Installation of cleaning with low Δ p for the removal of nitrogen, methane and argon from syngas

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: way of syngas cleaning includes: introduction of the flow of initial syngas, into the feed zone of the distillation column, flow expansion of the liquid remainder from the distillation column by means of a dilator of liquids with the extraction of work for forming the flow of the cooled waste liquid, the rectification of vapour from the feed zone for forming the upper flow of vapour with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling of the upper vapour flow in the indirect heat exchange with the flow of the cooled waste liquid for forming the of partially condensed upper flow and flow of the partially heated waste liquid, separation of the partially condensed upper flow into the flow of condensate and the flow of the purified vapour of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases and the irrigation of distillation column by the flow of condensate. By the first variant the method of production of ammonia includes reforming of hydrocarbon for forming syngas, cooling the flow of initial syngas, expansion of the cooled flow of initial syngas, introduction of the extended flow of initial syngas in the feed zone in the distillation column, flow expansion of liquid remainders from the distillation column with the aid of the dilator of liquid forming the flow of cooled waste liquid, according to the first variant the method of the production of ammonia includes reforming of hydrocarbon for forming syngas, cooling of a stream initial syngas, expansion of the cooled stream initial syngas, introduction of the extended flow of initial syngas in the feed zone in the distillation column, flow expansion of liquid remainders from the distillation column with the aid of the dilator of liquid for forming the flow of the cooled waste liquid, the rectification of vapour from the feed zone in the distillation column for forming the upper flow of vapour with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling the upper flow of vapour in the indirect heat exchange with the flow of the cooled waste liquid for forming of partially condensed upper flow and flow of the partially heated waste liquid, the separation of the partially condensed upper flow into the flow of condensate and the flow of purified vapour of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases, the irrigation the distillation column by the flow of condensate, heating the flow of the purified vapour of syngas in the heat exchanger with the cross-section flow, heating the flow of partially heated waste liquid in the heat exchanger with a cross-section flow, the supply of the flow of the purified vapour of syngas from the heat exchanger with the cross-section flow into the outline of synthesis of ammonia. According to the second variant the method of the production of ammonia includes the reforming hydrocarbon with excess air for forming the flow of initial syngas, removal of nitrogen and inert gases from the flow of the syngas by distillation, thus provide cooling with the aid of the expansion of the liquid by means of the dilator-generator, and the upper flow partially condense the waste flow, cooled by means of expansion of the liquid remainder from the distillation column, and the supply of syngas with the decreased content of nitrogen and inert gases from distillation into the contour of the synthesis of ammonia at which the liquid remainders expand by means of the dilator of liquid with the extraction of work.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve industrial and economic characteristics.

18 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas for ammonia production. The invention reduces the pressure loss in the treatment plant with nitrogen purging.

Background of invention

Methods of production of ammonia from a hydrocarbon and air through the hydrogen/nitrogen synthesis gas (syngas) is well known. The side components are usually synthetic gas include inert gases from the air and/or hydrocarbon fuel, such as argon and methane. When obtaining synthetic gas use excess air, nitrogen is also present in stoichiometric excess, which must be removed from the source of the received stream of synthetic gas or purge circuit synthesis of ammonia to maintain the desired composition of the power reactor for the synthesis of ammonia.

In U.S. patent 3442613 (Grotz) described a method of producing synthetic gas using excess air and cryogenic purification of synthetic gas, which is based on pressure drop of synthetic gas upstream cleaning for cooling. The pressure drop is essentially provided in the compressor, which brings the syngas to pressure contour synthesis of ammonia. The method also reduces the flow rate of gas being recycled or gas purging of the reactor with ammonia due to the removal upstream of the resulting synthetic gas a trade is different gases, such as argon and methane into clean synthetic gas.

In U.S. patent 4568530 (Mandelik et al.) the described method of synthesis of ammonia using a catalyst of high activity in the reactor for the synthesis of ammonia. Purge gases are eliminated by way of hydrogen enrichment, working on lateral flow synthetic gas being recycled by the compressor circuit synthesis. General recyclery thread about three times the volume flow rate of the resulting synthetic gas.

In U.S. patent 4681745 (Pinto) described the use of air separation with providing coloradobased air, so that the reforming process produces a synthesis gas with a higher hydrocarbon wedge than in other systems produce ammonia. Higher concentration of research considers non reactive gas in the ammonia synthesis is regulated by the blowing of the flow of residual synthetic gas after removing the ammonia product. It provides unloading of reactors initial gas reformer due to the inclusion of air separation, but obviously provides for the recycling of smaller purge flow after synthesis of ammonia.

In U.S. patent 5180570 (Lee et al.) described integrated processing system for the synthesis of methanol and ammonia. The section of the ammonia synthesis uses nitrogen leaching by cryogenic fractionation for cleaning ammonia synthetic gas with cooling supplied sleep the snakes, and without energy recovery expansion method.

In the work Gosnell et al., "New Kellog Brown & Root Ammonia Process", July 1999, presented at the AIChE Symposium Safety Symposium, September 1999, describes a method for the synthesis of ammonia using cryogenic purification of synthetic gas, combined with optimized initial processing to generate synthetic gas and ammonia catalyst of high activity in the synthesis.

Brief description of the invention

The present invention relates to a method of purification of synthetic gas, for example, such as in the methods of production of ammonia. The method uses cryogenic distillation for the purification of synthetic gas and receives cooling for distillation from the expansion of the waste liquid with the use of extender liquid regenerierung mechanical work from the waste liquid. This method reduces the pressure loss in the flow of the synthetic gas and, consequently, reduce the cost of compression and energy compared to similar known ammonium ways, using the removal of nitrogen and inert gases.

The method according to the invention is particularly applicable in mass units, and, preferably, is applicable for upgrading existing systems of synthesis gas to improve process performance and Economics. In the modification, for example, low pressure drop according invented the Yu can provide a modification of the method for reforming with excess air and nitrogen removal from synthetic gas obtained without costly modifications to or replacement of circuit synthesis and/or compressors gas obtained.

