, meanders), to the which are natural traps, where there is a natural deposition of contaminated soil, demolition radiological contaminated areas, which builds up the bottom sediments. In addition, you must consider the fact that the small rivers of the permafrost zone occurs only in summer, and floodplain soils most of the year (9 months) are in a frozen state, and it is necessary to use climatic features of the region and natural resources of the permafrost zone:

- the presence of continuous permafrost;

- termination of the flow of small rivers in winter (9 months a year);

- the presence of low-temperature atmospheric cold, due to the harsh continental climate with harsh and long winter (7 months);

- small power defrost sediment in summer (1.5-2.0 m);

- high speed freezing, thawing of the soil during the winter time;

- low vertical migration of radionuclides, only within the power of the thawed layer.

The drawing shows the inventive method of treatment of small rivers of the permafrost zone from bottom sediments contaminated with radionuclides.

1 - drained, subject to the rehabilitation of the area of the bed of the watercourse;

2 - seasonal activeeye contaminated sediments (SRAW are in progress);

3 - raft river bed of the watercourse;

4 - bulldozer;

5 - time as the s cut of contaminated sediments;

6 - Ripper;

7 - cut trench.

Implementation of the proposed method in practice is carried out in the following sequence. Pre-winter period by core exploration drilling and research viborgvej cores define the boundaries of contaminated areas by placing beacons and calculated volumes of contaminated soils that are subject to seizure, identifies features of the structure of bottom sediments of streams, radionuclides, power thawing, etc.

Then, if necessary, is the drainage of contaminated sites and harvesting ice in some way, sinking mortise of the trench. Naked sediments promarijuana natural (atmospheric) cold and cut in layers as freezing (if necessary with the preliminary loosening) with the use of earthmoving equipment and mining technologies [3]. Cut off the bottoms are placed in temporary stockpiles (see drawing).

To accelerate the process of layer-by-layer freezing of soils and as a consequence of the shortening of doing rehabilitation work is recommended in the thickness of the bottom as it is freezing in parallel to each other bulldozers to cut the network of trenches with vertical walls, the width of which is determined by the size of the applied technique, the depth is at least half the distance between them is equal to twice the depth. This provides a significant increase in the contact surface of the pillar in the ground between the trenches with cold air and as a consequence of their intense freezing to low temperatures and for a shorter period of time. Frozen pillars razryhlyaya and freeze together, and then re-dig the trench etc. until complete removal of contaminated soils at full capacity.

Then the ground from the dumps loaded into a vehicle and transported outside of the floodplain on the sublime terrain, where deposited without processing in PCM technology developed by IGDS SB RAS [4], thus providing a reliable isolation from the biota.

Rehabilitation work can be done in stages over several years, including several sites at once, starting from the upper reaches of the watercourse downstream; must be completed before the onset of spring (t cf. day. ≤ -10° (C), including the time of the erection of the RMB.

The main advantages of the proposed method (technology) in comparison with the equivalent:

low energy, material and labor costs;

- high mechanization of work;

the use of common commercially available mechanisms and proven technologies of mining;

- lack of roiling water;

- the use of natural resource : atmospheric cold for about what oriane sediment;

- complete removal SRAW are in progress with the floodplains of streams and stopping the migration of radionuclides;

- low probability of external exposure of workers employed in the rehabilitation works;

- easy decontamination techniques used on completion of the work.

Literature

1. Patent for invention No. 2219305 Russia. The method of purification of small rivers // Vershinin, NP and Vershinin I.N. MCI 7 EV 3/02, 15/00. Appl. 24.04.2002. Publ. 20.12.2003. Bull. No. 35 (114).

2. Patent for invention No. 2134459 Russia. The method of disposal of solid radioactive waste in the permafrost zone. // Wii, Waikoloa. MCI G21F 9/24, Appl. 12.08.97. Publ. 10.08.99. Bull. No. 2.

3. Peshkov V.G. Development of placer deposits. - M.: Nedra, 1985. - 568 S.

4. Kiselev V.V., Burtsev I.S. disaster underground nuclear explosions in the permafrost zone. - Yakutsk (in Russian) ANZ SB RAS, 1999. - 148 C.

The method of cleaning the beds of small rivers of the permafrost zone from radionuclides, including clearing the riverbed sediment, characterized in that the dredging of polluted sediments produced in the winter time plots from upstream to downstream after the cessation of runoff and drainage, the bottom ground loosen and cut in layers mechanically as freezing its natural cold with storage temporary dumps, followed by transportation outside of the floodplain and zahoronenije laying in the surface burial mounds, at the same time to speed up layer-by-layer freezing in the thickness of the bottom as it is freezing in parallel to each other cut the network of trenches with vertical walls, the width of which is determined by the parameters of the applied technique, the depth is not less than half a meter, and the distance between them corresponds to twice the depth of the trench.



 

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