In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of purification of synthetic gas, comprising: (a) introducing a flow of a source of synthetic gas containing an excess of nitrogen in the power zone of distillation column; (b) increasing the flow of liquid residues from the distillation column through the expander fluid output work for the formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid; (C) rectificadora pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; (d) cooling the top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for the formation of a partially condensed upstream and flow of relatively warm waste liquid; (e) separating the partially condensed upper stream of the condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; and (f) irrigation distillation column by the flow of condensate. The method also includes cooling flow source of synthetic gas by expansion through a valve Joule-Thompson (J-T) before introduction into the power zone. Furthermore, the method may include cooling flow source of synthetic gas in the transverse heat exchange with a stream of warm waste liquid and the flow of steam cleaned synthetic gas. In this embodiment, the regulation potokov expanding flow of liquid residues regulates the liquid level in the distillation column.

The method may additionally include receiving a source of synthesis gas by reforming hydrocarbon, which includes reforming autothermal or secondary reforming with excess air. And through this way the flow of steam cleaned synthetic gas may be filed in the circuit synthesis of ammonia for ammonia production.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for producing ammonia, comprising: (a) reforming a hydrocarbon with the formation of synthetic gas, the reformer includes an autothermal or secondary reforming with excess air to form a stream source of synthetic gas containing an excess of nitrogen for ammonia synthesis; (b) cooling the stream source of synthetic gas in the heat exchanger cross-flow; (C) expanding the cooled stream source of synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow; (d) the introduction of advanced flow source of synthetic gas in the power zone of distillation column; (e) increasing the flow of liquid residues from the distillation column through the extender liquid for the formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid; (f) rectificadora pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; (g) cooling the top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of chilled SB is osovaya liquid for formation of partially condensed upper flow and partially heated waste fluid; (h) separating the partially condensed upper stream of the condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; (i) irrigation distillation column by the flow of condensate; (j) heat flow steam cleaned synthetic gas in the heat exchanger cross-flow; (k) the heat flow is partially heated waste fluid in the heat exchanger cross-flow; (l) flow steam cleaned synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow in the circuit synthesis of ammonia.

In another embodiment, the present invention may relate to another method of producing ammonia, comprising: reforming a hydrocarbon with an excess of air to form a stream source of synthetic gas, removal of nitrogen and inert gases from the stream source of synthetic gas by distillation, while providing cooling by expansion of liquid through the expander-generator, and the upper stream to partially condense waste stream, cooled by expansion of liquid residues from the distillation column, and the flow of the synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases from the distillation in the outline of the synthesis of ammonia. In this embodiment, the method of production of ammonia include: (a) an optional expansion flow source of synthetic gas by a valve Joule-Thompson upstream on stellazine columns; and (b) expansion of liquid residues using the expander fluid to obtain the output.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to Oistamo device for cleaning flux source of synthetic gas containing excess nitrogen containing: a tool for introducing a flow of a source of synthetic gas in the power zone of distillation columns; a means of expanding the flow of liquid residues from distillation columns for the formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid; a means of rectificatory pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; cooling means top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for the formation of a partially condensed upper flow and relatively warm waste liquid; a means of separating the partially condensed upper flow condensate flow and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; and means of irrigation distillation columns condensate flow.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a device for producing ammonia, comprising: (a) a means of reforming of a hydrocarbon to form a synthetic gas, and the tool includes reforming autothermal or weichselberger and means for supplying excess air in the autothermal or secondary reformer for education stream source of synthetic gas containing excess nitrogen, ammonia synthesis; (b) a heat exchange means with the cross-flow cooling flow source of synthetic gas; (C) a means of expanding the cooled stream source of synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow; (d) a means of introducing a flow of an extended source of synthetic gas in the power zone in the distillation column; (e) a means to improve the flow of liquid residues from distillation columns using the expander liquid for formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid; (f) a means of rectificatory pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; (g) a means of cooling the top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for the formation of a partially condensed upper flow and partially heated waste fluid; (h) a means of separating the partially condensed upper stream of the condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases; (i) the means of irrigation distillation column by the flow of condensate; (j) a means of heating flow steam cleaned synthetic gas in the heat exchanger cross-flow; (k) a means of heating the stream of partially heated waste fluid in the heat exchanger poperen the m stream; and (l) means for supplying flow steam cleaned synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow in the circuit synthesis of ammonia.

Brief description of drawings

1 shows a process scheme known way to clean synthetic gas using synthetic gas flow upstream to actuate the expander and the extraction of energy synthetic gas as working to achieve avtoklastera.

Figure 2 shows a process diagram of a variant of the present invention using the flow expansion astonoshing liquid residues to generate avtoklastera in the way.

Figure 3 shows the flow chart, showing an alternative of the present invention, in which the feed synthetic gas or liquefied waste gas can be expanded using the expander fluid for cooling.

Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of a variant of the invention, showing the removal of nitrogen from the low pressure drop integrated method for the synthesis of ammonia from the secondary reforming with excess air and the heat exchange reformer.

Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of an alternative showing the removal of nitrogen from the low pressure drop integrated method for the synthesis of ammonia from traditional primary reforming with water vapor and secondary overhaul the GOM with excess air.

Detailed description of the invention

Figure 1-3 similar threads and elements have the same reference position, and figure 1 shows the purification of synthetic gas, known from the prior art, RA. The feed flow synthetic gas 10 activates the expander 12, which extracts energy from the synthetic gas as 14 to achieve avtoklastera. The feed stream 10 is cooled in heat exchangers with cross flow 16, 18 in indirect heat exchange with a flow of cold products from the distillation column 20. Between the heat exchangers with cross flow 16, 18 of the original syngas 10 extends in turborilla 12 with the cooling source of synthetic gas 10 and removing the work 14. The dilator 12 may be bypassed or supplemented by the use of valve Joule-Thomson (J-T) 22, for example, during start-up. Partially liquefied original syngas 13 of the heat exchanger with cross stream 18 is fed to a distillation column 20 for additional cooling, partial condensation and rectificatory with receiving a flow of purified synthetic gas 24 with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases and waste stream moderadamente gas 26. Thread cleaned synthetic gas 24 and the waste gas stream 26 passes through the heat exchangers with cross flow 16, 18 for cooling flow supply source of synthetic gas 10, as indicated previously.

Waste gas flow is 26 is discharged from the distillation column 20 as the flux residue 28, evaporates through the valve 30 of the regulation and is used as a refrigerant in the heat exchanger 32, is made as a whole with the distillation column 20. The heat exchanger 32 to cool and partially condense the top stream of steam from the column 20 for receiving liquid synthetic gas for irrigation of the column 20. The resulting synthetic gas stream 24 is compressed for the conversion in the reactor for ammonia synthesis (not shown), which operate at higher pressures. Thus, the pressure drop, which is undergoing initial syngas 10 in cleaning up the RA, must be compensated downstream expenditure of additional energy to compress.

Figure 2 presents the option of clean synthetic gas 34 according to the present invention using a mechanical expansion of the flow of liquid residues 28 to generate the main part of the self-cooling in the cleaning method 34. Instead of the heat exchangers with cross flow 16, 18 figure 1 use only the heat exchanger 36 with cross-flow, although the heat exchanger 36 with a transverse flow can include multiple physical stages. Stream source of synthetic gas 10 is passed through valve station 38 upstream distillation column 20. Valve station 38 may include a linear valve for flow during normal operation and secondary J-T valve to regulate and/or run for AvtoKrAZ the deposits. Stream source of synthetic gas 10 then enters the area of the inlet 40 of the column 20, preferably, as a mixture of vapor and liquid synthetic gas. In the area of the inlet 40, the liquid synthetic gas is separated and collected in the area of retention of fluid 42. Fluid exits the column 20 as flux residues 28 through the lower release 44. Thread 28 residues of the column 20 extends through the extender liquid 46 with avtoklastera residues 28 and extraction 48, which may be used to actuate a pump, compressor, generator or similar. As used here, "expander fluid" is a device, outstanding work, which takes the flow of the liquid and produces outgoing liquid or vaporous product, preferably, mixed projeci-facing product. When the output product is a liquid expander fluid 46 may be a hydraulic turbine.

Bypass J-T valve 50 is injected for gas or two-phase flow, for example, at startup. During operation, the expansion of the flux residue 28 is, preferably, the main source of avtoklastera in the way to clean synthetic gas 34 of the present invention, while extending by-pass J-T-gate on the gate station 38 is a relatively small source. However, the bypass J-T valve can be a significant source of cooling p and run.

From the expander 46 fluid flow 28 cooled waste fluid enters the refrigerant inlet 52 of the zone of indirect heat exchange 32, made in one piece with the column 20. The flow velocity in the extender liquid 46 regulates the liquid level in the holding area 42, and partially regulates the conditions in the column 20 on the basis of feedback from synthetic gas analyzer 56. Conditions in the column 20 determine the composition of the stream cleaned synthetic gas 24, i.e. more cooling to reduce the nitrogen content and a lower cooling increases it. Thread 28 of the cooled waste fluid passes through the heat transfer area 32, leaving the column 20 through the release of refrigerant 56. In the process of passing through a zone of heat exchange 32 stream 28 residues cools and partially condenses the upper pairs of columns 20.

From the zone of the inlet 40 pairs synthetic gas passes upward through the contact zone 58 in contact with the liquid flowing down through the contact zone 58, with the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen enrichment of steam. On the upper end zone 58 contact steam enters the steam Cup 60 and goes into the zone 62 of the inlet steam on the top end of the heat exchange zone 32. Steam is a part of the pipe through the zone 32 of the heat exchange with partial condensation of the stream of waste liquid, optionally enriching pairs of low-boiling components. Steam and condensate out of the zone 32 of the heat and divide the area of impact separation 64. Steam is escaping from the column 20 in the form of a stream of purified synthetic gas 24, leaving through the production of synthetic gas 66. The condensate is collected in a sealed sump 68 fluid below the zone 64 of the shock of separation and in the message area 58 of the contact. The condensate flows from the pressurized sump 68 in the thread below through the zone 58 of the contact zone 42 retention of fluid, as indicated previously.

3 shows another variant of the method of purification of synthetic gas 70, in which RA-method in figure 1 can be modified or upgraded according to the present invention. The extender 46 liquid residues add to avtoklapan stream 28 residue when removing operation, for example, in the form of energy 48. Also set the bypass J-T valve 50, as in figure 2. The obtained modified purification method 70 is comparable with a variant of the invention in figure 2, but can also work in the original configuration, if desired. To work with low pressure drop initial turbomaschinen synthetic gas 12 is outlined and the valve 22 is set fully open, or, optionally, with a (not shown).

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the expansion of the flow of liquid by-products of the blown gas, i.e. flow 28 residues columns, generates the main part of the self-cooling required for the cleaning method. This eliminates the major part of the loss is Alenia, in known constructions of figure 1. In the known RA-way pressure drop of about 3.1 bar usually takes place from the introduction flow 10 power synthetic gas exit stream 24 cleaned synthetic gas. This is due to the expander 12, which reduces the pressure of the source of synthetic gas is approximately 1.8-2.0 bar. In the embodiment of the present invention, is shown in figure 2, the pressure drop from the introduction flow 10 power synthetic gas exit stream 24 cleaned synthetic gas may be limited in the range of 0.75 to 1.3 bar when receiving the main part of the desired effect of self-cooling from expansion of the stream 18 residues of the column instead of the effect of flow 10 power source of synthetic gas.

With regard to figure 4, a variant of the method of producing ammonia may include catalytic reforming power, including hydrocarbon 100 pairs and 102, in the reactor/heat exchanger 104 of the type known under the trademark KRES. Additional reforming power, including hydrocarbon 100 pairs and 102, with excess air 106 as the oxidizing agent can be carried out in the installation of a secondary reformer 108. The method may also include the conversion with high and/or low temperature and remove carbon dioxide 110, conversion to methane and drying 112, clean synthetic gas 114, as described in reference to figure 2 or figure 3, the compression 116 and the ammonia synthesis 118. The flow of purge 120 is recycled from Sint is for ammonia 118 to clean synthetic gas 114 upstream, for example, for conversion to methane and drying 112. Recyclery stream 120 may be relatively less speed mass flow than the flow 10 of the original synthetic gas (see figure 2), for example, in the range of from about 5 wt.% up to 25 wt.% thread 10 of the original synthetic gas, and preferably in the range from 10 to 20 wt.% the original thread 10. Waste gas flow 26 may be set aside in the form of fuel gas.

With regard to figure 5, another variant of the method of producing ammonia may include catalytic reforming power, including hydrocarbon 100 pairs and 102, in the traditional primary reformer 122, and then further reforming with excess air 106 in traditional secondary reformer 124. The change of conversion and the removal of carbon dioxide 110, conversion to methane and drying 112, clean synthetic gas 114, compression 116, the synthesis of ammonia 118 and the recycling flow purging 120 are as described in relation to figure 4. Waste gas flow 26 may be burned as fuel in the primary reformer 122 and/or designated for fuel gas, as in figure 4.

Cleaning method in figure 2 can be used in a new installation to improve energy consumption and savings in capital costs or can be used for upgrading existing wastewater treatment plant is similar to the method in figure 1, with lower operating costs and/or increase Pro is socialnet. The method in figure 2 can also be used to upgrade an existing installation that does not use any cleaning and/or excess air. Modernization of reforming with excess air can increase the performance of an existing installation and to increase the service life of pipes and/or other elements in an existing installation (installations) reforming at offset part of the power to the secondary reformer reformer and reducing the operating temperature of the primary reformer. Nitrogen removal also provides a more flexible work reformer (for example, higher wedge methane) and a lower blowing or recycling of circuit synthesis of ammonia by reducing the content of inert gases with nitrogen removal. Modernization nitrogen purification/air excess using purification method with low ΔR can improve modernization by reducing or excluding the degree of modification of the compressor to obtain a synthetic gas that can make upgrading economically feasible for a large number of existing installations of ammonia.

Example

The method of cleaning of a variant of the present invention figure 2 is compared with the known method of purification of figure 1. As a way to 1, and figure 2 provide a processing flow 10 source of synthetic gas to receive the stream 24 cleaned synthetic gas and waste gas stream 26, and with Tavi incoming and outgoing flows are the same in both cases, as shown in table 1 below.

Table 1
Indicators of clean synthetic gas
The composition of the flux, mol.%
Component gasThe original syngas (10)The purified syngas(24)Waste gas(26)
Hydrogen65,874,76,6
Nitrogenof 31.424,974,2
Methane2,20,00616,7
Argon0,60,42,5
Only100,0100,0100,0

The work method with low ΔP model for installation with a capacity of 2,200 tons/day of ammonia when comparing operating temperatures, pressures and flow rates with the same parameters known way in figure 1 as a base. The results are shown in table 2 below.

Table 2
Working conditions cleaning
Base: 2200 tons/day of ammonia
The flow of the way locationThe base case (Fig 1) Example (2)
The original syngas (10), the inlet to the heat exchanger cross-flow (20)
Temperature, °C4,04,0
Pressure, kPa3,479,03,479,0
The mass flow, kg/h142,124142,124
The original syngas (10), the inlet of the column (20)
Temperature, °C-172,6-172,0
Pressure, kPa3,240,03,454,0
The mass flow, kg/h142,124142,124
The original syngas (10), the inlet of the column (20)
Temperature, °C-178,6-178,2
Pressure, kPa3,215,03,429,0
The mass flow, kg/h99,60799,529
The syngas (24), the discharge from the heat exchanger cross-flow (16, 20)
Temperature, °C1,32,1
Pressure, kPa3,165,03,404,0
The mass flow, kg/h99,60799,529
The liquid residue (28), release from the column (20)
Temperature, °C-172,8-172,2
Pressure, kPa3,240,03,454,0
The mass flow, kg/h42,51742,596
Waste liquid (26), the inlet to the heat exchanger (32)
Temperature, °C-186,0-187,6
Pressure, kPa319,0302,1
The mass flow, kg/h42,51742,596
Waste liquid (26), the discharge from the heat exchanger cross-flow (16, 36)
Temperature, °C1,32,1
Pressure, kPafigure of € 256.4253,3
The mass flow, kg/h42,51742,596

The data in table 2 show that the flow velocity and temperature are the same, but the pressure drop synthetic gas between the inlet and outlet according to the cleaning method is significantly lower than in the example in figure 2 compared to the base case in figure 1. It typically requires less compression obtained in the gas system pressure synthesis Ammi is CA. Also define the requirements in respect of energy to compress the resulting synthetic gas consumption expansion of the liquid and the pure energy of compression and expansion for the base case in figure 1 and the example in figure 2. The results are shown in table 3 below.

Table 3
Energy balance
Base: 2200 tons/day of ammonia
Compression/ExtensionThe base case (Fig 1)Example (2)
Compression of the resulting synthetic gas, kW8,310,667,453,49
The extension of the original synthetic gas, kW-203,39-
The expansion of the waste fluid, kW--120,40
The power of pure compression/expansion, kW8,107,277,333,09

As can be seen from the data presented above, the method of purification of figure 2 provides lower pressure drop synthetic gas than the known method in figure 1. Although less energy is extracted from the expansion of the waste liquid in the example in figure 2, than when extending the power of the synthetic gas in the base case in figure 1, reducing the energy of compression is getting more significant. Thus, not only decreases adenaline synthetic gas but the total energy requirements are lower, which gives potentially saving both capital and operating costs for a new installation of ammonia. When upgrading an existing installation of ammonia without treatment reduced the pressure drop of the example in figure 2 can provide increased performance and/or less significant modification of a compressor of the resulting synthetic gas or no modification.

The present invention described above with reference to non-limiting examples provided for illustrative purposes only. Various modifications and changes will become obvious to a person skilled in the art when reviewing. It is implied that all such changes and modifications are within the scope and consistent with the essence of the attached claims and will therefore be covered.

1. The way to clean synthetic gas, comprising introducing a stream of the original synthetic gas containing an excess of nitrogen in the power zone in the distillation column, the expansion of the flow of liquid residues from distillation columns using the extender liquid extraction for the formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid, rectificadora pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling the upper is on the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for the formation of a partially condensed upper flow and partially heated waste fluid, the separation of the partially condensed upper stream of the condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, and irrigation distillation columns condensate flow.

2. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a cooling and expansion of the flow of the original synthetic gas by a valve Joule-Thompson before introduction in the area of nutrition.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the cooling flow source of synthetic gas includes a transverse heat exchange with a stream of warm waste liquid and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas.

4. The method according to claim 1, in which the liquid level in the distillation column regulate by regulating the flow to expand the flow of liquid residues.

5. The method according to claim 1, in which the waste fluid from the expander fluid contains a mixture of vapor and liquid.

6. The method according to claim 5, in which the warm waste liquid from the cooling of the upper pair consists of the vapor phase.

7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the extender liquid contains a hydraulic turbine.

8. The method according to claim 1, further comprising receiving a source of synthesis gas by reforming hydrocarbon, which includes reforming autothermal or secondary reforming with excess air.

9. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing feed stream is steam cleaned synthetic gas in the circuit synthesis of the ammonia to form ammonia.

10. Method for the production of ammonia, including the reforming of a hydrocarbon to form a synthetic gas, and includes reforming autothermal or secondary reforming with excess air to form a stream source of synthetic gas containing excess nitrogen, ammonia synthesis, the cooling flow source of synthetic gas in the heat exchanger cross-flow, expanding the cooled stream source of synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow; introduction of advanced flow source of synthetic gas in the power zone in the distillation column, the expansion of the flow of liquid residues from distillation columns using the expander liquid for formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid, rectificadora pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow from reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, cooling the top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for the formation of a partially condensed upper flow and partially heated waste fluid, the separation of the partially condensed upper stream of the condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, irrigation distillation columns condensate flow, heat flow steam cleaned synthetic gas in Teploobmennik the ke with cross flow, the heat flow is partially heated waste fluid in the heat exchanger cross-flow, flow steam cleaned synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow in the circuit synthesis of ammonia.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the waste fluid from the expander fluid contains a mixture of vapor and liquid.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which the warm waste liquid from the cooling of the upper pair consists of the vapor phase.

13. The method according to claim 10, wherein the extender liquid contains a hydraulic turbine.

14. Method for the production of ammonia, including the reforming of hydrocarbons with excess air to form a stream source of synthetic gas, removal of nitrogen and inert gases from the stream source of synthetic gas by distillation, while providing cooling by expansion of liquid through the expander-generator, and the upper stream to partially condense waste stream, cooled by expansion of liquid residues from the distillation column, and the flow of the synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases from the distillation in the outline of the synthesis of ammonia, in which the liquid residue extend through the extender liquid extraction operation.

15. The method according to 14, in which the waste fluid from the expander fluid contains a mixture of vapor and liquid.

16. The method according to 14, which will extend the l liquid contains a hydraulic turbine.

17. The method according to 14, further comprising an extension of the original synthetic gas by a valve Joule-Thompson upstream distillation column.

18. A device for cleaning the flow source of synthetic gas containing excess nitrogen, which contains the means of introduction of the stream source of synthetic gas in the power zone in the distillation column, a means of expanding the flow of liquid residues from distillation columns using the expander liquid for formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid, the device rectificatory pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column for the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, a means of cooling the top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for the formation of a partially condensed upper flow and relatively warm waste liquid, means for separating the partially condensed upper thread on the thread condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, and means of irrigation distillation columns condensate flow.

19. Device for producing ammonia, containing the means of reforming of a hydrocarbon to form a synthetic gas, and the tool includes reforming autothermal or secondary reformer and the device is in the supply of excess air in the autothermal or secondary reformer for education stream source of synthetic gas containing excess nitrogen, ammonia synthesis, a heat exchange means with the cross-flow cooling flow source of synthetic gas, a means of expanding the cooled stream source of synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow, the tool enhanced flow source of synthetic gas in the power zone in the distillation column, a means of expanding the flow of liquid residues from distillation columns using the expander liquid for formation of flow of the cooled waste fluid, the tool rectificatory pair of nutrition zone in the distillation column with the formation of the top of the steam flow with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, a means of cooling the top of the steam flow in indirect heat exchange with a stream of cooled waste fluid for education partially condensed upper flow and partially heated waste fluid, means for separating the partially condensed upper stream of the condensate and flow steam cleaned synthetic gas with a reduced content of nitrogen and inert gases, means of irrigation distillation column a stream of condensate, means for heating the flow of steam cleaned synthetic gas in the heat exchanger cross-flow, a means of heating the stream of partially heated waste fluid in the heat exchanger cross-flow, means under the Chi flow steam cleaned synthetic gas from the heat exchanger cross-flow in the circuit synthesis of ammonia.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and the devices for the heterogeneous synthesis of the chemical compounds.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of the heterogeneous synthesis of the chemical compounds such as methanol or ammonia and to the installation for the method realization. The method includes the catalytic conversion in the pseudo-isothermal conditions of the corresponding gaseous reactants routed through two sequentially located zones of the reaction. At that in the first zone of the reaction are gated through the immovable mass of the corresponding catalyst, in which the placed side by side mainly box-shaped lamellar heat-exchange components, through which the working fluid heat-carrier medium is gated. At that the gaseous reactants are fed into the first zone of the reaction after the indirect heat-exchange in the second zone of the reaction with the reaction mixture, which is fed into the second zone of reaction from the first zone of the reaction. The installation for the heterogeneous synthesis of synthesis of methanol or ammonia by the catalytic conversion of the gaseous reactants contains the sequentially connected the first and the second zones of the reaction, the corresponding heat exchangers mounted in the first and the second zones of the reaction. At that in the first zone of the reaction the heat exchanger is dipped in the mass of the catalyst and contains some disposed side-by-side box-shaped lamellar heat-exchange components, through which the working fluid heat-carrier is passing. At that the inlet into the first zone of the reaction communicates with the outlet of the heat exchanger in the second zone of the reaction. The invention allows to produce methanol or ammonia by the simple in realization method at the high conversion yield at the chemical installations of the high productivity at the low capital investments and the power input.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of methanol or ammonia by the simple in realization method at the high conversion yield at the chemical installations of the high productivity at the low capital investments and the power input.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas. The method of production of ammonia provides for the catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas contracted in the appropriate compressor having several stages, each of which has the inlet and the outlet for the synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is purified by the liquid ammonia from contained in it water and carbon dioxide. At that at purification of the synthesis gas use the gas-liquid mixer, which is connected on the one hand to the outlet of the first stage of the compressor, or to the outlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the inlet of the second stage located behind the first stage, or with the inlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and has the section of the certain length with diminishing cross-section. Into the mixer in the axial direction feed in the forward flow the stream of the synthesis gas taken from the first stage of the compressor, or from the intermediate stage and the stream of the liquid ammonia, essentially the dehydrated synthesis gas is separated from the mixture flow coming out of the mixer and guide it into the second stage of the compressor, which is located behind the first stage or behind the intermediate stage. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the conversion outlet and in the decrease of the power inputs.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion outlet and the decreased power inputs.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst is based on ruthenium on carrier of inoxidizable pure polycrystalline graphite having specific BET surface above 10 m2/g, said graphite being characterized by diffraction pattern comprising only diffraction lines typical of crystalline graphite in absence of corresponding bands of amorphous carbon and which graphite being activated with at least one element selected from barium, cesium, and potassium and formed as pellets with minimal dimensions 2x2 mm (diameter x height). Catalyst is prepared by impregnating above-defined catalyst with aqueous potassium ruthenate solution, removing water, drying, reduction to ruthenium metal in hydrogen flow, cooling in nitrogen flow, water flushing-mediated removal of potassium, impregnation with aqueous solution of BaNO3 and/or CsOH, and/or KOH followed by removal of water and pelletizing of catalyst.

EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst even when charging ruthenium in amount considerably below known amounts and increased resistance of catalyst to methane formation.

12 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases. The method of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia from the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen provides, that the natural gas together with the oxygen-enriched gas containing at least 70 % of oxygen is subjected to the autothermal reforming at temperature from 900 up to 1200°C and the pressure from 40 up to 100 bar at the presence of the catalyzer of cracking, producing the unstripped synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state 55-75 vol.% of H2, 15-30 vol.% of C and 5-30 vol.% CO2. At that the volumetric ratio of H2: CO makes from 1.6 : 1 up to 4 : 1. The unstripped synthesis gas is removed from the furnace of the autothermal reforming, cooled and subjected to the catalytic conversion producing the converted synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state at least 55 vol.% of H2 and no more than 8 vol.% of CO. The converted synthesis gas is subjected to the multistage treatment for extraction ofCO2, CO and CH4. At that they realize the contact of the synthesis gas with the liquid nitrogen and using at least one stage of the absorption treatment produce the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is routed to the catalytic synthesizing of ammonia. At that at least a part of the synthesized ammonia may be transformed into carbamide by interaction with carbon dioxide. The realization of the method allows to solve the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

EFFECT: the invention ensures solution of the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.

8 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst includes, as catalytically active metal, ruthenium deposited on magnesium oxide having specific surface area at least 40 m2/g, while concentration of ruthenium ranges between 3 and 20 wt % and content of promoter between 0.2 and 0.5 mole per 1 mole ruthenium, said promoter being selected from alkali metals, alkali-earth metals, lanthanides, and mixtures thereof. Regeneration of catalytic components from catalyst comprises following steps: (i) washing-out of promoters from catalyst thereby forming promoter-depleted catalyst and obtaining solution enriched with dissolved promoter hydroxides; (ii) dissolution of magnesium oxide from promoter-depleted catalyst in acidic solvent wherein ruthenium is insoluble and thereby obtaining residual ruthenium metal in solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound; and (iii) regeneration of residual ruthenium metal from solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound via liquid-solids separation to form indicated solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound and ruthenium metal.

EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.

6 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: industrial inorganic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises passing nitrogen and hydrogen-containing synthesis gas stream through three stacked catalyst beds, wherein catalyst is based on iron with magnetite as principal constituent, which is reduced during the process until catalytically active form of alpha-iron is produced. Above-mentioned synthesis gas stream is obtained by combining stream directly supplied onto first catalyst bed with another stream, which is preheated via indirect heat exchange with products exiting first and second catalyst beds, whereupon product is recovered. Method is characterized by that gas under treatment is passed through middle catalyst bed at volume flow rate between 0.65 and 2.00 value of volume flow rate, at which gas under treatment is passed through upper catalyst bed, volume ratio of middle catalyst bed to upper catalyst bed lying preferably between 0.5 and 1.5.

EFFECT: increased yield of product.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of synthesis of ammonia, in particular to improvement of the process of cleanout synthesis of the gas added into the catalytic reactor for substitution of the reacted synthesis gas. The method of synthesis of ammonia provides for compression of the synthesis gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen in a many-stage centrifugal compressor. On the first stage of this compressor the synthesis gas is compressed up to the pressure making from approximately 800 up to 900 pounds per a square inch - (56-63)·105 Pa, withdraw from this stage and cool, and also dehydrate by a contact to a liquid ammonia in a dehydrator. Then the cooled and dehydrated synthesis gas is fed back in the compressor and bring it on the second stage. The installation for realization of this process contains a centrifugal compressor supplied with the synthesis gas outlet, that connects the synthesis gas discharge outlet from the first stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas inlet in the dehydrator, and also an intermediate inlet of the synthesis gas connecting by a hydraulic link the inlet of the second stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas discharge (outlet) from the dehydrator. Due to the intermediate cooling and a dehydration the compressor rate is lowered, and due to favorable effect of the dehydrator on the last two stages of the compressor a significant saving of the consumed power is also achieved. The additional saving of the consumed power is possible due to decreased need of chill in the closed contour of the synthesis process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a significant saving of the consumed power for the synthesis process in the installation.

13 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides ammonia synthesis catalyst containing ruthenium as active ingredient supported by boron nitride and/or silicon nitride. Catalyst can be promoted by one ore more metals selected from alkali, alkali-earth metal, or rare-earth metals. Ammonia synthesis process in presence of claimed catalyst is also described.

EFFECT: increased temperature resistance of catalyst under industrial ammonia synthesis conditions.

4 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases the mean-pressure steam used for the process of steam reforming and/or for the compressor drives is subjected to humidification by injection of the process condensate or feed water, and the obtained humidified steam is overheated by the heat of the flue gas in a unit of the heat-using equipment of the reforming tube furnace.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the amount of generated steam and reduced of the amount of generated steam and reduced consumption of feed water; provided additional cleaning of the process condensate and recovering of gases dissolved in it in the process of steam humidification in the mass transfer device.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydrogenation or reforming of alcohols, in particular to a method of dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, for obtaining hydrogen, in particular for use in a fuel element with the purpose of obtaining electrical energy. In the method of dehydrogenation a catalyst containing copper is used, which includes a metallic carrier. To solve the given challenge the method includes bringing to contact of the initial raw mixture of the gases containing alcohol, with the catalyst of reforming in order to obtain a mixture of products of reforming, containing hydrogen, and the catalyst for reforming the contains a metallic spongy carrier and a coating on copper, at least, partially covering surface of the given metal spongy carrier where the given metal spongy carrier is obtained by means of the method including the leaching of aluminium from an alloy, containing aluminium and the main metal.

EFFECT: increased activity in the gas-phase reforming of primary spirits and increased stability.

129 cl, 13 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydrogenation or reforming of alcohols, in particular to a method of dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, for obtaining hydrogen, in particular for use in a fuel element with the purpose of obtaining electrical energy. In the method of dehydrogenation a catalyst containing copper is used, which includes a metallic carrier. To solve the given challenge the method includes bringing to contact of the initial raw mixture of the gases containing alcohol, with the catalyst of reforming in order to obtain a mixture of products of reforming, containing hydrogen, and the catalyst for reforming the contains a metallic spongy carrier and a coating on copper, at least, partially covering surface of the given metal spongy carrier where the given metal spongy carrier is obtained by means of the method including the leaching of aluminium from an alloy, containing aluminium and the main metal.

EFFECT: increased activity in the gas-phase reforming of primary spirits and increased stability.

129 cl, 13 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the method of obtaining porous substances on a substrate for catalytic applications, to the method of obtaining porous catalysts for decomposition of N2O and their use in decomposing N2O, oxidising ammonia and reforming methane with water vapour. Description is given of the method of obtaining porous substances on a substrate for catalytic applications, in which one or more soluble precursor(s) metal of the active phase is added to a suspension, consisting of an insoluble phase of a substrate in water or an organic solvent. The suspension undergoes wet grinding so as to reduce the size of the particles of the substrate phase to less than 50 mcm. The additive is added, which promotes treatment before or after grinding. A pore-forming substance is added and the suspension, viscosity of which is maintained at 100-5000 cP, undergoes spray drying, is pressed and undergoes thermal treatment so as to remove the pore-forming substance, and is then baked. Description is also given of the method of obtaining porous catalysts on a substrate for decomposing N2O, in which a soluble cobalt precursor is added to a suspension of cerium oxide and an additive, promoting treatment, in water. The suspension is ground to particle size of less than 10 mcm. A pore-forming substance, viscosity of which is regulated to approximately 1000 cP, is added before the suspension undergoes spray drying with subsequent pressing. The pore-forming substance is removed and the product is baked. Description is given of the use of the substances obtained above as catalysts for decomposition of N2O, oxidation of ammonia and reforming of methane with water vapour.

EFFECT: obtaining catalysts with homogenous distribution of active phases and uniform and regulated porosity for optimisation of characteristics in catalytic applications.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: converter includes housing and devices for input oxygen enriched air, fed of vapour-hydrocarbon mix and bleeding of converted gas. The housing is provided with inner fikking designed as two cylindrical tubes installed one inside the other and forming with the converter housing two radial clearances: the outer clearance for input vapour-hydrocarbon mix and inner one for output of converted gas. At that the packing made of channeled plates is provided for inner fikking, this packing forms the channels of square section; the upper part (1/20-1/25) of channels is provided with perforation track, the middle part (1/5-1/6) of channels height located lower than perforation track is filled with catalyst used for primary and secondary hydrocarbon conversions; and the lowest part (1/6-1/8) of channels height is filled with catalyst used for preliminary hydrocarbon conversion. The device for input oxygen enriched air is positioned in the upper part of channels. The method is implemented in converter. Hydrocarbon material heating and converted gas cooling are carried out by the way of its passing through heat exchanger and mixing of hydrocarbon material with water vapour, then vapour-hydrocarbon mix is fed downstream through outer radial clearance and further it is delivered up the channels through catalyst bed for implementing of preliminary and primary conversions. Then through perforation track it is fed down the channels for converted gas oxidizing and secondary vapour conversion with subsequent converted gas upflow takeoff through inner radial clearance.

EFFECT: increasing of hydrocarbon material conversion and reduction of probability of free carbon formation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to two methods (two variants) of reforming process using oxidizing gas at temperature 980-1000°C. The recirculation of the flow part outgoing from the autothermic reformer to the flowrate vapour-hydrocarbon is described at that the said recirculation is implemented throught the instrumentality of thermocompressor ejector using heated beforehand supplied mix as operative fluid. For the optimization of general configuration the mole ratio of recirculating synthesis gas and operative fluid was chosen in the range 0.2-1.0. In order to prevent the carbon black formation in the reforming process recirculated hydrogen and vapour are fed to the input flow and the temperature of feeding is increased. Since there is a certain pressure drop between initial mixture of vapour and natural gas and the mix fed to reformer it is necessary to increase the pressure of initial mixture but it is compensated with the lower pressure drop in the heater and other equipment laid out upstream and downstream because of decreasing of vapour capacity.

EFFECT: reforming process is carried out without carbon black formation.

27 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry; processing of hydrocarbon material to synthesis gas.

SUBSTANCE: porous ceramic catalytical module represents the product of exothermic finely dispersed nickel-aluminium mixture exposed to vibration compaction and to sintering. The said product contains: nickel 55.93-96.31 Wt%; aluminium 3.69-44.07 Wt%. Porous ceramic catalytical module may contain up to 20 Wt% (based on the module weight) of titanium carbide as well as catalytic coating including following groups: La and MgO, or Ce and MgO, or La, Ce and MgO, or ZrO2, Y2O3 and MgO, or Pt and MgO, or W2O5 and MgO in quantity 0,002-6 Wt% based on the module weight synthesis gas is produced by conversion of methane and carbon dioxide mixture on porous ceramic catalytical module in filtration mode The process conditions are as follows: temperature 450-700°C, pressure 1-10 atm, rate of CH4-CO2 mixture delivery to catalytical module 500-5000 l/dm3*hr.

EFFECT: inventions permit to carry out the process at lower temperatures.

5 cl, 37 dwg

FIELD: hydrogen production processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for hydrolysis of hydride compounds to produce pure hydrogen for being supplied to power installations, including fuel cells. Invention provides catalyst for production of hydrogen from aqueous or water-alkali solutions of hydride compounds containing platinum group metal deposited on complex lithium-cobalt oxide and, additionally, modifying agent selected from series: titanium dioxide, carbon material, oxide of metal belonging to aluminum, magnesium, titanium, silicon, and vanadium subgroups. According to second variant, catalyst contains no platinum group metal. Described are also catalyst preparation method (variants) and hydrogen generation process, which is conducted at temperature no higher than 60°C both in continuous and in periodic mode. As hydrogen source, sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, and ammine-borane can be used.

EFFECT: increased catalyst activity at environmental temperatures (from -20 to 60°C), prolonged time of stable operation of catalytic system, and reduced or suppressed platinum metals in composition of catalyst.

14 cl, 1 tbl, 20 ex

FIELD: method and torch for producing synthesis gas at decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons such as oil and natural gas at elevated temperatures without usage of catalyst by CO and hydrogen.

SUBSTANCE: method is realized by partial oxidation of liquid and solid combustible materials at presence of oxygen and oxygen containing gases. Fuel, oxygen-containing gas and atomizing fluid are fed to torch separately. Atomizing fluid is expanded just in front of inlet opening for fuel by means of one or several nozzles providing speed of atomizing fluid in range 20 - 300 m/s. Relation of diameter of outlet opening of nozzle for liquid fuel to diameter of opening of nozzle for atomizing fluid is in range 1/1.1 - 1/5.

EFFECT: possibility for simplifying process.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: method for producing synthetic gas, which may be used in oil chemistry for producing motor fuels.

SUBSTANCE: method includes processing of biogas under temperature of 1420-1800°C and following cooling of resulting synthetic gas. Thermal processing of biogas is performed in liquid heat carrier with ratio of volume of liquid heat carrier to volume of barbotaged gas, equal to 10-100 during 0,3-2 seconds, or in boiling layer of solid particles, where the speed of biogas is selected to be greater than minimal speed of fluidization.

EFFECT: increased purity of produced synthetic gas.

8 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: alternative fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts and process of steam conversion of hydrocarbons to produce synthesis gas. Proposed catalyst for steam conversion of hydrocarbons contains nickel oxide (4.0-9.2%) and magnesium oxide (4.0-6.5%) supported by porous metallic nickel (balancing amount). Carrier has specific surface area 0.10-0.20 m2/g, total pore volume 0.07-0.12 cm3/g, predominant pore radius 1-30 μm, and porosity at least 40%. Described are also catalyst preparation method and generation of synthesis gas via steam conversion of hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: increased heat conductivity of catalyst resulting in stable activity in synthesis gas generation process.

8 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydrogenation or reforming of alcohols, in particular to a method of dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, for obtaining hydrogen, in particular for use in a fuel element with the purpose of obtaining electrical energy. In the method of dehydrogenation a catalyst containing copper is used, which includes a metallic carrier. To solve the given challenge the method includes bringing to contact of the initial raw mixture of the gases containing alcohol, with the catalyst of reforming in order to obtain a mixture of products of reforming, containing hydrogen, and the catalyst for reforming the contains a metallic spongy carrier and a coating on copper, at least, partially covering surface of the given metal spongy carrier where the given metal spongy carrier is obtained by means of the method including the leaching of aluminium from an alloy, containing aluminium and the main metal.

EFFECT: increased activity in the gas-phase reforming of primary spirits and increased stability.

129 cl, 13 tbl, 13 ex

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